School of Culture and Communication - Research Publications

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    Introduction: Australia in the field of trans-Asian media flows
    Khoo, O ; Martin, F ; Yue, A (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-02-22)
    Although it has long been considered a non-Asian country located in Asia, Australia is increasingly linked to Asian media circuits, and the rise of the Asian media industries is changing Australian media culture. At the level of consumption, Asian media content – from Bollywood film to Japanese TV to Chinese online video to Korean social media and K-pop – is now more readily accessible than ever to media users in Australia due to broadband connectivity and mobile media technologies, as well as (more unevenly) via mainstream commercial distribution. This increased access is not only helping Australia’s Asian migrant populations maintain cultural ties; it is also creating new media tastes for the general Australian audience. Meanwhile, at the level of production, Australian governments, keen to harness the potential for the country’s involvement in the region’s expanding media industries, are exploring new ways to support Australia’s screen media industries by establishing regional partnerships. This Special Issue of Media International Australia grows out of a collaborative research project funded by the Australian Research Council to explore the cultural and industrial implications of these unfolding developments. It seeks to understand how these intensifying media flows across Asia, and including Australia, are transforming the cultural identities of Australian audiences and media products.
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    Comparing sexual behaviours and knowledge between domestic students and Chinese international students in Australia: findings from two cross-sectional studies
    Douglass, CH ; Qin, C ; Martin, F ; Xiao, Y ; El-Hayek, C ; Lim, MSC (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-06-03)
    Few studies investigate sexual health among Chinese international students in Australia. We recruited domestic (n = 623) and Chinese international (n = 500) students for separate online surveys on sexual behaviours and knowledge. Samples were compared using Chi square, Fisher's exact and equality of medians tests. Domestic students were more likely than international students to have ever touched a partner's genitals (81% vs. 53%, p < 0.01), had oral sex (76% vs. 44%, p < 0.01), vaginal intercourse (67% vs. 41%, p < 0.01) and anal intercourse (31% vs. 6%, p < 0.01). Domestic students were younger when they first touched a partner's genitals (16 vs. 18 years, p < 0.01), had oral sex (17 vs. 18 years, p < 0.01) and vaginal intercourse (17 vs. 18 years, p < 0.01). Domestic students were less likely than Chinese international students to report only one lifetime partner for touching genitals (22% vs. 50%, p < 0.01), oral sex (25% vs. 55%, p < 0.01), vaginal intercourse (30% vs. 58%, p < 0.01) and anal intercourse (54% vs. 88%, p < 0.01). Domestic students were more likely than Chinese international students to use the oral contraceptive pill (48% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) and long-acting reversible contraceptives (19% vs. 1%, p < 0.01). Domestic students scored higher than international students on a contraception and chlamydia quiz (4/5 vs. 2/5, p < 0.01). Domestic and Chinese international students differed in sexual behaviours and knowledge highlighting the need for relevant sexual health promotion for both groups.
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    Time to reset Australian international education
    Martin, F (Crawford Centre for Public Policy, ANU, 2020-06-10)
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    China’s women students escape tradition at home
    Martin, F (Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU, 2022-07-29)
    Chinese women currently studying abroad are a historically unique cohort. They are largely from China’s wealthier first- and second-tier cities, and belong to China’s most highly educated generation of women. Due to the combined effects of the one-child policy and the growth of China’s middle classes since the 1980s, they have unprecedented parental resources available to them to support their studies. In China’s post-socialist society, a powerful, state-endorsed neoliberal-style discourse of individual self-reliance and competitive self-advancement appeals to these well-resourced young women. It nurtures their ambitions to achieve personal fulfilment and career success through investment in education. Yet a resurgent gender neo-traditionalism is causing misgivings about these women’s ambitions. The manifestations of this trend range from the mockery of women with PhDs as a sexless ‘third gender’ and the state-led disparagement of unmarried women over 27 as ‘leftover women’ to the jailing of feminist activists. It seems that both China’s government and conservative public opinion fear young, middle-class urban women’s self-transformation going ‘too far’ as a result of the new opportunities available to them. This leaves these women in a conundrum. They are caught between their own desire for self-advancement and strong social pressure to follow a standardised feminine life script that would see them married with children by age 30. For many women, studying abroad offers an attractive alternative, an ‘escape route’ — whether temporary or permanent — from intense gendered pressures at home. This route is more accessible than ever, despite recent COVID-19-related disruptions. Yet this too produces gendered anxieties.
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    Transcultural media practices fostering cosmopolitan ethos in a digital age: engagements with East Asian media in Australia
    Martin, F ; Iwabuchi, K ; Gassin, G ; Seto, W (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-01-02)
    The increasingly transnational reach of East Asian media suggests that East Asia has become an ever more de-territorialized media zone. But what has been relatively neglected in the extant scholarship is in-depth consideration of how East Asian media culture has been transnationalised beyond the geographic boundaries of Asia, especially in the context of accelerating online content distribution. In this article, we propose that Australia provides a useful case study to illuminate the cultural impacts of East Asian media beyond Asia. What is Australia’s place in trans-Asia media circuits? Does the consumption of East Asian media by audiences in Australia enable them to develop increasingly reflexive understandings of cultural identity, in a turn toward everyday cosmopolitanism?
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    Multidimensional racism classification during COVID-19: stigmatization, offensiveness, blame, and exclusion.
    Pei, X ; Mehta, D (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Transcending the binary categorization of racist texts, our study takes cues from social science theories to develop a multidimensional model for racism detection, namely stigmatization, offensiveness, blame, and exclusion. With the aid of BERT and topic modelling, this categorical detection enables insights into the underlying subtlety of racist discussion on digital platforms during COVID-19. Our study contributes to enriching the scholarly discussion on deviant racist behaviours on social media. First, a stage-wise analysis is applied to capture the dynamics of the topic changes across the early stages of COVID-19 which transformed from a domestic epidemic to an international public health emergency and later to a global pandemic. Furthermore, mapping this trend enables a more accurate prediction of public opinion evolvement concerning racism in the offline world, and meanwhile, the enactment of specified intervention strategies to combat the upsurge of racism during the global public health crisis like COVID-19. In addition, this interdisciplinary research also points out a direction for future studies on social network analysis and mining. Integration of social science perspectives into the development of computational methods provides insights into more accurate data detection and analytics.
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    The Climate Siren Hanna Cormick's The Mermaid
    Stevens, L ; Varney, D (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-09-01)
    An accomplished dancer, acrobat, and physical theatre performer, Hanna Cormick became ill in 2014 with a trifecta of rare genetic conditions that make her severely allergic to pollutants in the air — smoke, detergents, and food particles — and her bones and internal organs prone to dislocation. In January 2020, during Australia’s summer of unprecedented bushfires, Cormick staged The Mermaid, risking her life to make a performance about the climate emergency and how we are all vulnerable bodies at risk in a changing environment.
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    After the Future: Inhabiting Apathy in New Media Arts
    Cubitt, S ; Santry, A (MIMESIS EDIZIONI, 2022)
    “Media arts” is a phrase that has circulated for a century now, dealing with electromechanical media (radio, film, rotary press, photography) and more recently with electronic media (video, electronic music, digital arts). With benefit of hindsight it became doctrine that all forms of art were media (Greenberg’s and McLuhan’s different historical versions of medium specificity); that all media were digital (Kittler) and – in what may well be the hegemonic idea of the 21st century – that all human activity, even all ecological activity, has always been fundamentally communicative; that we have been able to conceive of an aesthetic without medium. No matter that the substitute – the concept, especially in anti-retinal art – is in many respects a discrete medium embedded in the entrails of late 20th century theories of language. This article first proposes this diagnosis, then sets out to decipher why the contradictions of art and technology, and more broadly of science and the social, have brought us to this conjuncture, and what kind of opportunity it presents for the (re)making of both arts and media.
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    Introduction. Art in the Age of Ubiquitous Media
    Cubitt, S ; Valentino, C (MIMESIS EDIZIONI, 2022)
    Discussions around art and technology may seem rather predictable nowadays. Technology is everywhere; it surrounds our bodies, guides our behaviours, provides suggestions, helps us and often even replaces us. Technology frightens us and fascinates us; it sometimes seems to be close and, at other times, appears remote. Precisely due to its pervasiveness in our lives, it seems to be everywhere, even in the world of contemporary art. In any exhibition, biennial or art festival, there is something “technological”. Videos, sound installations, robotic or mechanical kinetics, the use of the Internet or geo-localisation, augmented, virtual and mixed reality, artificial intelligence can also be found in the artistic production of people who, at first sight and until a few years ago, we would not have included under the label of new media art.
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