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ItemAudience experience in domestic videogamingDOWNS, JOHN ( 2014)Videogames are frequently played socially, but not all participants actively play. Audience members observe gameplay, often participating and experiencing the game indirectly. While the existence of non-playing audience members has been previously acknowledged, there have been few attempts to understand what activities audience members engage in while watching videogames, or how their experience is affected by different aspects of the game and social situation. This thesis presents the first substantial body of empirical work on audience behaviour and experience in social videogaming sessions. Existing work was reviewed in a number of areas of literp.ature including the sociality of gameplay, the increasing role of physicality and physical actions in gameplay, and the role of audiences in HCI. Three studies were then conducted based on the research question: How do the sociality and physicality of videogaming sessions influence audience experience? An initial exploratory observational study (N = 6 families) examined the types of activities that audiences engage in while watching highly physical videogames in their homes. This study indicated that audience members can adopt a variety of ephemeral roles that provide them with opportunities to interact with one another, the players, and the game technology. Additionally, participants reported that the physicality of the gameplay heavily influenced their experience. The second study, a naturalistic experimental study (N = 134) consisted of a mixed-model analysis of the factors of game physicality and turn anticipation. Study 2 found that anticipation of a turn affects experience of both audience and player, and similarly found that highly physical games result in more positive audience experiences, although the relationship between physicality and experience is not straightforward. A third study, also an experiment (N = 24), examined the influence of game physicality and visual attention on audience experience within a mediated setting, and a cross-study comparison identified that there appears to be a strong interplay between social context and the experience of physicality. Overall, this thesis contributes an understanding of how sociality, physicality, and the interplay between the two can influence audience behaviour and experience. These findings can be used to inform the design of novel game and interactive experiences that incorporate physicality, turn anticipation, and opportunities for different types of participation in order to influence and enhance audience experience.
ItemStrategies to manage the influences from persuasive technologies: the case of self-monitoring and social comparisonROSAS, PEDRO ( 2014)Persuasive technologies are systems designed to support and motivate people to adopt, maintain or change their behaviours. Persuasive systems deliver influences to the user containing information that aims to: 1) trigger the user’s emotions, 2) convince the user with information, and/or 3) raise the user’s awareness of the importance of changing a behaviour. Though it is generally expected that the influences delivered by a persuasive technology will trigger motivation; the theory of cognitive appraisal and coping with stress, proposed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) shows that when people are exposed to influences they can also experience undesired pressure. When individuals experience such undesired pressure they will often implement personal strategies that are attempts to avoid, control, tolerate and/or accept the influence, and the effects that the influence can cause. Whilst the persuasive technology literature reports on how users of persuasive systems interpret an influence as either motivating or adverse, there is a lack of understanding in the current literature on how users can employ strategies to manage the influences from persuasive systems. The aim of this thesis is to explore the strategies that users employ when interacting with a persuasive technology. The present research uses the case of sports technologies that combine the persuasive design principles (PDPs) of self-monitoring and social comparison. Using the aforementioned case allows this research to better understand the use of strategies when persuasive systems deliver influences in two different conditions. The first condition being when a system delivers the influences from self-monitoring and social comparison in different times and contexts, and the second condition being when a single technological platform simultaneously delivers the influences from self-monitoring and social comparison. Through two qualitative studies this research discovered the use of 12 strategies that aimed to 1) manage the influences delivered by the persuasive systems and, 2) manage the effects caused by the influences. The strategies that were used to manage the influences were aimed at preventing the user from experiencing the side effects that the influence could cause. The strategies that were used to manage the effects caused by the influences aimed at alleviating the unpleasant feelings and effects caused by the influences. The findings of the present research have contributed to a better understanding of how users employed strategies to manage the influences from persuasive systems and, the effects that the influences can generate. Furthermore, this thesis explains the use of strategies as a form of appropriating the persuasive system, where users had to perform additional tasks to avoid adverse effects from the influences. The findings extend current knowledge of the design of persuasive technologies by using strategies as a design tool to identify flaws in the persuasive design. Finally this research highlights the importance of tailoring the persuasive system to both the user and the specific physical activity to be performed.
ItemA model for digital forensic readiness in organisationsELYAS, MOHAMED ( 2014)Organisations are increasingly reliant upon information systems for almost every facet of their operations. As a result, there are legal, contractual, regulatory, security and operational reasons why this reliance often translates into a need to conduct digital forensic investigations. However, conducting digital forensic investigations and collecting digital evidence is a specialised and challenging task exacerbated by the increased complexity of corporate environments, diversity of computing platforms, and large-scale digitisation of businesses. There is agreement in both professional and academic literature that in order for organisations to meet this challenge, they must develop ‘digital forensic readiness’ – the proactive capability to collect, analyse and preserve digital information. Unfortunately, although digital forensic readiness is becoming a legal and regulatory requirement in many jurisdictions, studies show that most organisations have not developed a significant capability in this domain. A key issue facing organisations intending to develop a forensic readiness capability is the lack of comprehensive and coherent guidance in both the academic and professional literature on how forensic readiness can be achieved. A review of the literature conducted as part of this study found that the academic and professional discourse in forensic readiness is fragmented and dispersed in that it does not build cumulatively on prior knowledge and is not informed by empirical evidence. Further, there is a lack of maturity in the discourse that is rooted in the reliance on informal definitions of key terms and concepts. For example, there is little discussion and understanding of the key organisational factors that contribute to forensic readiness, the relationships between these factors and their precise definitions. Importantly, there is no collective agreement on the primary motivating factors for organisations to becoming forensically ready. Therefore, this research project proposes the following research questions: Research Question 1. What objectives can organisations achieve by being forensically ready? Research Question 2. How can forensic readiness be achieved by organisations? Which in turn suggests the following sub-questions: Sub-Question 2. What factors contribute to making an organisation forensically ready? Sub-Question 3. How do these factors interact to achieve forensic readiness in organisations? A systematic review approach and coding techniques have been utilised to synthesise key elements of the vast and largely fragmented body of knowledge in forensic readiness towards a more holistic and coherent understanding. This led to the development of a comprehensive model that explains how forensic readiness can be achieved and what organisations can achieve by being forensically ready. The proposed model has been extensively validated through multiple focus groups and a multi-round Delphi survey, which involved experienced computer forensic experts from twenty countries and diverse computer forensic backgrounds. The study found there to be four primary objectives for developing a forensic readiness capability: 1) to manage digital evidence; 2) to conduct internal digital forensic investigations; 3) to comply with regulations; and 4) to achieve other non-forensic related objectives (e.g. improve security management). The study also identified the factors that contribute to forensic readiness. These are: 1) a strategy that draws the map for a forensically ready system; 2) human expertise to perform forensic tasks; 3) awareness of forensics in organisational staff; 4) software and hardware to manage digital evidence; 5) system architecture that is tailored for forensics; 6) policies and procedures that outline forensic best practice; and 7) training to educate staff on their forensic responsibilities. Further, the study found three additional organisational factors external to the forensic program: 1) adequate support from senior management; 2) an organisational culture that is supportive of forensics; and 3) good governance. This study makes significant theoretical contributions by introducing a more comprehensive model for forensic readiness that is characterised by the following: 1) providing formal definitions to key concepts in forensic readiness; 2) describing the key factors that contribute to forensic readiness; 3) describing the relationships and interactions between the factors; 4) defining a set of dimensions and properties by which forensic readiness is characterised; and 5) describing the key objectives organisations can achieve by being forensically ready. The study also makes significant contributions to practice. A key attribute of the digital forensic readiness model is its depth (in terms of the various dimensions and properties of each factor), which enables its use as an instrument to assess and guide organisational forensic readiness. Furthermore, this research increases the marketability of forensic readiness by introducing a well-defined list of objectives organisations can achieve by developing a forensic capability.