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ItemDesigning digital memorials: commemorating the Black Saturday BushfiresMori, Joji Cyrus ( 2015)Digital memorials are novel technologies used for commemorative purposes. There is a growing interest in their design amongst HCI researchers. Existing studies focus on commemorating deceased loved ones, where personal and familial remembrance is emphasised. However, there are fewer examples where digital memorials play a wider social and cultural role. Commemorating a war, terrorist attack, natural disaster or death of somebody of special significance such as a leader or even celebrity, are examples where commemoration extends beyond the personal and familial, and into broader social contexts. In these instances, it is likely that large numbers of people may wish to participate, from those with deeply personal reasons, to others with only a passing interest. This thesis examines the design of digital memorials for use in contexts where these diverse audiences come together in commemoration. This thesis presents three studies, in which commemoration following the Black Saturday bushfires was used as the setting for the research. The fires occurred in 2009 in Victoria, Australia. Asides the devastation caused to the natural environment, there were 173 fatalities and massive destruction caused to homes and other infrastructure. The first study was an exploratory study examining how people commemorated Black Saturday within the first two years after the fires. The findings extend current understandings of commemoration using technology by showing similarities between how people engage with physical and web-based memorials. The second study involved participants in fire-affected communities who were asked to generate design ideas for digital memorials to commemorate Black Saturday. The study contributed a novel craft-based approach to designing technology in the commemorative context. For the third study, a digital memorial was developed that included a website and internet-connected tablet computer app to commemorate the fourth anniversary of the fires. This technology was designed for both those within the fire-affected communities and those outside. The findings report on an evaluation of the experiences of those who engaged with the digital memorial. Selected findings from the three thesis studies are expressed as a set of five design considerations intended for future designers and researchers interested in digital memorials. These are: privacy, control and context collapse; considerations for symbolism and metaphoric representations; utilising physical locations; having sensitivity towards temporal patterns; and, designing for pace and asynchronicity.
ItemAudience experience in domestic videogamingDOWNS, JOHN ( 2014)Videogames are frequently played socially, but not all participants actively play. Audience members observe gameplay, often participating and experiencing the game indirectly. While the existence of non-playing audience members has been previously acknowledged, there have been few attempts to understand what activities audience members engage in while watching videogames, or how their experience is affected by different aspects of the game and social situation. This thesis presents the first substantial body of empirical work on audience behaviour and experience in social videogaming sessions. Existing work was reviewed in a number of areas of literp.ature including the sociality of gameplay, the increasing role of physicality and physical actions in gameplay, and the role of audiences in HCI. Three studies were then conducted based on the research question: How do the sociality and physicality of videogaming sessions influence audience experience? An initial exploratory observational study (N = 6 families) examined the types of activities that audiences engage in while watching highly physical videogames in their homes. This study indicated that audience members can adopt a variety of ephemeral roles that provide them with opportunities to interact with one another, the players, and the game technology. Additionally, participants reported that the physicality of the gameplay heavily influenced their experience. The second study, a naturalistic experimental study (N = 134) consisted of a mixed-model analysis of the factors of game physicality and turn anticipation. Study 2 found that anticipation of a turn affects experience of both audience and player, and similarly found that highly physical games result in more positive audience experiences, although the relationship between physicality and experience is not straightforward. A third study, also an experiment (N = 24), examined the influence of game physicality and visual attention on audience experience within a mediated setting, and a cross-study comparison identified that there appears to be a strong interplay between social context and the experience of physicality. Overall, this thesis contributes an understanding of how sociality, physicality, and the interplay between the two can influence audience behaviour and experience. These findings can be used to inform the design of novel game and interactive experiences that incorporate physicality, turn anticipation, and opportunities for different types of participation in order to influence and enhance audience experience.
ItemStrategies to manage the influences from persuasive technologies: the case of self-monitoring and social comparisonROSAS, PEDRO ( 2014)Persuasive technologies are systems designed to support and motivate people to adopt, maintain or change their behaviours. Persuasive systems deliver influences to the user containing information that aims to: 1) trigger the user’s emotions, 2) convince the user with information, and/or 3) raise the user’s awareness of the importance of changing a behaviour. Though it is generally expected that the influences delivered by a persuasive technology will trigger motivation; the theory of cognitive appraisal and coping with stress, proposed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) shows that when people are exposed to influences they can also experience undesired pressure. When individuals experience such undesired pressure they will often implement personal strategies that are attempts to avoid, control, tolerate and/or accept the influence, and the effects that the influence can cause. Whilst the persuasive technology literature reports on how users of persuasive systems interpret an influence as either motivating or adverse, there is a lack of understanding in the current literature on how users can employ strategies to manage the influences from persuasive systems. The aim of this thesis is to explore the strategies that users employ when interacting with a persuasive technology. The present research uses the case of sports technologies that combine the persuasive design principles (PDPs) of self-monitoring and social comparison. Using the aforementioned case allows this research to better understand the use of strategies when persuasive systems deliver influences in two different conditions. The first condition being when a system delivers the influences from self-monitoring and social comparison in different times and contexts, and the second condition being when a single technological platform simultaneously delivers the influences from self-monitoring and social comparison. Through two qualitative studies this research discovered the use of 12 strategies that aimed to 1) manage the influences delivered by the persuasive systems and, 2) manage the effects caused by the influences. The strategies that were used to manage the influences were aimed at preventing the user from experiencing the side effects that the influence could cause. The strategies that were used to manage the effects caused by the influences aimed at alleviating the unpleasant feelings and effects caused by the influences. The findings of the present research have contributed to a better understanding of how users employed strategies to manage the influences from persuasive systems and, the effects that the influences can generate. Furthermore, this thesis explains the use of strategies as a form of appropriating the persuasive system, where users had to perform additional tasks to avoid adverse effects from the influences. The findings extend current knowledge of the design of persuasive technologies by using strategies as a design tool to identify flaws in the persuasive design. Finally this research highlights the importance of tailoring the persuasive system to both the user and the specific physical activity to be performed.
ItemDesigning sports: exertion gamesMueller, Florian (Floyd) ( 2010)Exertion games are computer games that require intense physical effort from its users. Unlike traditional computer games, exertion games offer physical health benefits in addition to the social benefits derived from networked games. This thesis contributes an understanding of exertion games from an interaction design perspective to support researchers analysing and designers creating more engaging exertion games. Playing with other participants can increase engagement and hence facilitate the associated benefits. Computer technology can support such social play by expanding the range of possible participants through networking advances. However, there is a lack of understanding how technological design can facilitate the relationship between exertion and social play, especially in mediated environments. In response, this thesis establishes an understanding of how mediating technology can support social exertion play, in particular when players are in geographically distant locations. This understanding is forged through the design of three “sports over a distance” games. The experience of engaging with them was studied qualitatively to gain a rich understanding of how design facilitates social play in exertion games. The three games “Jogging over a Distance”, “Table Tennis for Three”, and “Remote Impact - Shadowboxing over a Distance” allow investigating different perspectives of mediated exertion play, since they represent three categories of richness on a social play continuum across both the virtual and the physical world. Studies of the experience of engaging with the three games resulted in an exertion framework that consists of six conceptual themes framed by four perspectives on the body and three on games. A fourth study demonstrated that the understanding derived from the investigation of the use and design of the games can support designers and researchers with the analysis of existing games and aid the creative process of designing new exertion games. This thesis provides the first understanding of how technology design facilitates social play in exertion games. In doing so, it expands our knowledge of how to design for the active body, broadening the view of the role of the body when interacting with computers. Offering an increased understanding of exertion games enables game designers to create more engaging games, hence providing players more reasons to exert their bodies, supporting them in profiting from the many benefits of exertion.