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ItemDeterioration of visuospatial associative memory following a first psychotic episode: a long-term follow-up studyWannan, CMJ ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Cropley, VL ; Van Rheenen, TE ; Panayiotou, A ; Brewer, WJ ; Proffitt, TM ; Henry, L ; Harris, MG ; Velakoulis, D ; McGorry, P ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2018-01-01)BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset. METHODS: In total 95 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 63 healthy controls (HC) were assessed on neuropsychological tests at baseline, with 38 FEP and 22 HCs returning for follow-up assessment at 5-11 years. Visuospatial associative memory was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Visuospatial Paired-Associate Learning task, and verbal associative memory was assessed using Verbal Paired Associates subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised. RESULTS: Visuospatial and verbal associative memory at baseline did not differ significantly between FEP patients and HCs. However, over follow-up, visuospatial associative memory deteriorated significantly for the FEP group, relative to healthy individuals. Conversely, verbal associative memory improved to a similar degree observed in HCs. In the FEP cohort, visuospatial (but not verbal) associative memory ability at baseline was associated with functional outcome at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of cognition that develop prior to psychosis onset, such as visuospatial and verbal associative memory, may be preserved early in the illness. Later deterioration in visuospatial memory ability may relate to progressive structural and functional brain abnormalities that occurs following psychosis onset.
ItemWidespread Volumetric Reductions in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Patients Displaying Compromised Cognitive AbilitiesVan Rheenen, TE ; Cropley, V ; Zalesky, A ; Bousman, C ; Wells, R ; Bruggemann, J ; Sundram, S ; Weinberg, D ; Lenroot, RK ; Pereira, A ; Weickert, CS ; Weickert, TW ; Pantelis, C (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-05-01)OBJECTIVE: Progress toward understanding brain mechanisms in psychosis is hampered by failures to account for within-group heterogeneity that exists across neuropsychological domains. We recently identified distinct cognitive subgroups that might assist in identifying more biologically meaningful subtypes of psychosis. In the present study, we examined whether underlying structural brain abnormalities differentiate these cognitively derived subgroups. METHOD: 1.5T T1 weighted structural scans were acquired for 168 healthy controls and 220 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Based on previous work, 47 patients were categorized as being cognitively compromised (impaired premorbid and current IQ), 100 as cognitively deteriorated (normal premorbid IQ, impaired current IQ), and 73 as putatively cognitively preserved (premorbid and current IQ within 1 SD of controls). Global, subcortical and cortical volume, thickness, and surface area measures were compared among groups. RESULTS: Whole cortex, subcortical, and regional volume and thickness reductions were evident in all subgroups compared to controls, with the largest effect sizes in the compromised group. This subgroup also showed abnormalities in regions not seen in the other patient groups, including smaller left superior and middle frontal areas, left anterior and inferior temporal areas and right lateral medial and inferior frontal, occipital lobe and superior temporal areas. CONCLUSIONS: This pattern of more prominent brain structural abnormalities in the group with the most marked cognitive impairments-both currently and putatively prior to illness onset, is consistent with the concept of schizophrenia as a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. In this group, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative factors may be important for cognitive function.