Medicine (RMH Academic Centre) - Research Publications

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    The dopamine D1 receptor gene is associated with negative schizotypy in a non-clinical sample
    Gurvich, C ; Tan, EJ ; Bozaoglu, K ; Neill, E ; Louise, S ; Van Rheenen, TE ; Rossell, SL (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016-01-30)
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    Current Treatment Options for Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: a Review
    Douglas, KM ; Van Rheenen, TE (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-12-01)
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    Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments in Bipolar Disorder. A Cognitive Problem?
    Van Rheenen, T ; Rossell, S (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016-07-01)
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    Does cognitive performance map to categorical diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder? A discriminant functions analysis
    Van Rheenen, TE ; Bryce, S ; Tan, EJ ; Neill, E ; Gurvich, C ; Louise, S ; Rossell, SL (ELSEVIER, 2016-03-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Despite known overlaps in the pattern of cognitive impairments in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder (SZA), few studies have examined the extent to which cognitive performance validates traditional diagnostic boundaries in these groups. METHOD: Individuals with SZ (n=49), schizoaffective disorder (n=33) and BD (n=35) completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring the domains of processing speed, immediate memory, semantic memory, learning, working memory, executive function and sustained attention. RESULTS: A discriminant functions analysis revealed a significant function comprising semantic memory, immediate memory and processing speed that maximally separated patients with SZ from those with BD. Initial classification scores on the basis of this function showed modest diagnostic accuracy, owing in part to the misclassification of SZA patients as having SZ. When SZA patients were removed from the model, a second cross-validated classifier yielded slightly improved diagnostic accuracy and a single function solution, of which semantic memory loaded most heavily. CONCLUSIONS: A cluster of non-executive cognitive processes appears to have some validity in mapping onto traditional nosological boundaries. However, since semantic memory performance was the primary driver of the discrimination between BD and SZ, it is possible that performance differences between the disorders in this cognitive domain in particular, index separate underlying aetiologies.
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    Configural and Featural Face Processing Influences on Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
    Van Rheenen, TE ; Joshua, N ; Castle, DJ ; Rossell, SL (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2017-03-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Emotion recognition impairments have been demonstrated in schizophrenia (Sz), but are less consistent and lesser in magnitude in bipolar disorder (BD). This may be related to the extent to which different face processing strategies are engaged during emotion recognition in each of these disorders. We recently showed that Sz patients had impairments in the use of both featural and configural face processing strategies, whereas BD patients were impaired only in the use of the latter. Here we examine the influence that these impairments have on facial emotion recognition in these cohorts. METHODS: Twenty-eight individuals with Sz, 28 individuals with BD, and 28 healthy controls completed a facial emotion labeling task with two conditions designed to separate the use of featural and configural face processing strategies; part-based and whole-face emotion recognition. RESULTS: Sz patients performed worse than controls on both conditions, and worse than BD patients on the whole-face condition. BD patients performed worse than controls on the whole-face condition only. CONCLUSIONS: Configural processing deficits appear to influence the recognition of facial emotions in BD, whereas both configural and featural processing abnormalities impair emotion recognition in Sz. This may explain discrepancies in the profiles of emotion recognition between the disorders. (JINS, 2017, 23, 287-291).
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    Taking It at "Face Value": The Use of Face Processing Strategies in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
    Joshua, N ; Van Rheenen, TE ; Castle, DJ ; Rossell, SL (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016-07-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Use of appropriate face processing strategies is important for facial emotion recognition, which is known to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is preliminary evidence of abnormalities in the use of face processing strategies in the former, but there has been no explicit attempt to assess face processing in patients with BD. METHODS: Twenty-eight BD I, 28 SZ, and 28 healthy control participants completed tasks assessing featural and configural face processing. The facial inversion effect was used as a proxy of second order configural face processing and compared to featural face processing performance (which is known to be relatively less affected by facial inversion). RESULTS: Controls demonstrated the usual second-order inversion pattern. In the BD group, the absence of a second-order configural inversion effect in the presence of a disproportionate bias toward a featural inversion effect was evident. Despite reduced accuracy performance in the SZ group compared to controls, this group unexpectedly showed a normal second-order configural accuracy inversion pattern. This was in the context of a reverse inversion effect for response latency, suggesting a speed-versus-accuracy trade-off. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to explicitly examine and contrast face processing in BD and SZ. Our findings indicate a generalized impairment on face processing tasks in SZ, and the presence of a second-order configural face processing impairment in BD. It is possible that these face processing impairments represent a catalyst for the facial emotion recognition deficits that are commonly reported in the literature. (JINS, 2016, 22, 652-661).
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    Deterioration of visuospatial associative memory following a first psychotic episode: a long-term follow-up study
    Wannan, CMJ ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Cropley, VL ; Van Rheenen, TE ; Panayiotou, A ; Brewer, WJ ; Proffitt, TM ; Henry, L ; Harris, MG ; Velakoulis, D ; McGorry, P ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2018-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset. METHODS: In total 95 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 63 healthy controls (HC) were assessed on neuropsychological tests at baseline, with 38 FEP and 22 HCs returning for follow-up assessment at 5-11 years. Visuospatial associative memory was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Visuospatial Paired-Associate Learning task, and verbal associative memory was assessed using Verbal Paired Associates subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised. RESULTS: Visuospatial and verbal associative memory at baseline did not differ significantly between FEP patients and HCs. However, over follow-up, visuospatial associative memory deteriorated significantly for the FEP group, relative to healthy individuals. Conversely, verbal associative memory improved to a similar degree observed in HCs. In the FEP cohort, visuospatial (but not verbal) associative memory ability at baseline was associated with functional outcome at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of cognition that develop prior to psychosis onset, such as visuospatial and verbal associative memory, may be preserved early in the illness. Later deterioration in visuospatial memory ability may relate to progressive structural and functional brain abnormalities that occurs following psychosis onset.
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    Characterizing cognitive heterogeneity on the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder spectrum
    Van Rheenen, TE ; Lewandowski, KE ; Tan, EJ ; Ospina, LH ; Ongur, D ; Neill, E ; Gurvich, C ; Pantelis, C ; Malhotra, AK ; Rossell, SL ; Burdick, KE (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2017-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: Current group-average analysis suggests quantitative but not qualitative cognitive differences between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing recognition that cognitive within-group heterogeneity exists in both disorders, but it remains unclear as to whether between-group comparisons of performance in cognitive subgroups emerging from within each of these nosological categories uphold group-average findings. We addressed this by identifying cognitive subgroups in large samples of SZ and BD patients independently, and comparing their cognitive profiles. The utility of a cross-diagnostic clustering approach to understanding cognitive heterogeneity in these patients was also explored. METHOD: Hierarchical clustering analyses were conducted using cognitive data from 1541 participants (SZ n = 564, BD n = 402, healthy control n = 575). RESULTS: Three qualitatively and quantitatively similar clusters emerged within each clinical group: a severely impaired cluster, a mild-moderately impaired cluster and a relatively intact cognitive cluster. A cross-diagnostic clustering solution also resulted in three subgroups and was superior in reducing cognitive heterogeneity compared with disorder clustering independently. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative SZ-BD cognitive differences commonly seen using group averages did not hold when cognitive heterogeneity was factored into our sample. Members of each corresponding subgroup, irrespective of diagnosis, might be manifesting the outcome of differences in shared cognitive risk factors.
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    Widespread Volumetric Reductions in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Patients Displaying Compromised Cognitive Abilities
    Van Rheenen, TE ; Cropley, V ; Zalesky, A ; Bousman, C ; Wells, R ; Bruggemann, J ; Sundram, S ; Weinberg, D ; Lenroot, RK ; Pereira, A ; Weickert, CS ; Weickert, TW ; Pantelis, C (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Progress toward understanding brain mechanisms in psychosis is hampered by failures to account for within-group heterogeneity that exists across neuropsychological domains. We recently identified distinct cognitive subgroups that might assist in identifying more biologically meaningful subtypes of psychosis. In the present study, we examined whether underlying structural brain abnormalities differentiate these cognitively derived subgroups. METHOD: 1.5T T1 weighted structural scans were acquired for 168 healthy controls and 220 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Based on previous work, 47 patients were categorized as being cognitively compromised (impaired premorbid and current IQ), 100 as cognitively deteriorated (normal premorbid IQ, impaired current IQ), and 73 as putatively cognitively preserved (premorbid and current IQ within 1 SD of controls). Global, subcortical and cortical volume, thickness, and surface area measures were compared among groups. RESULTS: Whole cortex, subcortical, and regional volume and thickness reductions were evident in all subgroups compared to controls, with the largest effect sizes in the compromised group. This subgroup also showed abnormalities in regions not seen in the other patient groups, including smaller left superior and middle frontal areas, left anterior and inferior temporal areas and right lateral medial and inferior frontal, occipital lobe and superior temporal areas. CONCLUSIONS: This pattern of more prominent brain structural abnormalities in the group with the most marked cognitive impairments-both currently and putatively prior to illness onset, is consistent with the concept of schizophrenia as a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. In this group, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative factors may be important for cognitive function.