Nursing - Research Publications

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    The effect of alternative methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Cough CPR, percussion pacing or precordial thump - on outcomes following cardiac arrest. A systematic review.
    Dee, R ; Smith, M ; Rajendran, K ; Perkins, GD ; Smith, CM ; Vaillancourt, C ; Avis, S ; Brooks, S ; Castren, M ; Chung, SP ; Considine, J ; Escalante, R ; Han, LS ; Hatanaka, T ; Hazinski, MF ; Hung, K ; Kudenchuk, P ; Morley, P ; Ng, K-C ; Nishiyama, C ; Semeraro, F ; Smyth, M ; Vaillancourt, C ; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Basic Life Support Task Force Collaborators, (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves cardiac arrest survival. Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump have been reported as alternative CPR techniques. We aimed to summarise in a systematic review the effectiveness of these alternative CPR techniques. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library on 24/08/2020. We included randomised controlled trials, observational studies and case series with five or more patients. Two reviewers independently reviewed title and abstracts to identify studies for full-text review, and reviewed bibliographies and 'related articles' (using PubMed) of full-texts for further eligible studies. We extracted data and performed risk-of-bias assessments on studies included in the systematic review. We summarised data in a narrative synthesis, and used GRADE to assess evidence certainty. RESULTS: We included 23 studies (cough CPR n = 4, percussion pacing n = 4, precordial thump n = 16; one study studied two interventions). Only two (both precordial thump) had a comparator group ('standard' CPR). For all techniques evidence certainty was very low. Available evidence suggests that precordial thump does not improve survival to hospital discharge in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The review did not find evidence that cough CPR or percussion pacing improve clinical outcomes following cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump should not be routinely used in established cardiac arrest. In specific inpatient, monitored settings cough CPR (in conscious patients) or percussion pacing may be attempted at the onset of a potential lethal arrhythmia. These must not delay standard CPR efforts in those who lose cardiac output. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019152925.
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    Diagnosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatch: A diagnostic systematic review.
    Drennan, IR ; Geri, G ; Brooks, S ; Couper, K ; Hatanaka, T ; Kudenchuk, P ; Olasveengen, T ; Pellegrino, J ; Schexnayder, SM ; Morley, P ; Basic Life Support (BLS), Pediatric Life Support (PLS) and Education, Implementation and Teams (EIT) Taskforces of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), ; BLS Task Force, ; Pediatric Task Force, ; EIT Task Force, (Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest is a time-sensitive condition requiring urgent intervention. Prompt and accurate recognition of cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatchers at the time of the emergency call is a critical early step in cardiac arrest management allowing for initiation of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and appropriate and timely emergency response. The overall accuracy of dispatchers in recognizing cardiac arrest is not known. It is also not known if there are specific call characteristics that impact the ability to recognize cardiac arrest. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to examine dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest as well as to identify call characteristics that may affect their ability to recognize cardiac arrest at the time of emergency call. We searched electronic databases for terms related to "emergency medical dispatcher", "cardiac arrest", and "diagnosis", among others, with a focus on studies that allowed for calculating diagnostic test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity). The review was consistent with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method for evidence evaluation. RESULTS: We screened 2520 article titles, resulting in 47 studies included in this review. There was significant heterogeneity between studies with a high risk of bias in 18 of the 47 which precluded performing meta-analyses. The reported sensitivities for cardiac arrest recognition ranged from 0.46 to 0.98 whereas specificities ranged from 0.32 to 1.00. There were no obvious differences in diagnostic accuracy between different dispatching criteria/algorithms or with the level of education of dispatchers. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of cardiac arrest recognition at the time of emergency call varied across dispatch centres and did not appear to differ by dispatch algorithm/criteria used or education of the dispatcher, although comparisons were hampered by heterogeneity across studies. Future efforts should focus on ways to improve sensitivity of cardiac arrest recognition to optimize patient care and ensure appropriate and timely resource utilization.
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    "Did You Bring It Home with You?" A Qualitative Investigation of the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Victorian Frontline Healthcare Workers and Their Families.
    Sheen, J ; Clancy, EM ; Considine, J ; Dwyer, A ; Tchernegovski, P ; Aridas, A ; Lee, BEC ; Reupert, A ; Boyd, L (MDPI AG, 2022-04-18)
    Concerns regarding the physical and mental health impacts of frontline healthcare roles during the COVID-19 pandemic have been well documented, but the impacts on family functioning remain unclear. This study provides a unique contribution to the literature by considering the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on frontline healthcare workers and their families. Thirty-nine frontline healthcare workers from Victoria, Australia, who were parents to at least one child under 18 were interviewed. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Five superordinate and 14 subordinate themes were identified. Themes included more family time during lockdowns, but at a cost; changes in family responsibilities and routines; managing increased demands; healthcare workers hypervigilance and fear of bringing COVID-19 home to their family members; ways in which families worked to "get through it". While efforts have been made by many healthcare organisations to support their workers during this challenging time, the changes in family functioning observed by participants suggest that more could be done for this vulnerable cohort, particularly with respect to family support.
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    Implementation of a structured emergency nursing framework results in significant cost benefit.
    Curtis, K ; Sivabalan, P ; Bedford, DS ; Considine, J ; D'Amato, A ; Shepherd, N ; Fry, M ; Munroe, B ; Shaban, RZ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12-09)
    BACKGROUND: Patients are at risk of deterioration on discharge from an emergency department (ED) to a ward, particularly in the first 72 h. The implementation of a structured emergency nursing framework (HIRAID) in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia, resulted in a 50% reduction of clinical deterioration related to emergency nursing care. To date the cost implications of this are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any net financial benefits arising from the implementation of the HIRAID emergency nursing framework. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 2018 and February 2019 across two hospitals in regional NSW, Australia. Costs associated with the implementation of HIRAID at the study sites were calculated using an estimate of initial HIRAID implementation costs (AUD) ($492,917) and ongoing HIRAID implementation costs ($134,077). Equivalent savings per annum (i.e. in less patient deterioration) were calculated using projected estimates of ED admission and patient deterioration episodes via OLS regression with confidence intervals for incremental additional deterioration costs per episode used as the basis for scenario analysis. RESULTS: The HIRAID-equivalent savings per annum exceed the costs of implementation under all scenarios (Conservative, Expected and Optimistic). The estimated preliminary savings to the study sites per annum was $1,914,252 with a payback period of 75 days. Conservative projections estimated a net benefit of $1,813,760 per annum by 2022-23. The state-wide projected equivalent savings benefits of HIRAID equalled $227,585,008 per annum, by 2022-23. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of HIRAID reduced costs associated with resources consumed from patient deterioration episodes. The HIRAID-equivalent savings per annum to the hospital exceed the costs of implementation across a range of scenarios, and upscaling would result in significant patient and cost benefit.
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    Team-based learning in nursing education: A scoping review.
    Considine, J ; Berry, D ; Allen, J ; Hewitt, N ; Oldland, E ; Sprogis, SK ; Currey, J (Wiley, 2021-04)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the use and student outcomes of Team-Based Learning in nursing education. BACKGROUND: Team-Based Learning is a highly structured, evidence-based, student-centred learning strategy that enhances student engagement and facilitates deep learning in a variety of disciplines including nursing. However, the breadth of Team-Based Learning application in nursing education and relevant outcomes are not currently well understood. DESIGN: A scoping review of international, peer-reviewed research studies was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. METHODS: The following databases were searched on 7 May 2020: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO and Education Resources Information Center. Search terms related to nursing, education and Team-Based Learning. Original research studies, published in English, and reporting on student outcomes from Team-Based Learning in nursing education programmes were included. RESULTS: Of the 1081 potentially relevant citations, 41 studies from undergraduate (n = 29), postgraduate (n = 4) and hospital (n = 8) settings were included. The most commonly reported student outcomes were knowledge or academic performance (n = 21); student experience, satisfaction or perceptions of Team-Based Learning (n = 20); student engagement with behaviours or attitudes towards Team-Based Learning (n = 12); and effect of Team-Based Learning on teamwork, team performance or collective efficacy (n = 6). Only three studies reported clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade, there has been a growing body of knowledge related to the use of Team-Based Learning in nursing education. The major gaps identified in this scoping review were the lack of randomised controlled trials and the dearth of studies of Team-Based Learning in postgraduate and hospital contexts. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This scoping review provides a comprehensive understanding of the use and student outcomes of Team-Based Learning in nursing education and highlights the breadth of application of Team-Based Learning and variability in the outcomes reported.
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    Impact of a care bundle for patients with blunt chest injury (ChIP): A multicentre controlled implementation evaluation.
    Curtis, K ; Kourouche, S ; Asha, S ; Considine, J ; Fry, M ; Middleton, S ; Mitchell, R ; Munroe, B ; Shaban, RZ ; D'Amato, A ; Skinner, C ; Wiseman, G ; Buckley, T ; Balogh, ZJ (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021)
    BACKGROUND: Blunt chest injury leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary chest injury care bundle (ChIP) on patient and health service outcomes. ChIP provides guidance in three key pillars of care for blunt chest injury-respiratory support, analgesia and complication prevention. ChIP was implemented using a multi-faceted implementation plan developed using the Behaviour Change Wheel. METHODS: This controlled pre-and post-test study (two intervention and two non-intervention sites) was conducted from July 2015 to June 2019. The primary outcome measures were unplanned Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, non-invasive ventilation use and mortality. RESULTS: There were 1790 patients included. The intervention sites had a 58% decrease in non-invasive ventilation use in the post- period compared to the pre-period (95% CI 0.18-0.96). ChIP was associated with 90% decreased odds of unplanned ICU admissions (95% CI 0.04-0.29) at the intervention sites compared to the control groups in the post- period. There was no significant change in mortality. There were higher odds of health service team reviews (surgical OR 6.6 (95% CI 4.61-9.45), physiotherapy OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.52-3.11), ICU doctor OR 6.13 (95% CI 3.94-9.55), ICU liaison OR 55.75 (95% CI 17.48-177.75), pain team OR 8.15 (95% CI 5.52 --12.03), analgesia (e.g. patient controlled analgesia OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.64-3.94) and regional analgesia OR 8.8 (95% CI 3.39-22.79), incentive spirometry OR 8.3 (95% CI 4.49-15.37) and, high flow nasal oxygen OR 22.1 (95% CI 12.43-39.2) in the intervention group compared to the control group in the post- period. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a chest injury care bundle using behaviour change theory was associated with a sustained improvement in evidence-based practice resulting in reduced unplanned ICU admissions and non-invasive ventilation requirement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR: ACTRN12618001548224, approved 17/09/2018.
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    Hospital in the Home nurses' recognition and response to clinical deterioration.
    Gray, E ; Currey, J ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2018-05)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To obtain an understanding of how Hospital in the Home (HITH) nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration in patients receiving care at home or in their usual place of residence. BACKGROUND: Recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is an international safety priority and a key nursing responsibility. Despite an increase in care delivery in home environments, how HITH nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration is not yet fully understood. DESIGN: A prospective, descriptive exploratory design was used. A survey containing questions related to participant characteristics and 10 patient scenarios was used to collect data from 47 nurses employed in the HITH units of three major health services in Melbourne, Australia. The 10 scenarios reflected typical HITH patients and included medical history and clinical assessment findings (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, conscious state and pain score). RESULTS: The three major findings from this study were that: (i) nurse and patient characteristics influenced HITH nurses' assessment decisions; (ii) the cues used by HITH nurses to recognise clinical deterioration varied according to the clinical context; and (iii) although HITH nurses work in an autonomous role, they engage in collaborative practice when responding to clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Hospital in the Home nurses play a fundamental role in patient assessment, and the context in which they recognise and respond to deterioration is markedly different to that of hospital nurses. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The assessment, measurement and interpretation of clinical data are a nursing responsibility that is crucial to early recognition and response to clinical deterioration. The capacity of HITH services to care for increasing numbers of patients in their home environment, and to promptly recognise and respond to clinical deterioration should it occur, is fundamental to safety within the healthcare system. Hospital in the Home nurses are integral to a sustainable healthcare system that is responsive to dynamic changes in public health policies, and meets the healthcare needs of the community.
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    Current practices related to family presence during acute deterioration in adult emergency department patients.
    Youngson, MJ ; Currey, J ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2017-11)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of and interactions between clinicians, patients and family members during management of the deteriorating adult patient in the emergency department. BACKGROUND: Previous research into family presence during resuscitation has identified many positive outcomes when families are included. However, over the last three decades the epidemiology of acute clinical deterioration has changed, with a decrease in in-hospital cardiac arrests and an increase in acute clinical deterioration. Despite the decrease in cardiac arrests, research related to family presence continues to focus on care during resuscitation rather than care during acute deterioration. DESIGN: Descriptive exploratory study using nonparticipatory observation. METHODS: Five clinical deterioration episodes were observed within a 50-bed, urban, Australian emergency department. Field notes were taken using a semistructured tool to allow for thematic analysis. RESULTS: Presence, roles and engagement describe the interactions between clinicians, family members and patients while family are present during a patient's episode of deterioration. Presence was classified as no presence, physical presence and therapeutic presence. Clinicians and family members moved through primary, secondary and tertiary roles during patients' deterioration episode. Engagement was observed to be superficial or deep. There was a complex interplay between presence, roles and engagement with each influencing which form the other could take. CONCLUSIONS: Current practices of managing family during episodes of acute deterioration are complex and multifaceted. There is fluid interplay between presence, roles and engagement during a patient's episode of deterioration. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study will contribute to best practice, provide a strong foundation for clinician education and present opportunities for future research.
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    Emergency nurses' decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment.
    Lambe, K ; Currey, J ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2017-07)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the factors emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment. BACKGROUND: Research related to clinical deterioration and vital sign assessment in the emergency department is in its infancy. Studies to date have explored the frequency of vital sign assessment in the emergency department; however, there are no published studies that have examined factors that emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of ongoing vital sign assessment. DESIGN: A prospective exploratory design was used. Data were collected using a survey consisting of eight patient vignettes. METHODS: The study was conducted in one emergency department in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were emergency nurses permanently employed at the study site. RESULTS: A 96% response rate was achieved (n = 47/49). The most common frequency of patient reassessment nominated by participants was 15 or 30 minutely, with an equal number of participants choosing these frequency intervals. Abnormality in initial vital sign parameters was the most common factor identified for choosing either a 15- or 30-minute assessment interval. Frequency of assessment decisions was influenced by years of emergency nursing experience in one vignette and level of postgraduate qualification in three vignettes. Heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were all nominated by over 80% of participants as vital signs that participants considered important for reassessment. The frequency and nature of vital signs selected varied according to vignette content. There were significant negative correlations between assessment of conscious state and years of nursing experience and assessment of respiratory rate and years of emergency nursing experience. Level of postgraduate qualification did not influence selection of parameters for reassessment. CONCLUSION: Emergency nurses are tailoring vital sign assessment to patients' clinical status, and nurses are integrating known vital sign data into vital sign decision-making. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Accurate assessment and interpretation of vital sign data is fundamental to patient safety. Emergency nurses are responsible for the initial and ongoing assessment of undiagnosed or undifferentiated patients. Prior to medical assessment, emergency nurses are solely responsible for patient assessment, escalation of care and implementation of interventions within nursing scope of practice.
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    A framework for transition to specialty practice programmes.
    Morphet, J ; Plummer, V ; Kent, B ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2017-08)
    AIM: To develop a framework for emergency nursing transition to specialty practice programmes. BACKGROUND: Transition to Specialty Practice programmes were introduced to fill workforce shortages and facilitate the transition of nurses to specialty nursing practice. These programmes are recognized as an essential preparation for emergency nurses. Emergency nursing Transition to Specialty Practice programmes have developed in an ad hoc manner and as a result, programme characteristics vary. Variability in programme characteristics may result in inconsistent preparation of emergency nurses. DESIGN: Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome model was used to integrate results of an Australian study of emergency nursing Transition to Specialty Practice programmes with key education, nursing practice and safety and quality standards to develop the Transition to Specialty Practice (Emergency Nursing) Framework. METHODS: An explanatory sequential design was used. Data were collected from 118 emergency departments over 10 months in 2013 using surveys. Thirteen interviews were also conducted. Comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Transition to Specialty Practice programmes were offered in 80 (72·1%) emergency departments surveyed, to improve safe delivery of patient care. Better professional development outcomes were achieved in emergency departments which employed participants in small groups (Median = 4 participants) and offered programmes of 6 months duration. Written assessments were significantly associated with articulation to postgraduate study (Chi-square Fisher's exact P = <0·001). CONCLUSION: The Transition to Specialty Practice (Emergency Nursing) Framework has been developed based on best available evidence to enable a standardized approach to the preparation of novice emergency nurses.