Nursing - Research Publications

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    The effect of alternative methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Cough CPR, percussion pacing or precordial thump - on outcomes following cardiac arrest. A systematic review.
    Dee, R ; Smith, M ; Rajendran, K ; Perkins, GD ; Smith, CM ; Vaillancourt, C ; Avis, S ; Brooks, S ; Castren, M ; Chung, SP ; Considine, J ; Escalante, R ; Han, LS ; Hatanaka, T ; Hazinski, MF ; Hung, K ; Kudenchuk, P ; Morley, P ; Ng, K-C ; Nishiyama, C ; Semeraro, F ; Smyth, M ; Vaillancourt, C ; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Basic Life Support Task Force Collaborators, (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves cardiac arrest survival. Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump have been reported as alternative CPR techniques. We aimed to summarise in a systematic review the effectiveness of these alternative CPR techniques. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library on 24/08/2020. We included randomised controlled trials, observational studies and case series with five or more patients. Two reviewers independently reviewed title and abstracts to identify studies for full-text review, and reviewed bibliographies and 'related articles' (using PubMed) of full-texts for further eligible studies. We extracted data and performed risk-of-bias assessments on studies included in the systematic review. We summarised data in a narrative synthesis, and used GRADE to assess evidence certainty. RESULTS: We included 23 studies (cough CPR n = 4, percussion pacing n = 4, precordial thump n = 16; one study studied two interventions). Only two (both precordial thump) had a comparator group ('standard' CPR). For all techniques evidence certainty was very low. Available evidence suggests that precordial thump does not improve survival to hospital discharge in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The review did not find evidence that cough CPR or percussion pacing improve clinical outcomes following cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump should not be routinely used in established cardiac arrest. In specific inpatient, monitored settings cough CPR (in conscious patients) or percussion pacing may be attempted at the onset of a potential lethal arrhythmia. These must not delay standard CPR efforts in those who lose cardiac output. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019152925.
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    Diagnosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatch: A diagnostic systematic review.
    Drennan, IR ; Geri, G ; Brooks, S ; Couper, K ; Hatanaka, T ; Kudenchuk, P ; Olasveengen, T ; Pellegrino, J ; Schexnayder, SM ; Morley, P ; Basic Life Support (BLS), Pediatric Life Support (PLS) and Education, Implementation and Teams (EIT) Taskforces of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), ; BLS Task Force, ; Pediatric Task Force, ; EIT Task Force, (Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest is a time-sensitive condition requiring urgent intervention. Prompt and accurate recognition of cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatchers at the time of the emergency call is a critical early step in cardiac arrest management allowing for initiation of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and appropriate and timely emergency response. The overall accuracy of dispatchers in recognizing cardiac arrest is not known. It is also not known if there are specific call characteristics that impact the ability to recognize cardiac arrest. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to examine dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest as well as to identify call characteristics that may affect their ability to recognize cardiac arrest at the time of emergency call. We searched electronic databases for terms related to "emergency medical dispatcher", "cardiac arrest", and "diagnosis", among others, with a focus on studies that allowed for calculating diagnostic test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity). The review was consistent with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method for evidence evaluation. RESULTS: We screened 2520 article titles, resulting in 47 studies included in this review. There was significant heterogeneity between studies with a high risk of bias in 18 of the 47 which precluded performing meta-analyses. The reported sensitivities for cardiac arrest recognition ranged from 0.46 to 0.98 whereas specificities ranged from 0.32 to 1.00. There were no obvious differences in diagnostic accuracy between different dispatching criteria/algorithms or with the level of education of dispatchers. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of cardiac arrest recognition at the time of emergency call varied across dispatch centres and did not appear to differ by dispatch algorithm/criteria used or education of the dispatcher, although comparisons were hampered by heterogeneity across studies. Future efforts should focus on ways to improve sensitivity of cardiac arrest recognition to optimize patient care and ensure appropriate and timely resource utilization.
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    Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES: A position statement from the Australian Resuscitation Council and supported by stakeholders
    Bray, J ; Acworth, J ; Page, G ; Parr, M ; Morley, P (WILEY, 2021-08-13)
    Every year 25 000 Australians experience a cardiac arrest in our community, but only 12% survive. The faster cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, known as basic life support (BLS), is commenced, the greater the chance of survival. Currently, only half of the Australian adults are trained in BLS. The Australian Resuscitation Council and key stakeholder organisations believe that the best way to ensure all Australians know how to save a life is by mandating BLS education and training in our schools. This 'Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES' position statement outlines our strategy to help facilitate the introduction of a programme of regular BLS training into the Australian school curriculum.