Nursing - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Are service and patient indicators different in the presence or absence of nurse practitioners? The EDPRAC cohort study of Australian emergency departments.
    Middleton, S ; Gardner, G ; Gardner, A ; Considine, J ; FitzGerald, G ; Christofis, L ; Doubrovsky, A ; Della, P ; Fasugba, O ; D'Este, C (BMJ, 2019-07-30)
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) service in Australian public hospital emergency departments (EDs) on service and patient safety and quality indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study comprising ED presentations (July 2013-June 2014) for a random sample of hospitals, stratified by state/territory and metropolitan versus non-metropolitan location; and a retrospective medical record audit of ED re-presentations. METHODS: Service indicator data (patient waiting times for Australasian Triage Scale categories 2, 3, 4 and 5; number of patients who did not-wait; length of ED stay for non-admitted patients) were compared between EDs with and without NPs using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for hospital and patient characteristics and correlation of outcomes within hospitals. Safety and quality indicator data (rates of ED unplanned re-presentations) for a random subset of re-presentations were compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of 66 EDs, 55 (83%) provided service indicator data on 2 463 543 ED patient episodes while 58 (88%) provided safety and quality indicator data on 2853 ED re-presentations. EDs with NPs had significantly (p<0.001) higher rates of waiting times compared with EDs without NPs. Patients presenting to EDs with NPs spent 13 min (8%) longer in ED compared with EDs without NPs (median, (first quartile-third quartile): 156 (93-233) and 143 (84-217) for EDs with and without NPs, respectively). EDs with NPs had 1.8% more patients who did not wait, but similar re-presentations rates as EDs with NPs. CONCLUSIONS: EDs with NPs had statistically significantly lower performance for service indicators. However, these findings should be treated with caution. NPs are relatively new in the ED workforce and low NP numbers, staffing patterns and still-evolving roles may limit their impact on service indicators. Further research is needed to explain the dichotomy between the benefits of NPs demonstrated in individual clinical outcomes research and these macro system-wide observations.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Nurse management of vasoactive medications in intensive care: A systematic review
    Hunter, S ; Considine, J ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2019-11-28)
    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate how intensive care nurses prepare, initiate, administer, titrate, and wean vasoactive medications. BACKGROUND: The management of vasoactive medications is core business for intensive care nurses, but little is known on how nurses manage these ubiquitous and potentially harmful medications. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature with narrative synthesis of data. METHODS: The databases CINAHL Complete, Medline Complete and EMBASE were searched from 1965 to January 2019 with keywords under five concept headings and in a variety of configurations. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies were assessed for quality and bias, and a modified narrative synthesis was used to analyse data, investigate findings and explore relationships within and between studies. RESULTS: The review identified 13 studies: two observational studies, two pre and post intervention studies, four survey studies, two quasi-experimental studies, one longitudinal time series, one prospective controlled trial, and one interview incorporating content analysis. Four studies on preparing and initiating vasoactive medications described a lack of standardisation in infusion preparation and inconsistencies in dosing units and patient weights. Five of six studies on vasoactive medication administration examined nurses' use of syringe changeovers to reduce patient haemodynamic compromise and there were three studies on titration and weaning. CONCLUSION: Further research on nurse management of vasoactive medications is needed to develop an evidence base for specialist education and standardised practices aimed at reducing risk for patient harm. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses working in intensive care units in many parts of the world are responsible for the management of vasoactive medications. There is great variation in practices that include preparation, initiation, administration, titration and weaning of vasoactive medications, which increases the risk for medication errors and adverse events in a vulnerable population of critically ill patients.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Exploring patient preferences for involvement in medication management in hospitals.
    Bucknall, T ; Digby, R ; Fossum, M ; Hutchinson, AM ; Considine, J ; Dunning, T ; Hughes, L ; Weir-Phyland, J ; Manias, E (Wiley, 2019-10)
    AIM: The aim of this study was to identify patient preferences for involvement in medication management during hospitalization. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: This is a study of 20 inpatients in two medical and two surgical wards at an academic health science centre in Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were recorded and analysed using content analysis. FINDINGS: Three themes were identified: (a) 'understanding the medication' established large variation in participants' understanding of their pre-admission medication and current medication; (b) 'ownership of medication administration' showed that few patients had considered an alternative to their current regimen; only some were interested in taking more control; and (c) 'supporting discharge from hospital' showed that most patients desired written medication instructions to be explained by a health professional. Family involvement was important for many. CONCLUSION: There was significant diversity of opinion from participants about their involvement in medication management in hospital. Patient preferences for inclusion need to be identified on admission where appropriate. Education about roles and responsibilities of medication management is required for health professionals, patients and families to increase inclusion and engagement across the health continuum and support transition to discharge. IMPACT STATEMENT: Little is known about patient preferences for participation in medication administration and hospital discharge planning. Individual patient understanding of and interest in participation in medication administration varies. In accordance with individual patient preferences, patients need to be included more effectively and consistently in their own medication management when in hospital.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Patient acceptability of wearable vital sign monitoring technologies in the acute care setting: A systematic review.
    Sprogis, SK ; Currey, J ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2019-08)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine patient acceptability of wearable vital sign monitoring devices in the acute setting. BACKGROUND: Wearable vital sign monitoring devices may improve patient safety, yet hospital patients' acceptability of these devices is largely unreported. DESIGN: A systematic review. METHODS: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Complete, MEDLINE Complete and EMBASE were searched, supplemented by reference list hand searching. Studies were included if they involved adult hospital patients (≥18 years), a wearable monitoring device capable of assessing ≥1 vital sign, and measured patient acceptability, satisfaction or experience of wearing the device. No date restrictions were enforced. Quality assessments of quantitative and qualitative studies were undertaken using the Downs and Black Checklist for Measuring Study Quality and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Research Checklist, respectively. Meta-analyses were not possible given data heterogeneity and low research quality. Reporting adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was completed. RESULTS: Of the 427 studies screened, seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies were of low quality and one was of high quality. In two studies, patient satisfaction was investigated. In the remaining studies, patient experience, patient opinions and experience, patient perceptions and experience, device acceptability, and patient comfort and concerns were investigated. In four studies, patients were mostly accepting of the wearable devices, reporting positive experiences and satisfaction relating to their use. In three studies, findings were mixed. CONCLUSION: There is limited high-quality research examining patient acceptability of wearable vital sign monitoring devices as an a priori focus in the acute setting. Further understanding of patient perspectives of these devices is required to inform their continued use and development. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The provision of patient-centred nursing care is contingent on understanding patients' preferences, including their acceptability of technology use.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Nurses' decision-making, practices and perceptions of patient involvement in medication administration in an acute hospital setting.
    Bucknall, T ; Fossum, M ; Hutchinson, AM ; Botti, M ; Considine, J ; Dunning, T ; Hughes, L ; Weir-Phyland, J ; Digby, R ; Manias, E (Wiley, 2019-06)
    AIMS: To describe nurses' decision-making, practices and perceptions of patient involvement in medication administration in acute hospital settings. BACKGROUND: Medication errors cause unintended harm to patients. Nurses have a major role in ensuring patient safety in medication administration practices in hospital settings. Investigating nurses' medication administration decision-making and practices and their perceptions of patient involvement, may assist in developing interventions by revealing how and when to involve patients during medication administration in hospital. DESIGN: A descriptive exploratory study design. METHODS: Twenty nurses were recruited from two surgical and two medical wards of a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Each nurse was observed for 4 hr, then interviewed after the observation. Data were collected over six months in 2015. Observations were captured on an electronic case report form; interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Ninety-five medication administration episodes, of between two and eight episodes per nurse, were observed. A total of 56 interruptions occurred with 26 of the interruptions being medication related. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: dealing with uncertainty; facilitating, framing and filtering information; managing interruptions and knowing and involving patients. CONCLUSION: Nurses work in complex adaptive systems that change moment by moment. Acknowledging and understanding the cognitive workload and complex interactions are necessary to improve patient safety and reduce errors during medication administration. Knowing and involving the patient is an important part of a nurses' medication administration safety strategies.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Longer time to transfer from the emergency department after bed request is associated with worse outcomes.
    Paton, A ; Mitra, B ; Considine, J (Wiley, 2019-04)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between: (i) total ED length of stay (EDLOS) and in-hospital mortality, ward clinical deterioration; and (ii) between time of bed request, ward transfer and in-hospital mortality, with a particular focus on patients transferred just prior to a 4 h EDLOS. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using data from three acute care hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Adult patients admitted from the ED to a non-monitored ward within 8 h. Patients were sub-grouped by EDLOS; EDLOS 3.5-4 h compared to 0-3.5 h and 4-8 h. In-hospital mortality, number of medical emergency team (MET)/cardiac arrest team (CAT) events. RESULTS: A total of 24 746 patients were included: 4396 patients with EDLOS <210 min; 4090 patients with EDLOS of 210-240 min; and 16 260 patients with EDLOS >240 min. Mortality overall was 2.2% (n = 545), highest mortality was seen with EDLOS >4 h (2.4%, n = 399) and lowest in patients with EDLOS 3.5-4 h (1.5%, n = 63, OR 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47-0.93, P = 0.02]). Time from bed request to transfer of >240 min was associated with increased odds of death at hospital discharge (adjusted OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.08-1.78]). There was no difference in rate of MET calls within 24 h between groups (3.5-4 h = 64 [1.5%], <3.5 h = 60 [1.5%], 4-8 h = 235 [1.4%]). CONCLUSIONS: Both shorter time in ED and shorter time between bed request and ward transfer were independently associated with improved outcomes. Whole of hospital measures to reduce length of stay in the ED should focus on shorter ward transfer times after bed request.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Nursing handover of vital signs at the transition of care from the emergency department to the inpatient ward: An integrative review.
    Cross, R ; Considine, J ; Currey, J (Wiley, 2019-03)
    AIM: To examine nursing handover of vital signs during patient care transition from the emergency department (ED) to inpatient wards. BACKGROUND: Communication failures are a leading cause of patient harm making communication through clinical handover an international healthcare priority. The transition of care from ED to ward settings is informed by nursing handover. Vital sign abnormalities in the ED are associated with clinical deterioration following hospital admission. Understanding the role and perceived value of vital sign content in clinical handover is important for patient safety. METHODS: An integrative design was used. A search of electronic databases was undertaken using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science and SCOPUS. Identified records were screened to elicit further studies for inclusion. A comprehensive peer-review screening process was performed. Studies were included that described the surrounding issues of handover, vital signs, ED, transition of care and ward. RESULTS: Five studies were included in the final review, one specific to nursing and four specific to emergency medicine. Vital signs were perceived to be an important inclusion in clinical handover, and the communication of vital signs in handover was perceived to be indicators for patient safety and risk factors for future clinical deterioration. The ED environment had an influence on effective communication within handover. CONCLUSIONS: Vital signs were an important inclusion for clinical handover. Deficiencies in vital sign content were perceived to be risk factors for patient adverse events following hospital admission. The quality of vital sign information in clinical handover may be important for accurate decision-making. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Vital signs are an important component of clinical handover and are perceived to be indicators for patient safety and risk of future adverse events.