Nursing - Research Publications

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    The unheard voice of the clinician: Perspectives on the key features of an adolescent inpatient model of care
    Hayes, C ; Simmons, M ; Palmer, VJ ; Hamilton, B ; Simons, C ; Hopwood, M (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    PROBLEM: Little has been reported from clinicians about the operations, interventions, and outcomes of inpatient units and how these comprise models of care in such units. The aim of this study was to explore an inpatient model of care in operation at the study site by defining key features of the model from the perspectives of clinicians. METHODS: Semi-structured face to face interviews were conducted with ten clinicians working in a private inpatient unit in Melbourne, Australia. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Analysis resulted in the identification of three thematic features relating to containment, engagement, and therapy. These included (a) an environment conducive to containment, (b) adolescent engagement through shared experiences, and (c) dialectical behavior therapy embedded culture. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide insights into often unheard clinician perspectives on what the key features of an adolescent inpatient model of care are. These features relate to the interventions that are currently offered on the unit and ways of working as informed by philosophies and practices. These findings should be used to improve clinical services and inform research aiming to articulate exemplary adolescent inpatient models of care. Furthermore, the findings provide guidance and practical information to commissioners, clinicians, and policy makers implementing models of care.
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    Essential ingredients of engagement when working alongside people after their first episode of psychosis: A qualitative meta-synthesis
    Tindall, RM ; Simmons, MB ; Allott, K ; Hamilton, BE (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
    AIM: Early intervention services (EISs) for first-episode psychosis (FEP) have been established internationally, however, service disengagement is a recurrent concern resulting in unplanned treatment cessation. The implications of this are far-reaching due to the financial and personal costs associated with untreated symptoms. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to collect, interpret and synthesize qualitative research about how engagement is experienced within EISs for FEP. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid Emcare from date of conception to November 2016. Following initial screening, 91 abstracts and 13 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. Nine studies were then critically appraised using the CASP tool for qualitative studies, data were systematically extracted and results were synthesized using constant comparison and reciprocal translational analysis. RESULTS: Nine qualitative studies explored engagement with EISs, from the perspectives of service users and their caregivers. No studies were found from the perspectives of clinicians or services. All 9 studies employed an inductive methodology, within an interpretivist epistemology. Five main themes were identified: experiences of finding help; factors promoting engagement; the therapeutic relationship; the role of caregivers in supporting engagement; and factors impacting ongoing engagement. CONCLUSIONS: There is a critical need to stimulate discussion around this multifaceted phenomenon, including a continued focus on the roles of key stakeholders and clinical models that may further facilitate collaboration in treatment plans and recovery.
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    Experiences of an adolescent inpatient model of care: Adolescent and caregiver perspectives
    Hayes, C ; Simmons, M ; Palmer, VJ ; Hamilton, B ; Simons, C ; Hopwood, M (WILEY, 2020-02-18)
    PROBLEM: Adolescent inpatient units have been studied regarding their effectiveness, yet little is known about the experiences of young people who are admitted and their caregivers. It is important to address this gap to understand adolescent inpatient models of care and therapeutic outcomes to maximize the benefit. Our aim was to explore adolescent and caregivers' experiences of an inpatient model of care (MoC) and perceived helpfulness. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective qualitative design was utilized. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 12 caregivers at T1 (admission), T2 (discharge), and T3 (6 months postdischarge). Data were analysed first thematically and then using trajectory analysis. Themes from the three time-points are presented from the combined perspectives of adolescents and caregivers. FINDINGS: Experiences described followed a recovery narrative consisting of three key phases which included, "waiting for help" (T1), "help arrived" (T2), and having "returned to regular life" (T3). The overarching trajectory theme was a "winding road to recovery." CONCLUSION: Findings provide insights into the lived experiences from adolescents who have had an inpatient stay and their caregivers of an adolescent-specific inpatient MoC. These findings can help conceptualize quality adolescent models of care for young people and their families.
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    Disengagement Processes Within an Early Intervention Service for First-Episode Psychosis: A Longitudinal, Qualitative, Multi-Perspective Study
    Tindall, R ; Simmons, M ; Allott, K ; Hamilton, B (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-06-12)
    BACKGROUND: Specialized early intervention services for first-episode psychosis have been well established in many countries to meet the unique needs of this group. However, with high drop-out rates, these services would benefit from understanding the factors that influence a person's decision to engage with, or disengage from, them. No research has explored the experiences of engagement and disengagement over time, from the perspectives of the person who experienced a first-episode psychosis, their caregiver, and their clinician. This information is crucial to help services better respond to the needs of the people using them. The aim of this study was to understand what causes and maintains periods of disengagement from early intervention services for first-episode psychosis over time. METHODS: Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, young people, their caregivers, and their clinicians were followed through their first year with an early intervention service for first-episode psychosis in Melbourne, Australia. Qualitative interviews were completed between 3-9 weeks, 4-7 months, and 11-15 months after entry to the service (or at discharge if earlier). Trajectory analysis was used to understand the data. RESULTS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 participants (55 interviews). Young people were aged 15-24 years, came from a variety of cultural backgrounds and had various psychotic diagnoses. Three major processes were identified that, over time, led to periods of service disengagement: a mismatch between service model and individual presentation (service mismatch), a lack of shared purpose (aimless engagement), and responses to individual circumstances (reactive disengagement). CONCLUSION: Triangulating experiences of engagement across young people, caregivers, and clinicians allows for a comprehensive understanding of what precipitates service disengagement. This study demonstrates how early intervention services for first-episode psychosis are meeting the needs of young people and caregivers, and what areas warrant improvement. The needs of service users and patterns of disengagement vary. In turn, services must be flexible and responsive to individual circumstances. The results of this study recommend that local and international policies move away from diagnostically driven models of care, to better provide an inclusive treatment service for people with transdiagnostic mental health presentations.
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    The missing voice of engagement: an exploratory study from the perspectives of case-managers at an early intervention service for first-episode psychosis
    Tindall, RM ; Allott, K ; Simmons, M ; Roberts, W ; Hamilton, BE (BMC, 2019-10-24)
    BACKGROUND: A key component of case-management in early intervention services for first-episode psychosis is engaging a person with the service and building a relationship from which therapy and treatment can be facilitated. The aim of this study was to understand how case-managers at an early intervention service experience the process of engagement and working with varying levels of attendance and participation. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with the case-managers of nine young people treated at an early intervention service for first-episode psychosis within 6 months of treatment entry. Interviews discussed the process of working with the young person and factors that influenced service engagement. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Case-managers described a range of influences on engagement which were grouped under the themes: young person and caregiver influences on engagement, case-manager influences on engagement, and influences of the early intervention service system on engagement. The experience of engagement was described as relational, however it occurred in the context of broader influences, some of which were unable to be changed or challenged by the case-manager (e.g., resource allocation, models of treatment, young person demographics). CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the challenges that case-managers face when working with young people with first-episode psychosis, and the direct influence this has on engagement with treatment. Understanding these challenges and addressing them in policy and service design may lead to improvements in young peoples' recovery from first-episode psychosis and increase case-manager job satisfaction.
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    Protocol for a prospective, longitudinal mixed-methods case study: supporting a Model of Care for Healthier Adolescents (The MoCHA study)
    Hayes, C ; Palmer, VJ ; Simmons, M ; Hamilton, B ; Simons, C ; Hopwood, M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Improving mental healthcare for adolescents is a global policy priority. Despite demands for community-based services, many adolescents require more intensive interventions, such as an inpatient admission. This is typically at a point of crisis, often accompanied by intense emotional dysregulation, impairment of coping function and impulsivity. However, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group while they are in inpatient care, aside from pharmacological treatments which have a limited role in adolescents. Little is known about the models of care (MoC) offered in inpatient units, whether adolescents perceive these as helpful and the perspectives of caregivers and clinicians. Here, we describe a protocol which aims to explore and evaluate an inpatient MoC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed a longitudinal, mixed-methods, case study. The population consists of adolescents, caregivers and clinicians at a single inpatient unit in Melbourne, Australia. Standardised outcome measures, including semi- structured interviews, will be administered to adolescents at three time-points, T1 (admission), T2 (discharge) and T3 (6 months post discharge). Caregivers will also be interviewed at T1, T2 and T3. Clinicians will be interviewed once. The measures include: Life Problems Inventory, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Youth Self-Report. Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents will be collected at T1 and T2. Quantitative analysis will include descriptive statistics and paired t-tests summarising adolescents admitted to the unit, clinical characteristics and longitudinal data on symptomatology. Qualitative data will be analysed using both thematic and trajectory analysis. Data collection began in May 2017 and will cease with T3 interviews by October 2018. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION.