Nursing - Research Publications

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    Safewards: An integrative review of the literature within inpatient and forensic mental health units.
    Mullen, A ; Browne, G ; Hamilton, B ; Skinner, S ; Happell, B (Wiley, 2022-10)
    Mental health inpatient units are complex and challenging environments for care and treatment. Two imperatives in these settings are to minimize restrictive practices such as seclusion and restraint and to provide recovery-oriented care. Safewards is a model and a set of ten interventions aiming to improve safety by understanding the relationship between conflict and containment as a means of reducing restrictive practices. To date, the research into Safewards has largely focused on its impact on measures of restrictive practices with limited exploration of consumer perspectives. There is a need to review the current knowledge and understanding around Safewards and its impact on consumer safety. This paper describes a mixed-methods integrative literature review of Safewards within inpatient and forensic mental health units. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current knowledge and understanding about Safewards in terms of its implementation, acceptability, effectiveness and how it meets the needs of consumers. A systematic database search using Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsychInfo databases was followed by screening and data extraction of findings from 19 articles. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of empirical articles, and the Johanna Brigg's Institute (JBI's) Narrative, Opinion, Text-Assessment and Review Instrument (NOTARI) was used to undertake a critical appraisal of discussion articles. A constant comparative approach was taken to analysing the data and six key categories were identified: training, implementation strategy, staff acceptability, fidelity, effectiveness and consumer perspectives. The success of implementing Safewards was variously determined by a measured reduction of restrictive practices and conflict events, high fidelity and staff acceptability. The results highlighted that Safewards can be effective in reducing containment and conflict within inpatient mental health and forensic mental health units, although this outcome varied across the literature. This review also revealed the limitations of fidelity measures and the importance of involving staff in the implementation. A major gap in the literature to date is the lack of consumer perspectives on the Safewards model, with only two papers to date focusing on the consumers point of view. This is an important area that requires more research to align the Safewards model with the consumer experience and improved recovery orientation.
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    Action learning sets for supporting postgraduate mental health nurses' transition to professional practice: A qualitative study
    Hopkins, JF ; Hamilton, BE ; Prematunga, RK ; Ennis, G ; Fairest, K ; Houghton, J (WILEY, 2021-02-17)
    This paper reports on a qualitative case study of postgraduate mental health nurses participating in a monthly facilitated action learning set (ALS) in order to support them while they transition from PGMHN to independent professional practice. The aim of the study was to determine what the impact of participating in an ALS would have on how they perceived clinical practice issues. The ALS comprised a small group of PGMHN supported by a facilitator in order to explore issues from clinical practice by using Socratic questions to challenge their thinking. Data were collected via a single focus group and a 20-item survey. Focus group textual data were coded line by line, and codes were synthesized thematically. The major theme to emerge from the qualitative results was as follows: 'Learning from doing an action learning set'. Three subthemes were identified: Think outside the box: Developing Socratic questions; there's rarely one right way: Applying action learning to practice; and Not easy to implement: Action plans in action. A 20-item evaluative survey indicated that ALS increased participant's confidence as a mental health nurse. Using critical questions increased participants' confidence to explore different perspectives when engaged in problem-solving.
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    Contextual Barriers and Enablers to Safewards Implementation in Victoria, Australia: Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.
    Fletcher, J ; Brophy, L ; Pirkis, J ; Hamilton, B (Frontiers Media SA, 2021)
    Background: Safewards is a complex psychosocial intervention designed to reduce conflict and containment on inpatient mental health units. There is mounting international evidence of the effectiveness and acceptability of Safewards. However, a significant challenge exists in promising interventions, such as Safewards, being translated into routine practice. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) provides a framework through which to understand implementation in complex health service environments. The aim was to inform more effective implementation of Safewards using the CFIR domains and constructs, capitalizing on developing an understanding of variations across wards. Method: Seven Safewards Leads completed the Training and Implementation Diary for 18 wards that opted in to a trial of Safewards. Fidelity Checklist scores were used to categorize low, medium and high implementers of Safewards at the end of the 12-week implementation period. Results: Qualitative data from the diaries were analyzed thematically and coded according to the five CFIR domains which included 39 constructs. Twenty-six constructs across the five domains were highlighted within the data to have acted as a barrier or enabler. Further analysis revealed that six constructs distinguished between low, medium, and high implementing wards. Discussion: Our findings suggest that for implementation of Safewards to succeed, particular attention needs to be paid to engagement of key staff including managers, making training a priority for all ward staff, adequate planning of the process of implementation and creating an environment on each inpatient unit that prioritize and enables Safewards interventions to be undertaken by staff regularly.
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    Subjective Experiences of Mental Health Crisis Care in Emergency Departments: A Narrative Review of the Qualitative Literature
    Roennfeldt, H ; Wyder, M ; Byrne, L ; Hill, N ; Randall, R ; Hamilton, B (MDPI, 2021-09-01)
    Mental health presentations to the emergency department (ED) have increased, and the emergency department has become the initial contact point for people in a mental health crisis. However, there is mounting evidence that the ED is not appropriate nor effective in responding to people in mental health crises. Insufficient attention has been paid to the subjective experience of people seeking support during a mental health crisis. This review aims to describe the qualitative literature involving the subjective experiences of people presenting to the ED during a mental health crisis. The method was guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework for scoping studies and included keyword searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline and Embase. A narrative analysis, drawing on the visual tool of journey mapping, was applied to summarise the findings. Twenty-three studies were included. The findings represent the experience of accessing EDs, through to the impact of treatment. The review found points of opportunity that improve people's experiences and characteristics associated with negative experiences. The findings highlight the predominance and impact of negative experiences of the ED and the incongruence between the expectations of people presenting to the ED and the experience of treatment.
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    Design features that reduce the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health facilities: a rapid systematic review
    Oostermeijer, S ; Brasier, C ; Harvey, C ; Hamilton, B ; Roper, C ; Martel, A ; Fletcher, J ; Brophy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
    Increasing efforts are being made to prevent and/or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health facilities. Recent literature recognises the importance of the physical environment in supporting better outcomes in mental health services. This rapid review scoped the existing literature studying what physical design features of mental health facilities can reduce the use of seclusion and physical restraint. DESIGN: A rapid review of peer-reviewed literature. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature was searched for studies on architectural design and the use of restraint and seclusion in mental health facilities. The following academic databases were searched: Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus and Avery for English language literature published between January 2010 and August 2019. The Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal tool was used to assess the quality of included studies. RESULTS: We identified 35 peer-reviewed studies. The findings revealed several overarching themes in design efforts to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint: a beneficial physical environment (eg, access to gardens or recreational facilities); sensory or comfort rooms; and private, uncrowded and calm spaces. The critical appraisal indicated that the overall quality of studies was low, as such the findings should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION: This study found preliminary evidence that the physical environment has a role in supporting the reduction in the use of seclusion and restraint. This is likely to be achieved through a multilayered approach, founded on good design features and building towards specific design features which may reduce occurrences of seclusion and restraint. Future designs should include consumers in a codesign process to maximise the potential for change and innovation that is genuinely guided by the insights of lived experience expertise.
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    Development and testing of a guideline document to provide essential information for patient decision making regarding cancer clinical trials
    Kao, C-Y ; Aranda, S ; Krishnasamy, M ; Hamilton, B (WILEY, 2020-06-18)
    OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a guideline document to advise the content of a summarised patient information form (SPIF) regarding cancer clinical trials. METHODS: A two-phase study was undertaken to inform the development of the guideline document. In phase 1, 15 statements drawn from an international Delphi study and participant commentary were used to draft content for the guideline document. In phase 2, Delphi participants were invited to contribute to a five-step process via an online survey, to feedback on the guideline document, including the process for guideline formulation, testing application, revision, utility and clarity assessment, and completion. RESULTS: Over 73% of respondents to the online survey agreed that a sample SPIF generated by the draft guideline could support patient decision making. After the draft guideline revision, the researcher and four health professionals used the guideline to independently create a SPIF. The Flesch-Kincaid reading ease scores of the sample SPIFs were between 61.3 and 66.5, with reading levels between 7.8 and 8.8, indicating that the guideline document can assist health professionals with the generation of an understandable SPIF. The reference group members provided positive feedback on the guideline document, and an expert on plain language in healthcare information proofread the guideline document. CONCLUSION: The approach used in the study ensured the potential of the guideline document developed to enable generation of SPIFs that provide patients considering participation in a cancer clinical trial with essential and understandable information to support their decision making.
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    Experiences of an adolescent inpatient model of care: Adolescent and caregiver perspectives
    Hayes, C ; Simmons, M ; Palmer, VJ ; Hamilton, B ; Simons, C ; Hopwood, M (WILEY, 2020-02-18)
    PROBLEM: Adolescent inpatient units have been studied regarding their effectiveness, yet little is known about the experiences of young people who are admitted and their caregivers. It is important to address this gap to understand adolescent inpatient models of care and therapeutic outcomes to maximize the benefit. Our aim was to explore adolescent and caregivers' experiences of an inpatient model of care (MoC) and perceived helpfulness. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective qualitative design was utilized. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 12 caregivers at T1 (admission), T2 (discharge), and T3 (6 months postdischarge). Data were analysed first thematically and then using trajectory analysis. Themes from the three time-points are presented from the combined perspectives of adolescents and caregivers. FINDINGS: Experiences described followed a recovery narrative consisting of three key phases which included, "waiting for help" (T1), "help arrived" (T2), and having "returned to regular life" (T3). The overarching trajectory theme was a "winding road to recovery." CONCLUSION: Findings provide insights into the lived experiences from adolescents who have had an inpatient stay and their caregivers of an adolescent-specific inpatient MoC. These findings can help conceptualize quality adolescent models of care for young people and their families.
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    Suicide by hanging: A scoping review
    Sabrinskas, R ; Hamilton, B ; Daniel, C ; Oliffe, J (WILEY, 2021-11-25)
    Suicide by hanging is increasing in many countries around the world and whilst efforts are being made to influence the prevention agenda to reduce the incidence, little is known regarding the contributing factors for choosing this method. The purpose of this scoping review is to summate understandings about how the epidemiology and prevention of suicide by hanging is recognised, described, and discussed in the literature, and critically appraise the extent to which the lived-experiences of survivors of suicide attempts are included. A scoping review was conducted implementing the appropriate framework and in accord with the PRIMSA-ScR extension. Three databases (CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO) were searched along with the reference lists of eligible sources in January and February 2021. Thirty-six articles with a primary focus on hanging as a method of suicide and/or its prevention are included in this review, with brief thematic analysis used to summarise the featured studies. Three distinct themes emerging from the literature include: (i) Hanging suicide deaths in the community environment or person's usual place of residence, (ii) Hanging suicide deaths in controlled environments (including police cells, prisons, and inpatient units), and (iii) Medical management of near-lethal hangings. This review highlights the necessity for improving education and policy regarding the controlled environments frequently associated with hanging suicides and the medical management of near-lethal hangings, as well as the ongoing need for policy to guide and govern the responsible media portrayal of known suicides as well as fictional hangings. Finally, this review highlights the necessity for including those with lived-experiences of a suicide attempt by hanging to advance the current prevention agenda.
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    Early career mental health nurses' emotional experiences in specialist eating disorder units, Victoria, Australia
    Ryu, H ; Hamilton, B ; Tarrant, B (WILEY, 2021-11-21)
    The treatment of consumers with eating disorders requires skilled clinicians due to the psychological and medical complexities of the illness. However, a volume of research shows that clinicians report negative feelings, such as anxiety, frustration and anger when providing care for consumers with eating disorders. Limited research explores mental health nurses' experiences working in a specialist eating disorder inpatient unit. This study aimed to explore early career mental health nurses' experiences working in such a unit in Australia. A descriptive qualitative method was used, incorporating a stage of theoretical analysis informed by psychodynamic concepts. A total of six nurses were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (i) initial tension; (ii) understanding self and others through countertransference. In the first theme, participants commonly reported anxiety and frustration. Frustration often related to the struggle to empathise and feeling powerless to change life-threatening eating behaviours. The second theme explored the understanding of self and others through countertransference. Participants described the inadequacy, anger and anxiety they felt during the interaction with consumers as the projection of another person's inner experience. Nurses' accounts also reflected identification of self to others, in the attempt to understand experiences of consumers. The phenomenon of re-enactment of pre-existing relationships was also raised. The study shows that working with consumers with eating disorders can elicit strong emotional experiences, which early career nurses were able to over time to more usefully explore as countertransference. It is recommended that nurses have appropriate opportunities to discuss and reflect on their feelings in order to develop their practice and professional resilience.
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    Authentic engagement: A conceptual model for welcoming diverse and challenging consumer and survivor views in mental health research, policy, and practice
    Daya, I ; Hamilton, B ; Roper, C (WILEY, 2020-08-01)
    As involvement of consumers/survivors in planning, delivery, and evaluation of services has increased, expectations of authentic and effective engagement, versus tokenism, have also risen. Different factors contribute to, or detract from, authentic engagement. Writing from mental health consumer/survivor and nursing positioning, respectively, we aim to redress the common problem of including only a narrow range of views and voices. This paper introduces a conceptual model that supports leaders in research, clinical, service, and policy roles to understand the necessity of engaging with a broader spectrum of consumer/survivor views and voices. The model draws on published consumer/survivor materials, making explicit diverse experiences of treatment and care and identifying the subsequent rich consumer/survivor advocacy agendas. We propose that strong co-production is made possible by recognizing and welcoming consumer/survivor activist, facilitator, transformer, and humanizer contributions. The conceptual model forms the basis for a proposed qualitative validation project.