Nursing - Research Publications

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    Associations between hyper-polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing with clinical and functional outcomes in older adults
    Mekonnen, A ; Redley, B ; Crawford, K ; Jones, S ; de Courten, B ; Manias, E (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-03-03)
    BACKGROUND: Hyper-polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) are common among older inpatients. This study investigated associations between hyper-polypharmacy and PIP with clinical and functional outcomes in older adults at 3-months after hospital discharge. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: At discharge, prescribed medications were collected and PIPs, comprising potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) and potential prescribing omissions (PPO), were retrospectively identified using STOPP/START version 2. Outcomes were collected prospectively via telephone follow-up and audit. RESULTS: Data for 232 patients (mean age 80 years) were analyzed. PIP prevalence at discharge was 73.7% (PIMs 62.5%, PPOs 36.6%). Exposure to at least 1 PIM was associated with an increased occurrence of unplanned hospital readmission (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.09; 95% CI 2.38─10.85), emergency department presentation (AOR 4.69; 95% CI 1.55─14.21) and the composite outcome (AOR 6.83; 95% CI 3.20─14.57). The number rather than the presence of PIMs was significantly associated with increased dependency in at least 1 activity of daily living (ADL) (AOR 2.31; 95% CI 1.08─4.20). Increased PIP use was associated with mortality (AOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.05─1.99). CONCLUSION: PIPs overall, and PIMs specifically, were frequent in older adults at hospital discharge, and were associated with increased re-hospitalizations and dependence in ADLs at 3-months post-discharge.
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    Workforce development for better management of physical comorbidities among people with serious mental illness.
    Mc Namara, KP ; Rosenbaum, S ; Rocks, T ; Manias, E ; Freeman, CR ; Shee, AW ; Schlicht, KG ; Calder, RV ; Moloney, J ; Morgan, M (Wiley, 2022-10-02)
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    Nurses' Experiences After Implementation of an Organization-Wide Electronic Medical Record: Qualitative Descriptive Study.
    Jedwab, RM ; Manias, E ; Hutchinson, AM ; Dobroff, N ; Redley, B (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: Reports on the impact of electronic medical record (EMR) systems on clinicians are mixed. Currently, nurses' experiences of adopting a large-scale, multisite EMR system have not been investigated. Nurses are the largest health care workforce; therefore, the impact of EMR implementation must be investigated and understood to ensure that patient care quality, changes to nurses' work, and nurses themselves are not negatively impacted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore Australian nurses' postimplementation experiences of an organization-wide EMR system. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used focus group and individual interviews and an open-ended survey question to collect data between 12 and 18 months after the implementation of an EMR across 6 hospital sites of a large health care organization in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected between November 2020 and June 2021, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis comprised complementary inductive and deductive approaches. Specifically, reflexive thematic analysis was followed by framework analysis by the coding of data as barriers or facilitators to nurses' use of the EMR using the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: A total of 158 nurses participated in this study. The EMR implementation dramatically changed nurses' work and how they viewed their profession, and nurses were still adapting to the EMR implementation 18 months after implementation. Reflexive thematic analysis led to the development of 2 themes: An unintentional divide captured nurses' feelings of division related to how using the EMR affected nurses, patient care, and the broader nursing profession. This time, it's personal detailed nurses' beliefs about the EMR implementation leading to bigger changes to nurses as individuals and nursing as a profession than other changes that nurses have experienced within the health care organization. The most frequent barriers to EMR use by nurses were related to the Theoretical Domains Framework domain of environmental context and resources. Facilitators of EMR use were most often related to memory, attention, and decision processes. Most barriers and facilitators were related to motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses perceived EMR implementation to have a mixed impact on the provision of quality patient care and on their colleagues. Implementing technology in a health care setting was perceived as a complex endeavor that impacted nurses' perceptions of their autonomy, ways of working, and professional roles. Potential negative consequences were related to nursing workforce retention and patient care delivery. Motivation was the main behavioral driver for nurses' adoption of EMR systems and hence a key consideration for implementing interventions or organizational changes directed at nurses.
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    Development of Screening Tools to Predict Medication-Related Problems Across the Continuum of Emergency Department Care: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.
    Taylor, SE ; Mitri, EA ; Harding, AM ; Taylor, DM ; Weeks, A ; Abbott, L ; Lambros, P ; Lawrence, D ; Strumpman, D ; Senturk-Raif, R ; Louey, S ; Crisp, H ; Tomlinson, E ; Manias, E (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Medication-related problems (MRPs) occur across the continuum of emergency department (ED) care: they may contribute to ED presentation, occur in the ED/short-stay unit (SSU), at hospital admission, or shortly after discharge to the community. This project aimed to determine predictors for MRPs across the continuum of ED care and incorporate these into screening tools (one for use at ED presentation and one at ED/SSU discharge), to identify patients at greatest risk, who could be targeted by ED pharmacists. Methods: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was undertaken in nine EDs, between July 2016 and August 2017. Blocks of ten consecutive adult patients presenting at pre-specified times were identified. Within 1 week of ED discharge, a pharmacist interviewed patients and undertook a medical record review to determine a medication history, patient understanding of treatment, risk factors for MRPs and to manage the MRPs. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine predictor variables. Multivariable regression beta coefficients were used to develop a scoring system for the two screening tools. Results: Of 1,238 patients meeting all inclusion criteria, 904 were recruited. Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED presentation were: patient self-administers regular medications (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 3.79-16.65), carer assists with medication administration (OR = 15.46, 95%CI = 6.52-36.67), or health-professional administers (OR = 5.01, 95%CI = 1.77-14.19); medication-related ED presentation (OR = 9.95, 95%CI = 4.92-20.10); age ≥80 years (OR = 3.63, 95%CI = 1.96-6.71), or age 65-79 years (OR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.17-3.46); potential medication adherence issue (OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.38-3.73); medical specialist seen in past 6-months (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.42-2.85); pharmaceutical benefit/pension/concession cardholder (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.28-2.78); inpatient in previous 4-weeks (OR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02-2.52); being male (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.05-2.10); and difficulties reading labels (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.40-0.99). Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED discharge were: potential medication adherence issue (OR = 6.80, 95%CI = 3.97-11.64); stay in ED > 8 h (OR = 3.23, 95%CI = 1.47-7.78); difficulties reading labels (OR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.30-4.16); and medication regimen changed in ED (OR = 3.91, 95%CI = 2.43-6.30). For ED presentation, the model had a C-statistic of 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.86) (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 70%). For ED discharge, the model had a C-statistic of 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.83) (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 57%). Conclusion: Predictors of MRPs are readily available at the bedside and may be used to screen for patients at greatest risk upon ED presentation and upon ED/SSU discharge to the community. These screening tools now require external validation and implementation studies to evaluate the impact of using such tools on patient care outcomes.
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    Knowledge and Power Relations in Older Patients' Communication About Medications Across Transitions of Care
    Ozavci, G ; Bucknall, T ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Hughes, C ; Jorm, C ; Joseph, K ; Manias, E (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2021-10-16)
    Communicating about medications across transitions of care is a challenging process for older patients. In this article, we examined communication processes between older patients, family members, and health professionals about managing medications across transitions of care, focusing on older patients' experiences. A focused ethnographic design was employed across two metropolitan hospitals. Data collection methods included interviews, observations, and focus groups. Following thematic analysis, data were analyzed using Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis and Medication Communication Model. Older patients' medication knowledge and family members' advocacy challenged unequal power relations between clinicians and patients and families. Doctors' use of authoritative discourse impeded older patients' participation in the medication communication. Older patients perceived that nurses' involvement in medication communication was limited due to their task-related routines. To reduce the unequal power relations, health professionals should be more proactive in sharing information about medications with older patients across transitions of care.
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    Perioperative Nurses' Perceptions Pre-Implementation of an Electronic Medical Record System.
    Njane, A ; Jedwab, R ; Calvo, R ; Dobroff, N ; Glozier, N ; Hutchinson, A ; Leiter, M ; Manias, E ; Nankervis, K ; Rawson, H ; Redley, B (IOS Press, 2021-12-15)
    The use of electronic medical record (EMR) systems is transforming health care delivery in hospitals. Perioperative nurses work in a unique high-risk health setting, hence require specific considerations for EMR implementation. This research explored perioperative nurses' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the implementation of an EMR in their workplace to make context-specific recommendations about strategies to optimise EMR adoption. Using a qualitative exploratory descriptive design, focus group data were collected from 27 perioperative nurses across three hospital sites. Thematic analyses revealed three themes: 1) The world is going to change; 2) What does it mean for me? and 3) We can do it, but we have some reservations. Mapping coded data to the Theoretical Domains Framework identified prominent facilitators and barriers, and informed recommended implementation strategies for EMR adoption by perioperative nurses.
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    Facilitators and Barriers to the Adoption of an Electronic Medical Record System by Intensive Care Nurses.
    Osajiuba, SA ; Jedwab, R ; Calvo, R ; Dobroff, N ; Glozier, N ; Hutchinson, A ; Leiter, M ; Nankervis, K ; Rawson, H ; Redley, B ; Manias, E (IOS Press, 2021-12-15)
    Introducing new technology, such as an electronic medical record (EMR) into an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), can contribute to nurses' stress and negative consequences for patient safety. The aim of this study was to explore ICU nurses' perceptions of factors expected to influence their adoption of an EMR in their workplace. The objectives were to: 1) measure psychological factors expected to influence ICU nurses' adoption of EMR, and 2) explore perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the implementation of an EMR in their workplace. Using an explanatory sequential mixed method approach, data were collected using surveys and focus groups. ICU nurses reported high scores for motivation, work engagement and wellbeing. Focus group analyses revealed two themes: Hope the EMR will bring a new world and Fear of unintended consequences. Recommendations relate to strategies for education and training, environmental restructuring and enablement. Overall, ICU nurses were optimistic about EMR implementation.
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    Development of a Complex Intervention for Effective Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Developing Country
    Desse, TA ; Namara, KM ; Yifter, H ; Manias, E (MDPI, 2022-03-01)
    There has been little focus on designing tailored diabetes management strategies in developing countries. The aim of this study is to develop a theory-driven, tailored and context-specific complex intervention for the effective management of type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care setting of a developing country. We conducted interviews and focus groups with patients, health professionals, and policymakers and undertook thematic analysis to identify gaps in diabetes management. The results of our previously completed systematic review informed data collection. We used the United Kingdom Medical Research Council framework to guide the development of the intervention. Results comprised 48 interviews, two focus groups with 11 participants and three co-design panels with 24 participants. We identified a lack of structured type 2 diabetes education, counselling, and collaborative care of type 2 diabetes. Through triangulation of the evidence obtained from data collection, we developed an intervention called VICKY (patient-centred collaborative care and structured diabetes education and counselling) for effective management of type 2 diabetes. VICKY comprised five components: (1) patient-centred collaborative care; (2) referral system for patients across transitions of care between different health professionals of the diabetes care team; (3) tools for the provision of collaborative care and documentation of care; (4) diabetes education and counselling by trained diabetes educators; and (5) contextualised diabetes education curriculum, educational materials, and documentation tools for diabetes education and counselling. Implementation of the intervention may help to promote evidence-based, patient-centred, and contextualised diabetes care for improved patient outcomes in a developing country.
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    Older Nurses' Perceptions of an Electronic Medical Record Implementation.
    Tissera, S ; Jedwab, R ; Calvo, R ; Dobroff, N ; Glozier, N ; Hutchinson, A ; Leiter, M ; Manias, E ; Nankervis, K ; Rawson, H ; Redley, B (IOS Press, 2021-12-15)
    In Australia, almost 40% of nurses are aged 50 years and older. These nurses may be vulnerable to leaving the workforce due to challenges experienced during electronic medical record (EMR) implementations. This research explored older nurses' perceptions of factors expected to influence their adoption of an EMR, to inform recommendations to support implementation. The objectives were to: 1) measure psychological factors expected to influence older nurses' adoption of the EMR; and 2) explore older nurses' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to EMR adoption. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used to collect survey and focus group data from older nurses, prior to introducing an EMR system. These nurses were highly engaged with their work; 79.3% reported high wellbeing scores. However, their motivation appeared to be predominantly governed by external rather than internal influences. Themes reflecting barriers to EMR and resistance to adoption emerged in the qualitative data.
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    Associations of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on medication errors in public and private hospitals: a retrospective clinical audit
    Manias, E ; Street, M ; Lowe, G ; Low, JK ; Gray, K ; Botti, M (BMC, 2021-09-28)
    BACKGROUND: Efforts to ensure safe and optimal medication management are crucial in reducing the prevalence of medication errors. The aim of this study was to determine the associations of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on the severity of medication errors occurring in two health services. METHODS: A retrospective clinical audit of medication errors was undertaken over an 18-month period at two Australian health services comprising 16 hospitals. Descriptive statistical analysis, and univariate and multivariable regression analysis were undertaken. RESULTS: There were 11,540 medication errors reported to the online facility of both health services. Medication errors caused by doctors (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.690, 95% CI 0.618-0.771), or by pharmacists (OR 0.327, 95% CI 0.267-0.401), or by patients or families (OR 0.641, 95% CI 0.472-0.870) compared to those caused by nurses or midwives were significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors. The presence of double-checking of medication orders compared to single-checking (OR 0.905, 95% CI 0.826-0.991) was significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors. The presence of electronic systems for prescribing (OR 0.580, 95% CI 0.480-0.705) and dispensing (OR 0.350, 95% CI 0.199-0.618) were significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors compared to the absence of these systems. Conversely, insufficient counselling of patients (OR 3.511, 95% CI 2.512-4.908), movement across transitions of care (OR 1.461, 95% CI 1.190-1.793), presence of interruptions (OR 1.432, 95% CI 1.012-2.027), presence of covering personnel (OR 1.490, 95% 1.113-1.995), misread or unread orders (OR 2.411, 95% CI 2.162-2.690), informal bedside conversations (OR 1.221, 95% CI 1.085-1.373), and problems with clinical handovers (OR 1.559, 95% CI 1.136-2.139) were associated with increased odds of medication errors causing possible or probable harm. Patients or families were involved in the detection of 1100 (9.5%) medication errors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and families need to be engaged in discussions about medications, and health professionals need to provide teachable opportunities during bedside conversations, admission and discharge consultations, and medication administration activities. Patient counselling needs to be more targeted in effort to reduce medication errors associated with possible or probable harm.