Nursing - Research Publications

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    Open disclosure of adverse events: exploring the implications of service and policy structures on practice.
    Harrison, R ; Walton, M ; Smith-Merry, J ; Manias, E ; Iedema, R (Informa UK Limited, 2019)
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the service and policy structures that impact open disclosure (OD) practices in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An explorative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 12 individuals closely involved in the implementation of OD in hospitals at policy or practice levels within the state of NSW, Australia. Interviews explored the service and policy structures surrounding OD and the perceived impact of these on the implementation of the OD policy. These data were thematically analyzed to understand the factors facilitating and creating barriers to openness after adverse events. RESULTS: The data identified three key areas in which greater alignment between OD policy and the wider service and policy structures may enhance the implementation of OD practice: 1) alignment between OD and root cause analysis processes, 2) holistic training that links to other relevant processes such as communicating bad news, risk management, and professional regulation and insurance, and 3) policy clarification regarding the disclosure of incidents that result in no or low-level harm. CONCLUSION: Evidence from this study indicates that formal OD processes are not routinely applied after adverse events in NSW, despite clear guidelines for OD. The reasons for this are unclear as the service-level and policy-level phenomena that support or hinder OD are understudied. This knowledge is critical to addressing the policy-practice gap. Our paper provides insights regarding the influence of current service-level and policy-level phenomena on the delivery of OD and how policy clarification may contribute to addressing some of the challenges for implementing OD policy. The principles of virtue ethics - specifically, openness and the involvement of service users - may contribute to progressing in this area.
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    Nurse management of vasoactive medications in intensive care: A systematic review
    Hunter, S ; Considine, J ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2019-11-28)
    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate how intensive care nurses prepare, initiate, administer, titrate, and wean vasoactive medications. BACKGROUND: The management of vasoactive medications is core business for intensive care nurses, but little is known on how nurses manage these ubiquitous and potentially harmful medications. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature with narrative synthesis of data. METHODS: The databases CINAHL Complete, Medline Complete and EMBASE were searched from 1965 to January 2019 with keywords under five concept headings and in a variety of configurations. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies were assessed for quality and bias, and a modified narrative synthesis was used to analyse data, investigate findings and explore relationships within and between studies. RESULTS: The review identified 13 studies: two observational studies, two pre and post intervention studies, four survey studies, two quasi-experimental studies, one longitudinal time series, one prospective controlled trial, and one interview incorporating content analysis. Four studies on preparing and initiating vasoactive medications described a lack of standardisation in infusion preparation and inconsistencies in dosing units and patient weights. Five of six studies on vasoactive medication administration examined nurses' use of syringe changeovers to reduce patient haemodynamic compromise and there were three studies on titration and weaning. CONCLUSION: Further research on nurse management of vasoactive medications is needed to develop an evidence base for specialist education and standardised practices aimed at reducing risk for patient harm. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses working in intensive care units in many parts of the world are responsible for the management of vasoactive medications. There is great variation in practices that include preparation, initiation, administration, titration and weaning of vasoactive medications, which increases the risk for medication errors and adverse events in a vulnerable population of critically ill patients.
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    Overseas qualified nurses' communication with other nurses and health professionals: An observational study
    Philip, S ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2019-06-30)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the interprofessional and intraprofessional communication patterns of overseas qualified nurses as they coordinate care for patients in Australian hospitals. BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have informed the transitioning experiences of overseas qualified nurses with non-English-speaking backgrounds working in English-speaking workplaces. Only a few observational studies have involved examining the intercultural communication experiences of overseas qualified nurses, and none have considered their intra- and interprofessional communication patterns. DESIGN: A qualitative design was adopted, using participant observation and discourse analysis. METHODS: This study was from January 2017 to March 2017. Thirteen overseas qualified nurses working in acute, subacute and interventional cardiology settings in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital were shadowed over a period of 12 weeks to collect data that inform their communication patterns. The COREQ checklist was used. RESULTS: This observational study informed by genre analysis revealed that intra- and interprofessional communication occurred more commonly under the clinical communication goals of coordinating care and less commonly under facilitating intervention. Communication strategies ranged from structured interactions with use of communication tools to unstructured ad hoc interactions. Analysis of the discourse patterns demonstrated that effectiveness of interactions was affected by hesitancy, lack of assertion and few strategies to manage inadequate or aggressive communication by other team members. Poor clinical communication with peers was not always caused by the nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Positive interpersonal interactions with laughter, language-switching and small talk were evident in interactions with nurses from similar cultural backgrounds but were rare with local colleagues. CONCLUSION: The linguistic evidence from this study shows variations in communication competency between participants, which emphasises the importance of not viewing overseas qualified nurses' communication training needs as homogenous. With the growing multicultural nature of healthcare teams, this study underscores the need for intercultural communication training for team integration and patient safety. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Continuous professional development should incorporate intercultural communication training to ensure team effectiveness within nursing teams as well as interprofessional teams.
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    Exploring patient preferences for involvement in medication management in hospitals.
    Bucknall, T ; Digby, R ; Fossum, M ; Hutchinson, AM ; Considine, J ; Dunning, T ; Hughes, L ; Weir-Phyland, J ; Manias, E (Wiley, 2019-10)
    AIM: The aim of this study was to identify patient preferences for involvement in medication management during hospitalization. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: This is a study of 20 inpatients in two medical and two surgical wards at an academic health science centre in Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were recorded and analysed using content analysis. FINDINGS: Three themes were identified: (a) 'understanding the medication' established large variation in participants' understanding of their pre-admission medication and current medication; (b) 'ownership of medication administration' showed that few patients had considered an alternative to their current regimen; only some were interested in taking more control; and (c) 'supporting discharge from hospital' showed that most patients desired written medication instructions to be explained by a health professional. Family involvement was important for many. CONCLUSION: There was significant diversity of opinion from participants about their involvement in medication management in hospital. Patient preferences for inclusion need to be identified on admission where appropriate. Education about roles and responsibilities of medication management is required for health professionals, patients and families to increase inclusion and engagement across the health continuum and support transition to discharge. IMPACT STATEMENT: Little is known about patient preferences for participation in medication administration and hospital discharge planning. Individual patient understanding of and interest in participation in medication administration varies. In accordance with individual patient preferences, patients need to be included more effectively and consistently in their own medication management when in hospital.
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    Nurses' decision-making, practices and perceptions of patient involvement in medication administration in an acute hospital setting.
    Bucknall, T ; Fossum, M ; Hutchinson, AM ; Botti, M ; Considine, J ; Dunning, T ; Hughes, L ; Weir-Phyland, J ; Digby, R ; Manias, E (Wiley, 2019-06)
    AIMS: To describe nurses' decision-making, practices and perceptions of patient involvement in medication administration in acute hospital settings. BACKGROUND: Medication errors cause unintended harm to patients. Nurses have a major role in ensuring patient safety in medication administration practices in hospital settings. Investigating nurses' medication administration decision-making and practices and their perceptions of patient involvement, may assist in developing interventions by revealing how and when to involve patients during medication administration in hospital. DESIGN: A descriptive exploratory study design. METHODS: Twenty nurses were recruited from two surgical and two medical wards of a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Each nurse was observed for 4 hr, then interviewed after the observation. Data were collected over six months in 2015. Observations were captured on an electronic case report form; interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Ninety-five medication administration episodes, of between two and eight episodes per nurse, were observed. A total of 56 interruptions occurred with 26 of the interruptions being medication related. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: dealing with uncertainty; facilitating, framing and filtering information; managing interruptions and knowing and involving patients. CONCLUSION: Nurses work in complex adaptive systems that change moment by moment. Acknowledging and understanding the cognitive workload and complex interactions are necessary to improve patient safety and reduce errors during medication administration. Knowing and involving the patient is an important part of a nurses' medication administration safety strategies.
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    From telling to sharing to silence: A longitudinal ethnography of professional-patient communication about oral chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.
    Mitchell, G ; Porter, S ; Manias, E (Wiley, 2019-02)
    BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote concordance, a shared agreement about prescription and administration of medications, in their communication with patients. However, there is a paucity of research regarding the impact of communication about self-administered oral chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine the changing dynamics of communication through the patient journey from diagnosis of colorectal cancer to posttreatment of chemotherapy. METHODS: Over 60 hours of observational data were digitally recorded from interactions between 15 healthcare professionals, eight patients with colorectal cancer prescribed capecitabine, and 11 family members over a 6-month period in outpatient departments within one hospital in the United Kingdom. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients during and after their treatment. Three focus groups were carried out with healthcare professionals. These data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The patient journey followed a path of four distinct phases: autocracy, physiological concordance, holistic concordance, and silence. Initially, communication was medicalised with patients occupying a passive role. As patients continued their journey, they took a more active role in their treatment discussion by leading consultations and sharing their priorities of care. At the end of treatment, patients felt isolated and unsupported when they were discharged from their oncology team. CONCLUSIONS: Communication about oral chemotherapy is not a static process; it evolves to take account of changing clinical requirements and growing patient confidence in dealing with their cancer. Different stages in the treatment journey indicate the need for different approaches to communication.
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    Addressing unwarranted clinical variation: A rapid review of current evidence
    Harrison, R ; Manias, E ; Mears, S ; Heslop, D ; Hinchcliff, R ; Hay, L (WILEY, 2019-02-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Unwarranted clinical variation (UCV) can be described as variation that can only be explained by differences in health system performance. There is a lack of clarity regarding how to define and identify UCV and, once identified, to determine whether it is sufficiently problematic to warrant action. As such, the implementation of systemic approaches to reducing UCV is challenging. A review of approaches to understand, identify, and address UCV was undertaken to determine how conceptual and theoretical frameworks currently attempt to define UCV, the approaches used to identify UCV, and the evidence of their effectiveness. DESIGN: Rapid evidence assessment (REA) methodology was used. DATA SOURCES: A range of text words, synonyms, and subject headings were developed for the major concepts of unwarranted clinical variation, standards (and deviation from these standards), and health care environment. Two electronic databases (Medline and Pubmed) were searched from January 2006 to April 2017, in addition to hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists, and grey literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Results were merged using reference-management software (Endnote) and duplicates removed. Inclusion criteria were independently applied to potentially relevant articles by 3 reviewers. Findings were presented in a narrative synthesis to highlight key concepts addressed in the published literature. RESULTS: A total of 48 relevant publications were included in the review; 21 articles were identified as eligible from the database search, 4 from hand searching published work and 23 from the grey literature. The search process highlighted the voluminous literature reporting clinical variation internationally; yet, there is a dearth of evidence regarding systematic approaches to identifying or addressing UCV. CONCLUSION: Wennberg's classification framework is commonly cited in relation to classifying variation, but no single approach is agreed upon to systematically explore and address UCV. The instances of UCV that warrant investigation and action are largely determined at a systems level currently, and stakeholder engagement in this process is limited. Lack of consensus on an evidence-based definition for UCV remains a substantial barrier to progress in this field.
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    Medication error trends and effects of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on medication errors in a paediatric hospital
    Manias, E ; Cranswick, N ; Newall, F ; Rosenfeld, E ; Weiner, C ; Williams, A ; Wong, ICK ; Borrott, N ; Lai, J ; Kinney, S (WILEY, 2019-03-01)
    AIM: This study aimed to examine reported medication error trends in an Australian paediatric hospital over a 5-year period and to determine the effects of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on the severity of medication outcomes. In particular, the focus was on the influence of changes to a hospital site and structure on the severity of medication errors. METHODS: A retrospective clinical audit was undertaken over a 5-year period of paediatric medication errors submitted to an online voluntary reporting system of an Australian, tertiary, public teaching paediatric hospital. All medication errors submitted to the online system between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2015 were included. RESULTS: A total of 3340 medication errors was reported, which corresponded to 0.56% medication errors per combined admissions and presentations or 5.73 medication errors per 1000 bed days. The most common patient outcomes related to errors requiring monitoring or an intervention to ensure no harm occurred (n = 1631, 48.8%). A new hospital site and structure had 0.354 reduced odds of producing medication errors causing possible or probable harm (95% confidence interval 0.298-0.421, P < 0.0001). Patient and family involvement had 1.270 increased odds of identifying medication errors associated with possible or probable harm compared with those causing no harm (95% confidence interval 1.028-1.568, P = 0.027). Interrupted time series analyses showed that moving to a new hospital site and structure was associated with a reduction in reported medication errors. CONCLUSION: Encouraging child and family involvement, facilitating hospital redesign and improving communication could help to reduce the harm associated with medication errors.
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    Improving medication adherence in adult kidney transplantation (IMAKT): A pilot randomised controlled trial
    Low, JK ; Manias, E ; Crawford, K ; Walker, R ; Mulley, WR ; Toussaint, ND ; Dooley, M ; Kennedy, E ; Smith, CL ; Nalder, M ; Yip, D ; Williams, A (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-05-22)
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    What is the role of cultural competence in ethnic minority consumer engagement? An analysis in community healthcare
    Harrison, R ; Walton, M ; Chauhan, A ; Manias, E ; Chitkara, U ; Latanik, M ; Leone, D (BMC, 2019-12-04)
    BACKGROUND: Effective patient engagement has been associated with high quality health care. There is a dearth of evidence around effective engagement with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds; specifically in relation to the role of cultural competence amongst healthcare professionals in effective engagement with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds. To address this knowledge gap, we analysed the role of cultural competence in the consumer engagement approaches taken by community healthcare professionals working with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds. METHODS: Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals employed across four community healthcare and affiliated services in four local government areas in Australia. RESULTS: Adopting patient-centric approaches (that seek to understand and be responsive to the patient as an individual) featured as an underpinning theme that transcended other emerging themes. Recognition of diversity within communities and individuals in those communities, all with their own story, was described as pivotal to effective engagement. This was encapsulated in the theme of Cultural standpoints and personal context that contained four further themes of: (1) Build foundations of trust and respect; (2) Diversify communication channels; (3) Generate system, service and community partnerships; (4) Take the time. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that cultural competence and effective consumer engagement are closely linked in ethnic minority populations. Embedding cultural competence as a health system, service and professional capability is therefore critical to ensure equitable healthcare quality for consumers from all ethnic backgrounds.