Nursing - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 66
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Nurses' Experiences After Implementation of an Organization-Wide Electronic Medical Record: Qualitative Descriptive Study.
    Jedwab, RM ; Manias, E ; Hutchinson, AM ; Dobroff, N ; Redley, B (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: Reports on the impact of electronic medical record (EMR) systems on clinicians are mixed. Currently, nurses' experiences of adopting a large-scale, multisite EMR system have not been investigated. Nurses are the largest health care workforce; therefore, the impact of EMR implementation must be investigated and understood to ensure that patient care quality, changes to nurses' work, and nurses themselves are not negatively impacted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore Australian nurses' postimplementation experiences of an organization-wide EMR system. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used focus group and individual interviews and an open-ended survey question to collect data between 12 and 18 months after the implementation of an EMR across 6 hospital sites of a large health care organization in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected between November 2020 and June 2021, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis comprised complementary inductive and deductive approaches. Specifically, reflexive thematic analysis was followed by framework analysis by the coding of data as barriers or facilitators to nurses' use of the EMR using the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: A total of 158 nurses participated in this study. The EMR implementation dramatically changed nurses' work and how they viewed their profession, and nurses were still adapting to the EMR implementation 18 months after implementation. Reflexive thematic analysis led to the development of 2 themes: An unintentional divide captured nurses' feelings of division related to how using the EMR affected nurses, patient care, and the broader nursing profession. This time, it's personal detailed nurses' beliefs about the EMR implementation leading to bigger changes to nurses as individuals and nursing as a profession than other changes that nurses have experienced within the health care organization. The most frequent barriers to EMR use by nurses were related to the Theoretical Domains Framework domain of environmental context and resources. Facilitators of EMR use were most often related to memory, attention, and decision processes. Most barriers and facilitators were related to motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses perceived EMR implementation to have a mixed impact on the provision of quality patient care and on their colleagues. Implementing technology in a health care setting was perceived as a complex endeavor that impacted nurses' perceptions of their autonomy, ways of working, and professional roles. Potential negative consequences were related to nursing workforce retention and patient care delivery. Motivation was the main behavioral driver for nurses' adoption of EMR systems and hence a key consideration for implementing interventions or organizational changes directed at nurses.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Development of Screening Tools to Predict Medication-Related Problems Across the Continuum of Emergency Department Care: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.
    Taylor, SE ; Mitri, EA ; Harding, AM ; Taylor, DM ; Weeks, A ; Abbott, L ; Lambros, P ; Lawrence, D ; Strumpman, D ; Senturk-Raif, R ; Louey, S ; Crisp, H ; Tomlinson, E ; Manias, E (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Medication-related problems (MRPs) occur across the continuum of emergency department (ED) care: they may contribute to ED presentation, occur in the ED/short-stay unit (SSU), at hospital admission, or shortly after discharge to the community. This project aimed to determine predictors for MRPs across the continuum of ED care and incorporate these into screening tools (one for use at ED presentation and one at ED/SSU discharge), to identify patients at greatest risk, who could be targeted by ED pharmacists. Methods: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was undertaken in nine EDs, between July 2016 and August 2017. Blocks of ten consecutive adult patients presenting at pre-specified times were identified. Within 1 week of ED discharge, a pharmacist interviewed patients and undertook a medical record review to determine a medication history, patient understanding of treatment, risk factors for MRPs and to manage the MRPs. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine predictor variables. Multivariable regression beta coefficients were used to develop a scoring system for the two screening tools. Results: Of 1,238 patients meeting all inclusion criteria, 904 were recruited. Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED presentation were: patient self-administers regular medications (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 3.79-16.65), carer assists with medication administration (OR = 15.46, 95%CI = 6.52-36.67), or health-professional administers (OR = 5.01, 95%CI = 1.77-14.19); medication-related ED presentation (OR = 9.95, 95%CI = 4.92-20.10); age ≥80 years (OR = 3.63, 95%CI = 1.96-6.71), or age 65-79 years (OR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.17-3.46); potential medication adherence issue (OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.38-3.73); medical specialist seen in past 6-months (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.42-2.85); pharmaceutical benefit/pension/concession cardholder (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.28-2.78); inpatient in previous 4-weeks (OR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02-2.52); being male (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.05-2.10); and difficulties reading labels (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.40-0.99). Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED discharge were: potential medication adherence issue (OR = 6.80, 95%CI = 3.97-11.64); stay in ED > 8 h (OR = 3.23, 95%CI = 1.47-7.78); difficulties reading labels (OR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.30-4.16); and medication regimen changed in ED (OR = 3.91, 95%CI = 2.43-6.30). For ED presentation, the model had a C-statistic of 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.86) (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 70%). For ED discharge, the model had a C-statistic of 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.83) (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 57%). Conclusion: Predictors of MRPs are readily available at the bedside and may be used to screen for patients at greatest risk upon ED presentation and upon ED/SSU discharge to the community. These screening tools now require external validation and implementation studies to evaluate the impact of using such tools on patient care outcomes.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Knowledge and Power Relations in Older Patients' Communication About Medications Across Transitions of Care
    Ozavci, G ; Bucknall, T ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Hughes, C ; Jorm, C ; Joseph, K ; Manias, E (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2021-10-16)
    Communicating about medications across transitions of care is a challenging process for older patients. In this article, we examined communication processes between older patients, family members, and health professionals about managing medications across transitions of care, focusing on older patients' experiences. A focused ethnographic design was employed across two metropolitan hospitals. Data collection methods included interviews, observations, and focus groups. Following thematic analysis, data were analyzed using Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis and Medication Communication Model. Older patients' medication knowledge and family members' advocacy challenged unequal power relations between clinicians and patients and families. Doctors' use of authoritative discourse impeded older patients' participation in the medication communication. Older patients perceived that nurses' involvement in medication communication was limited due to their task-related routines. To reduce the unequal power relations, health professionals should be more proactive in sharing information about medications with older patients across transitions of care.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Development of a Complex Intervention for Effective Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Developing Country
    Desse, TA ; Namara, KM ; Yifter, H ; Manias, E (MDPI, 2022-03-01)
    There has been little focus on designing tailored diabetes management strategies in developing countries. The aim of this study is to develop a theory-driven, tailored and context-specific complex intervention for the effective management of type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care setting of a developing country. We conducted interviews and focus groups with patients, health professionals, and policymakers and undertook thematic analysis to identify gaps in diabetes management. The results of our previously completed systematic review informed data collection. We used the United Kingdom Medical Research Council framework to guide the development of the intervention. Results comprised 48 interviews, two focus groups with 11 participants and three co-design panels with 24 participants. We identified a lack of structured type 2 diabetes education, counselling, and collaborative care of type 2 diabetes. Through triangulation of the evidence obtained from data collection, we developed an intervention called VICKY (patient-centred collaborative care and structured diabetes education and counselling) for effective management of type 2 diabetes. VICKY comprised five components: (1) patient-centred collaborative care; (2) referral system for patients across transitions of care between different health professionals of the diabetes care team; (3) tools for the provision of collaborative care and documentation of care; (4) diabetes education and counselling by trained diabetes educators; and (5) contextualised diabetes education curriculum, educational materials, and documentation tools for diabetes education and counselling. Implementation of the intervention may help to promote evidence-based, patient-centred, and contextualised diabetes care for improved patient outcomes in a developing country.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Associations of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on medication errors in public and private hospitals: a retrospective clinical audit
    Manias, E ; Street, M ; Lowe, G ; Low, JK ; Gray, K ; Botti, M (BMC, 2021-09-28)
    BACKGROUND: Efforts to ensure safe and optimal medication management are crucial in reducing the prevalence of medication errors. The aim of this study was to determine the associations of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on the severity of medication errors occurring in two health services. METHODS: A retrospective clinical audit of medication errors was undertaken over an 18-month period at two Australian health services comprising 16 hospitals. Descriptive statistical analysis, and univariate and multivariable regression analysis were undertaken. RESULTS: There were 11,540 medication errors reported to the online facility of both health services. Medication errors caused by doctors (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.690, 95% CI 0.618-0.771), or by pharmacists (OR 0.327, 95% CI 0.267-0.401), or by patients or families (OR 0.641, 95% CI 0.472-0.870) compared to those caused by nurses or midwives were significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors. The presence of double-checking of medication orders compared to single-checking (OR 0.905, 95% CI 0.826-0.991) was significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors. The presence of electronic systems for prescribing (OR 0.580, 95% CI 0.480-0.705) and dispensing (OR 0.350, 95% CI 0.199-0.618) were significantly associated with reduced odds of possibly or probably harmful medication errors compared to the absence of these systems. Conversely, insufficient counselling of patients (OR 3.511, 95% CI 2.512-4.908), movement across transitions of care (OR 1.461, 95% CI 1.190-1.793), presence of interruptions (OR 1.432, 95% CI 1.012-2.027), presence of covering personnel (OR 1.490, 95% 1.113-1.995), misread or unread orders (OR 2.411, 95% CI 2.162-2.690), informal bedside conversations (OR 1.221, 95% CI 1.085-1.373), and problems with clinical handovers (OR 1.559, 95% CI 1.136-2.139) were associated with increased odds of medication errors causing possible or probable harm. Patients or families were involved in the detection of 1100 (9.5%) medication errors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and families need to be engaged in discussions about medications, and health professionals need to provide teachable opportunities during bedside conversations, admission and discharge consultations, and medication administration activities. Patient counselling needs to be more targeted in effort to reduce medication errors associated with possible or probable harm.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    How does implementation of an electronic medical record system impact nurses' work motivation, engagement, satisfaction and well-being? A realist review protocol
    Jedwab, RM ; Redley, B ; Manias, E ; Dobroff, N ; Hutchinson, AM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-10-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are used worldwide as repositories for patients' clinical information, providing clinical decision support and increasing visibility of and access to clinical information. While EMR systems facilitate improved healthcare delivery, emerging reports suggest potential detrimental effects on clinician well-being. EMR system implementation influences on nurses' work motivation, engagement, satisfaction and well-being (including burnout) are not well understood, nor have they been examined in relation to contextual factors and mechanisms of action. This paper presents a realist review protocol to examine causal explanations to address the question: How, why and under what circumstances does the implementation of a new hospital EMR system or similar technology impact nurses' work motivation, engagement, satisfaction or well-being? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The five-step method for realist review will be used to identify causal relationships, how the relationships work, for whom and under what circumstances: (1) defining the review scope; (2) developing initial program theories; (3) searching the evidence; (4) selecting and appraising the evidence; (5) extracting and synthesising the data. Initial program theories were developed using scoping review findings and qualitative data collected from nurses pre-EMR and post-EMR. Five databases will be systematically searched from 1 January 2000 to 31 October 2021 (APA PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase, IEEE Xplore and MEDLINE Complete), and forward and backward citation searching, grey literature searching and literature recommended by the research team. Search results will be screened by two research team members. Data extracted will assist in refining program theories to develop a conceptual model that synthesises how work motivation, engagement, satisfaction and well-being may influence, or be influenced by, an EMR implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The larger project has previously obtained low-risk ethics approval. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and reported as per RAMESES guidelines. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020131875.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Self-management of medication during hospitalisation: Healthcare providers' and patients' perspectives
    Vanwesemael, T ; Boussery, K ; Manias, E ; Petrovic, M ; Fraeyman, J ; Dilles, T (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare providers' and patients' perspectives on self-management of medication during the patients' hospital stay. BACKGROUND: Self-administration of medications relates to the process in which hospitalised patients-instead of healthcare professionals-prepare and consume medications by themselves. Literature suggests possible advantages of medication self-management such as increased patient satisfaction, adherence to pharmacotherapy and self-care competence. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study design was adopted, using semistructured interviews and qualitative content analysis to examine data. METHODS: Six physicians, 11 nurses, six hospital pharmacists and seven patients were recruited from one regional hospital and two university hospitals, situated in Belgium. Interviews were conducted between October 2014-January 2015. RESULTS: Strengths of medication self-management were described by participants, relating to benefits of self-management for patients, time-saving benefits for nurses and benefits for better collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. Weaknesses were also apparent for patients as well as for nurses and physicians. Opportunities for self-management of medication were described, relating to the organisation, the patient and the process for implementing self-management. Threats for self-management of medication included obstacles related to implementation of self-managed medications and the actual process of providing medication self-management. A structured overview of conditions that should be fulfilled before allowing self-management of medication concerned patient-related conditions, the self-managed medication and the organisation of self-management of medication. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from the perspectives of key stakeholders. Interpretation of these findings resulted in an overview of adaptations in the medication management process to facilitate implementation of self-management of medication. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A medication management process for self-management of medication was proposed. Further interventional studies are needed to test and refine this process before implementing it in daily practice.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The impact of interruptions on medication errors in hospitals: an observational study of nurses
    Johnson, M ; Sanchez, P ; Langdon, R ; Manias, E ; Levett-Jones, T ; Weidemann, G ; Aguilar, V ; Everett, B (WILEY, 2017-10-01)
    AIM: To explore interruptions during medication preparation and administration and their consequences. BACKGROUND: Although not all interruptions in nursing have a negative impact, interruptions during medication rounds have been associated with medication errors. METHOD: A non-participant observational study was undertaken of nurses conducting medication rounds. RESULTS: Fifty-six medication events (including 101 interruptions) were observed. Most medication events (99%) were interrupted, resulting in nurses stopping medication preparation or administration to address the interruption (mean 2.5 minutes). The mean number of interruptions was 1.79 (SD 1.04). Thirty-four percent of medication events had at least one procedural failure, while 3.6% resulted in a clinical error. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that interruptions occur frequently during medication preparation and administration, and these interruptions were associated with procedural failures and clinical errors. Nurses were the primary source of interruptions with interruptions often being unrelated to patient care. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This study has confirmed that interruptions are frequent and result in clinical errors and procedural failures, compromising patient safety. These interruptions contribute a substantial additional workload to medication tasks. Various interventions should be implemented to reduce non-patient-related interruptions. Medication systems and procedures are advocated, that reduce the need for joint double-checking of medications, indirectly avoiding interruptions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Stressors and coping resources of Australian kidney transplant recipients related to medication taking: a qualitative study
    Low, JK ; Crawford, K ; Manias, E ; Williams, A (WILEY, 2017-06-01)
    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To understand the stressors related to life post kidney transplantation, with a focus on medication adherence, and the coping resources people use to deal with these stressors. BACKGROUND: Although kidney transplantation offers enhanced quality and years of life for patients, the management of a kidney transplant post surgery is a complex process. DESIGN: A descriptive exploratory study. METHOD: Participants were recruited from five kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. From March-May 2014, patients who had either maintained their kidney transplant for ≥8 months or had experienced a kidney graft loss due to medication nonadherence were interviewed. All audio-recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and underwent Ritchie and Spencer's framework analysis. RESULTS: Participants consisted of 15 men and 10 women aged 26-72 years old. All identified themes were categorised into: (1) Causes of distress and (2) Coping resources. Post kidney transplantation, causes of distress included the regimented routine necessary for graft maintenance, and the everlasting fear of potential graft rejection, contracting infections and developing cancer. Coping resources used to manage the stressors were first, a shift in perspective about how easy it was to manage a kidney transplant than to be dialysis-dependent and second, receiving external help from fellow patients, family members and health care professionals in addition to using electronic reminders. CONCLUSION: An individual well-equipped with coping resources is able to deal with stressors better. It is recommended that changes, such as providing regular reminders about the lifestyle benefits of kidney transplantation, creating opportunities for patients to share their experiences and promoting the usage of a reminder alarm to take medications, will reduce the stress of managing a kidney transplant. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using these findings to make informed changes to the usual care of a kidney transplant recipient is likely to result in better patient outcomes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Medication communication between nurses and doctors for paediatric acute care: An ethnographic study
    Borrott, N ; Kinney, S ; Newall, F ; Williams, A ; Cranswick, N ; Wong, I ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2017-07-01)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine how communication between nurses and doctors occurred for managing medications in inpatient paediatric settings. BACKGROUND: Communication between health professionals influences medication incidents' occurrence and safe care. DESIGN: An ethnographic study was undertaken. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews, observations and focus groups were conducted in three clinical areas of an Australian tertiary paediatric hospital. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using the Medication Communication Model. RESULTS: The actual communication act revealed health professionals' commitment to effective medication management and the influence of professional identities on medication communication. Nurses and doctors were dedicated to providing safe, effective medication therapy for children, within their scope of practice and perceived role responsibilities. Most nurses and junior doctors used tentative language in their communication while senior doctors tended to use direct language. Irrespective of language style, nurses actively engaged with doctors to promote patients' needs. Yet, the medical hierarchical structure, staffing and attendant expectations influenced communication for medication management, causing frustration among nurses and doctors. Doctors' lack of verbal communication of documented changes to medication orders particularly troubled nurses. Nurses persisted in their efforts to acquire appropriate orders for safe medication administration to paediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative practice between nurses and doctors involved complex, symbiotic relationships. Their dedication to providing safe medication therapy to paediatric patients facilitated effective medication management. At times, shortcomings in interdisciplinary communication impacted on potential and actual medication incidents. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Understanding of the complexities affecting medication communication between nurses and doctors helps to ensure interprofessional respect for each other's roles and inherent demands. Interdisciplinary education delivered in healthcare organisations would facilitate greater clarity in communication related to medications. Encouraging the use of concise, clear words in communication would help to promote improved understanding between parties, and accuracy and efficacy of medication management.