Nursing - Research Publications

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    Designing digital health applications for climate change mitigation and adaptation
    Lokmic-Tomkins, Z ; Borda, A ; Humphrey, K (WILEY, 2023-01-10)
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    Cancer incidence and mortality in Australia from 2020 to 2044 and an exploratory analysis of the potential effect of treatment delays during the COVID-19 pandemic: a statistical modelling study
    Luo, Q ; O'Connell, DL ; Yu, XQ ; Kahn, C ; Caruana, M ; Pesola, F ; Sasieni, P ; Grogan, PB ; Aranda, S ; Cabasag, CJ ; Soerjomataram, I ; Steinberg, J ; Canfell, K (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: Long-term projections of cancer incidence and mortality estimate the future burden of cancer in a population, and can be of great use in informing the planning of health services and the management of resources. We aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and numbers of new cases and deaths up until 2044 for all cancers combined and for 21 individual cancer types in Australia. We also illustrate the potential effect of treatment delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic on future colorectal cancer mortality rates. METHODS: In this statistical modelling study, cancer incidence and mortality rates in Australia from 2020 to 2044 were projected based on data up to 2017 and 2019, respectively. Cigarette smoking exposure (1945-2019), participation rates in the breast cancer screening programme (1996-2019), and prostate-specific antigen testing rates (1994-2020) were included where relevant. The baseline projection model using an age-period-cohort model or generalised linear model for each cancer type was selected based on model fit statistics and validation with pre-COVID-19 observed data. To assess the impact of treatment delays during the COVID-19 pandemic on colorectal cancer mortality, we obtained data on incidence, survival, prevalence, and cancer treatment for colorectal cancer from different authorities. The relative risks of death due to system-caused treatment delays were derived from a published systematic review. Numbers of excess colorectal cancer deaths were estimated using the relative risk of death per week of treatment delay and different durations of delay under a number of hypothetical scenarios. FINDINGS: Projections indicate that in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic effects, the age-standardised incidence rate for all cancers combined for males would decline over 2020-44, and for females the incidence rate would be relatively stable in Australia. The mortality rates for all cancers combined for both males and females are expected to continuously decline during 2020-44. The total number of new cases are projected to increase by 47·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 35·2-61·3) for males, from 380 306 in 2015-19 to 560 744 (95% UI 514 244-613 356) in 2040-44, and by 54·4% (95% UI 40·2-70·5) for females, from 313 263 in 2015-19 to 483 527 (95% UI 439 069-534 090) in 2040-44. The number of cancer deaths are projected to increase by 36·4% (95% UI 15·3-63·9) for males, from 132 440 in 2015-19 to 180 663 (95% UI 152 719-217 126) in 2040-44, and by 36·6% (95% UI 15·8-64·1) for females, from 102 103 in 2015-19 to 139 482 (95% UI 118 186-167 527) in 2040-44, due to population ageing and growth. The example COVID-19 pandemic scenario of a 6-month health-care system disruption with 16-week treatment delays for colorectal cancer patients could result in 460 (95% UI 338-595) additional deaths and 437 (95% UI 314-570) deaths occurring earlier than expected in 2020-44. INTERPRETATION: These projections can inform health service planning for cancer care and treatment in Australia. Despite the continuous decline in cancer mortality rates, and the decline or plateau in incidence rates, our projections suggest an overall 51% increase in the number of new cancer cases and a 36% increase in the number of cancer deaths over the 25-year projection period. This means that continued efforts to increase screening uptake and to control risk factors, including smoking exposure, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol use, and infections, must remain public health priorities. FUNDING: Partly funded by Cancer Council Australia.
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    Associations between hyper-polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing with clinical and functional outcomes in older adults
    Mekonnen, A ; Redley, B ; Crawford, K ; Jones, S ; de Courten, B ; Manias, E (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-03-03)
    BACKGROUND: Hyper-polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) are common among older inpatients. This study investigated associations between hyper-polypharmacy and PIP with clinical and functional outcomes in older adults at 3-months after hospital discharge. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: At discharge, prescribed medications were collected and PIPs, comprising potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) and potential prescribing omissions (PPO), were retrospectively identified using STOPP/START version 2. Outcomes were collected prospectively via telephone follow-up and audit. RESULTS: Data for 232 patients (mean age 80 years) were analyzed. PIP prevalence at discharge was 73.7% (PIMs 62.5%, PPOs 36.6%). Exposure to at least 1 PIM was associated with an increased occurrence of unplanned hospital readmission (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.09; 95% CI 2.38─10.85), emergency department presentation (AOR 4.69; 95% CI 1.55─14.21) and the composite outcome (AOR 6.83; 95% CI 3.20─14.57). The number rather than the presence of PIMs was significantly associated with increased dependency in at least 1 activity of daily living (ADL) (AOR 2.31; 95% CI 1.08─4.20). Increased PIP use was associated with mortality (AOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.05─1.99). CONCLUSION: PIPs overall, and PIMs specifically, were frequent in older adults at hospital discharge, and were associated with increased re-hospitalizations and dependence in ADLs at 3-months post-discharge.
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    Singing for People with Advance Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis
    Ly, L ; Philip, J ; Hudson, P ; Smallwood, N (MDPI, 2022-09-01)
    RATIONALE: Although there remains insufficient evidence regarding singing programs as effective strategies for achieving clinically significant health outcomes, this non-pharmacological intervention appears to be subjectively low-risk and well-tolerated by people with advanced chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine and synthesize the current qualitative evidence regarding the experiences of participating in singing for breathing programs by people with advanced CRD. METHODS: A meta-synthesis of qualitative data was conducted. Electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) were searched for published qualitative studies reporting the effects of singing programs for adults with advanced CRD and their carers. Primary qualitative data were extracted and analysed, which generated descriptive and analytical themes. RESULTS: Themes identified from seven included studies were: anticipation and reluctance to participate; physical and psychological benefits; new sense of purpose and enjoyment; social connection and achievement; and broad views regarding program structure and content. The themes highlighted changing perspectives before, during and after engaging in the singing program, as participants transitioned from initial anxiety to mastery of their chronic condition as the singing program progressed. Participants, however, raised concerns regarding several singing technicalities, the lack of ongoing support after the singing programs' conclusion and the social impacts of transitioning the sessions online during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-synthesis highlights the positive experiences of people with CRD who participate in singing for breathing programs. Further research, including longitudinal qualitative studies, can provide insight into the acceptability and feasibility of singing programs and inform the broader implementation of the intervention.
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    Prioritising Responses Of Nurses To deteriorating patient Observations (PRONTO): a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a facilitation intervention on recognition and response to clinical deterioration.
    Bucknall, TK ; Considine, J ; Harvey, G ; Graham, ID ; Rycroft-Malone, J ; Mitchell, I ; Saultry, B ; Watts, JJ ; Mohebbi, M ; Bohingamu Mudiyanselage, S ; Lotfaliany, M ; Hutchinson, A (BMJ, 2022-04-21)
    BACKGROUND: Most hospitals use physiological signs to trigger an urgent clinical review. We investigated whether facilitation could improve nurses' vital sign measurement, interpretation, treatment and escalation of care for deteriorating patients. METHODS: In a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, we randomised 36 inpatient wards at four acute hospitals to receive standard clinical practice guideline (CPG) dissemination to ward staff (n=18) or facilitated implementation for 6 months following standard dissemination (n=18). Expert, hospital and ward facilitators tailored facilitation techniques to promote nurses' CPG adherence. Patient records were audited pre-intervention, 6 and 12 months post-intervention on randomly selected days. Escalation of care as per hospital policy was the primary outcome at 6 and 12 months after implementation. Patients, nurses and assessors were blinded to group assignment. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: From 10 383 audits, improved escalation as per hospital policy was evident in the intervention group at 6 months (OR 1.47, 95% CI (1.06 to 2.04)) with a complete set of vital sign measurements sustained at 12 months (OR 1.22, 95% CI (1.02 to 1.47)). There were no significant differences in escalation of care as per hospital policy between study groups at 6 or 12 months post-intervention. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, a significant change from T0 in mean length of stay between groups at 12 months favoured the intervention group (-2.18 days, 95% CI (-3.53 to -0.82)). CONCLUSION: Multi-level facilitation significantly improved escalation as per hospital policy at 6 months in the intervention group that was not sustained at 12 months. The intervention group had increased vital sign measurement by nurses, as well as shorter lengths of stay for patients at 12 months. Further research is required to understand the dose of facilitation required to impact clinical practice behaviours and patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000544471p.
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    Cancer-related cognitive impairment in patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma undergoing standard chemotherapy: a longitudinal feasibility study
    Gates, P ; Krishnasamy, M ; Wilson, C ; Hawkes, EA ; Dore, V ; Perchyonok, Y ; Rowe, CC ; Walker, AK ; Vardy, JL ; de Ruiter, MB ; Cushion, T ; Dhillon, HM ; Gough, K (SPRINGER, 2022-06-14)
    PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a recognised adverse consequence of cancer and its treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of collecting longitudinal data on cognition in patients with newly diagnosed, aggressive lymphoma undergoing standard therapy with curative intent via self-report, neuropsychological assessment, peripheral markers of inflammation, and neuroimaging. An exploration and description of patterns of cancer-related cognitive impairment over the course of treatment and recovery was also undertaken and will be reported separately. METHODS: Eligible participants completed repeated measures of cognition including self-report and neuropsychological assessment, and correlates of cognition including blood cell-based inflammatory markers, and neuroimaging at three pre-specified timepoints, time 1 (T1) - pre-treatment (treatment naïve), time 2 (T2) - mid-treatment, and time 3 (T3) - 6 to 8 weeks post-completion of treatment. RESULTS: 30/33 eligible patients (91%, 95% CI: 76%, 97%) were recruited over 10 months. The recruitment rate was 3 patients/month (95% CI: 2.0, 4.3 patients/month). Reasons for declining included feeling overwhelmed and rapid treatment commencement. Mean age was 57 years (SD = 17 years) and 16/30 (53%) were male. Most patients (20/30, 67%) had diffuse large B cell lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma (4/30, 13%). The neuroimaging sub-study was optional, 11/30 participants (37%) were eligible to take part, and all agreed. The remaining 19 participants were ineligible as their diagnostic PET/CT scan was completed prior. Retention and compliance with all assessments were 89 to 100% at all timepoints. Only one participant was withdrawn due to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study including excellent recruitment, retention, and compliance rates demonstrate it is feasible to longitudinally assess cognition in people with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma during their initial treatment and recovery to inform the development of future research to improve patient experiences and cognitive outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001649101.
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    Workforce development for better management of physical comorbidities among people with serious mental illness
    Mc Namara, KP ; Rosenbaum, S ; Rocks, T ; Manias, E ; Freeman, CR ; Shee, AW ; Schlicht, KG ; Calder, R ; Moloney, J ; Morgan, M (WILEY, 2022-10-02)
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    Nurses' experiences of supporting patients requesting voluntary assisted dying: A qualitative meta-synthesis
    Sandham, M ; Carey, M ; Hedgecock, E ; Jarden, R (WILEY, 2022-06-24)
    AIM: Describe the reported lived experiences of nurses who have participated at any stage of voluntary assisted dying (VAD), from the initial request to the end of life. DESIGN: A qualitative meta-synthesis. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched were CINAHL, MEDLINE, Emcare, Scopus and PsycInfo. The search was undertaken in September 2021 with no date limitations. Qualitative studies were considered if published in English, reported primary data analysis of nurses' experiences who had been involved in VAD and reported direct quotes from nurses. REVIEW METHODS: Qualitative studies meeting the selection criteria were critically appraised, then an open card-sort method was applied. Quotes from nurses were organized to group similar experiences, constructing themes and metaphors across studies as a new understanding of nurses' experiences of VAD. RESULTS: Eight studies were included. Three major themes were constructed: An orderly procedure, reflecting the need for structure to feel adequately prepared; A beautiful death, reflecting the autonomy the patient exercised when choosing VAD facilitated an exceptionally positive death; and Psychological and emotional impact, where nurses recognized the emotional and ethical weight that they carried for themselves and the team when undertaking VAD. CONCLUSION: Nurses may benefit from clear policy, supervision and communication training to support them as countries transition to providing VAD services. Policy provides nurses with confidence that they are undertaking the steps of VAD correctly and provides a layer of emotional protection. Communication training specific to VAD is necessary to prepare nurses to recognize their own emotional experiences when responding to the needs of the patient and their family. IMPACT: VAD is increasingly becoming a legal option that nurses are encountering in their professional practice. Understanding nurses' experiences of being involved in VAD is required to support nurses in countries where VAD is becoming available to prepare professionally and psychologically.
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    Nurses' well-being during the coronavirus (2019) pandemic: A longitudinal mixed-methods study
    Jarden, RJ ; Jarden, AJ ; Weiland, TJ ; Taylor, G ; Brockenshire, N ; Rutherford, M ; Carbery, C ; Moroney, K ; Joshanloo, M ; Gerdtz, M (WILEY, 2022-06-21)
    AIM: To determine prevalence, predictors and change over time of nurses' and student nurses' mental health and well-being, and explore nurses' perceptions, barriers and enablers of well-being. DESIGN: Longitudinal mixed-methods survey. METHODS: Forty-nine students and registered nurses participated from Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from December 2019 to July 2020. Validated psychometrics and free-text response questions were employed. Analysis used latent growth curve modelling, Pearson product-moment correlations and thematic analysis. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation was found between self-determination and work well-being, and a strong negative correlation between work well-being and flight risk. Several moderate relationships were found; a moderate positive correlation between work well-being and nurse manager ability, leadership and support, and a moderate negative correlation between burnout and staffing and resource adequacy. Collegial nurse-physician relationships deteriorated. Three themes, physical health, psychological well-being and social connection, were identified as important for nurses' well-being.
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    Experiences of young adults who have transferred from paediatric to adult congenital heart disease services
    Morris, E ; McKeever, S (Mark Allen Group, 2022-09-02)
    Background/Aims Congenital heart disease services are continuing to develop, yet little is known about the experiences of those who have transitioned from paediatric to adult services in the UK. This study explored patients' perceptions and lived experiences of this process to identify factors that contribute to positive and negative experiences, with the view of devising strategies to improve transition. Methods A phenomenological hermeneutical study was conducted using semi-structured interviews. The experiences of six young adults (aged 20–24 years) who had transitioned from paediatric to adult congenital heart disease services were explored. Results Participants saw transition as a milestone and they generally accepted outgrowing paediatric services, despite maintaining a sense of nostalgia for this time. Adjustment to a new service was ongoing and parental support was valued, although issues such as anxiety could be a barrier to the participant assuming responsibility for their own care. Good communication with healthcare professionals, involving individualistic care, consistency and patience, was perceived as a positive influence in adapting to the new service. Conclusions Participants mainly had positive experiences of transition from paediatric and adult congenital heart disease services, with parental and healthcare professional support being valued during and after transition. Healthcare professionals must integrate assessment of physical and psychological needs to support and empower patients and families in order to deliver a smooth transition into adult life and care.