Nursing - Research Publications

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    Interventions to improve patient understanding of cancer clinical trial participation: a systematic review
    Kao, CY ; Aranda, S ; Krishnasamy, M ; Hamilton, B (WILEY, 2017-03-01)
    Patient misunderstanding of cancer clinical trial participation is identified as a critical issue and researchers have developed and tested a variety of interventions to improve patient understanding. This systematic review identified nine papers published between 2000 and 2013, to evaluate the effects of interventions to improve patient understanding of cancer clinical trial participation. Types of interventions included audio-visual information, revised written information and a communication training workshop. Interventions were conducted alone or in combination with other forms of information provision. The nine papers, all with methodological limitations, reported mixed effects on a small range of outcomes regarding improved patient understanding of cancer clinical trial participation. The methodological limitations included: (1) the intervention development process was poorly described; (2) only a small element of the communication process was addressed; (3) studies lacked evidence regarding what information is essential and critical to enable informed consent; (4) studies lacked reliable and valid outcome measures to show that patients are sufficiently informed to provide consent; and (5) the intervention development process lacked a theoretical framework. Future research needs to consider these factors when developing interventions to improve communication and patient understanding during the informed consent process.
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    Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of audio-recordings and question prompt lists in cancer care consultations: A qualitative study
    Moloczij, N ; Krishnasamy, M ; Butow, P ; Hack, TF ; Stafford, L ; Jefford, M ; Schofield, P (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017-06-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Question prompt lists (QPLs) and consultation audio-recordings (CARs) are two communication strategies that can assist cancer patients in understanding and recalling information. We aimed to explore clinician and organisational barriers and facilitators to implementing QPLs and CARs into usual care. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with twenty clinicians and senior hospital administrators, recruited from four hospitals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic descriptive analysis was utilised. RESULTS: CARs and QPLs are to some degree already being initiated by patients but not embedded in usual care. Systematic use should be driven by patient preference. Successful implementation will depend on minimal burden to clinical environments and feedback about patient use. CARs concerns included: medico-legal issues, ability of the CAR to be shared beyond the consultation, and recording and storage logistics within existing medical record systems. QPLs issues included: applicability of the QPLs, ensuring patients who might benefit from QPL's are able to access them, and limited use when there are other existing communication strategies. CONCLUSIONS: While CARs and QPLs are beneficial for patients, there are important individual, system and medico-legal considerations regarding usual care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Identifying and addressing practical implications of CARs and QPLs prior to clinical implementation is essential.
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    Self-guided interventions for managing psychological distress in people with cancer - A systematic review
    Ugalde, A ; Haynes, K ; Boltong, A ; White, V ; Krishnasamy, M ; Schofield, P ; Aranda, S ; Livingston, P (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: People with cancer can experience psychological distress but do not always desire, or engage with, professional support to assist with managing distress. Interventions that are self-directed or guided by patients may hold promise as they allow patients to engage with interventions as they need. The objective of this review is to describe and appraise the evidence for effectiveness of self-guided interventions that aim to manage psychological distress in people with cancer. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, PsychInfo and CINAHL identified 15 relevant papers, reporting on 14 studies. RESULTS: Of the interventions, three studies comprised hard-copy workbooks, six studies used resource packs, four were online resources and one was a brief multimedia resource. One study was adequately powered and demonstrated a positive effect. Almost all interventions required some level of facilitation. Distressed participants may benefit more from interventions. CONCLUSION: Self-guided interventions represent a potentially efficient way of delivering support for people affected by cancer, however evidence supporting them is lacking. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a need to generate evidence to understand the impact of self-guided interventions for: i) the ideal delivery point in the disease trajectory, ii) patient groups, iii) intervention content and iv) type and mode of delivery.
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    Identifying essential information to support patient decision-making regarding participation in cancer clinical trials: A Delphi study
    Kao, C-Y ; Aranda, S ; Krishnasamy, M ; Hamilton, B (WILEY, 2018-11-01)
    PURPOSES: This research set out to contribute to ongoing efforts to improve the quality of informed consent information provided to patients by specifically focusing on establishing consensus with regard to essential information to enhance the informed consent process. DESIGN AND METHODS: A Delphi consensus method was used to conduct three rounds of online surveys. Five groups of experts directly or indirectly involved in the informed consent process were invited to participate: patients, family members/friends, physicians, other health professionals and other key informants, including ethicists, contract research staff and pharmaceutical company staff. FINDINGS: Of 156 eligible participants, 101 participants (64.7%) completed all three rounds. In round 1, 994 information items were reported and generated into 74 statements. These were grouped under eight headings essential to the informed consent process. In rounds 2 and 3, the list was reduced to 15 statements representing consensus on essential information to be included in a summarised patient information document to support decision-making regarding trial participation. Risks and discomforts, participation requirements and trial governance were identified as important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: The 15 essential statements identified in this study could be used as components of a summarised information sheet given to potential cancer clinical trial participants, as an adjunct to the informed consent process. A robust evaluation of the impact of these statements on the quality of the informed consent process is needed.
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    The trajectory of patients who die from metastatic prostate cancer: a population-based study
    Collins, A ; Sundararajan, V ; Millar, J ; Burchell, J ; Le, B ; Krishnasamy, M ; McLachlan, S-A ; Hudson, P ; Mileshkin, L ; Philip, J (WILEY, 2019-05-01)
    OBJECTIVES: To describe health service use, symptom and survival characteristics in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) in order to outline usual care practices and identify future opportunities to improve the quality of care in this patient group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This population cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia, used 10 years (2000-2010) of linked hospital discharge, emergency visit, and death registration data, to track patients from their first inpatient admission with mPCa until death. Descriptive statistics on inpatient health service use, symptoms, procedures, survival, and place of death are presented. RESULTS: In all, 4436 patients survived a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 4 (1, 12) months from their first multiday admission with mPCa. They had a median (IQR) of 3 (1, 9) admissions, 1 (0, 2) emergency department presentation, and 35 (18, 63) days admitted to hospital. Lower urinary tract symptoms were common (50%), and 21% underwent lower urinary tract procedures, whilst 48% had blood product transfusions. In the last month of life, 3685 (83%) had at least one indicator of aggressive end-of-life care, including 48% with more than one acute hospital admission, and 55% staying ≥14 days. Hospital-based palliative care was accessed by 2657 (60%), occurring a median (IQR) of 30 (11, 74) days before death. In all, 23% died in the community, whilst 77% died in hospital, of whom 55% died in an acute hospital bed. CONCLUSION: Half of all decedents first admitted for a multiday stay with mPCa survived <4 months thereafter. They had a marked symptom burden, underwent multiple procedures and had multiple admissions. In all, 40% of patients did not receive any hospital-based palliative care. Several opportunities exist to improve the timely transition to palliative care services with mPCa. These data form a benchmark against which future improvements to palliative care integration may be measured.
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    Evaluating a nurse-led survivorship care package (SurvivorCare) for bowel cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Jefford, M ; Aranda, S ; Gough, K ; Lotfi-Jam, K ; Butow, P ; Krishnasamy, M ; Young, J ; Phipps-Nelson, J ; Russell, L ; King, D ; Schofield, P (BMC, 2013-08-19)
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer affecting both men and women in Australia. The illness and related treatments can cause distressing adverse effects, impact on emotional and psychological well-being, and adversely affect social, occupational and relationship functioning for many years after the end of treatment or, in fact, lifelong. Current models of follow-up fail to address the complex needs arising after treatment completion. Strategies to better prepare and support survivors are urgently required. We previously developed a nurse-led supportive care program (SurvivorCare) and tested it in a pilot study involving 10 CRC survivors. The intervention was found to be highly acceptable, appropriate, relevant and useful. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multisite, randomised controlled trial, designed to assess the impact of the addition of the SurvivorCare intervention to usual post-treatment care, for people with potentially cured CRC. SurvivorCare comprises the provision of survivorship educational materials, a tailored survivorship care plan, an individually tailored nurse-led, face-to-face end of treatment consultation and three subsequent telephone calls. Eligible patients have completed treatment for potentially cured CRC. Other eligibility criteria include stage I to III disease, age greater than 18 years and adequate understanding of English. All consenting patients complete questionnaires at three time points over a six-month period (baseline, two and six months). Measures assess psychological distress, unmet needs and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This supportive care package has the potential to significantly reduce individual suffering, whilst reducing the burden of follow-up on acute cancer services through enhanced engagement with and utilisation of general practitioners and community based services. If the intervention is successful in achieving the expected health benefits, it could be disseminated readily. All training and supporting materials have been developed and standardised. Furthermore, the intervention could easily be adapted to other cancer or chronic disease settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12610000207011.
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    Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Associated With Meditation Among Patients With Melanoma
    Russell, L ; Orellana, L ; Ugalde, A ; Milne, D ; Krishnasamy, M ; Chambers, R ; Livingston, PM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-06-01)
    AIM: To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with meditation among people with melanoma and investigate the relationship between perceived stress, trait mindfulness, and meditation. Factors associated with interest to participate in an online meditation program were also explored. METHODS: A survey-based cross-sectional study of 291 patients attending a melanoma outpatient clinic assessed knowledge of meditation, attitudes toward meditation using Determinants of Meditation Practice Inventory (DMPI), and meditation experience. Perceived stress and trait mindfulness were measured using the Perceived Stressed Scale and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, respectively. RESULTS: Participants who had tried meditation (43%) were likely to be younger, female, and have completed higher education or be employed. Perceived stress score was higher among women, younger participants, and those treated in the past year but did not differ by melanoma stage. Participants reported a good understanding of the potential benefits of meditation, but even among people with meditation experience, common misconceptions prevailed. The main barrier to meditation was a perceived lack of knowledge about meditation . Higher DMPI scores were associated with lower education, moderate to low access to service centers, or living in disadvantaged neighborhoods . Participants practicing meditation that involved self-reflection reported less stress and higher trait mindfulness compared with participants practicing another type of meditation. People interested in participating in an online meditation-based program reported higher perceived stress than those not interested. CONCLUSION: A meditation-based intervention teaching self-reflective practices, targeted at people with melanoma, may have the potential to assist them with managing their stress.
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    Living With Multiple Myeloma: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs and Preferences for Survivorship Care
    Monterosso, L ; Taylor, K ; Platt, V ; Lobb, E ; Musiello, T ; Bulsara, C ; Stratton, K ; Joske, D ; Krishnasamy, M (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-03-01)
    PURPOSE: To describe the unmet informational, psychological, emotional, social, practical, and physical needs and preferences for posttreatment survivorship care of individuals living with multiple myeloma to inform the development of relevant, person-centered, survivorship services. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive study using 2 focus groups with 14 participants, 6 to 49 months postdiagnosis. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed 7 key themes: information needs, experience with health-care professionals, coping with side effects, communicating with family and friends, dealing with emotions, support needs, and living with the chronicity of myeloma. Participants described key characteristics of survivorship care relevant to their needs and indicated they would like a more whole of person approach to follow-up when the main treatment phases had completed. CONCLUSION: Participants in this study described unmet needs across a breadth of domains that varied over time. The development of flexible, person-centered approaches to comprehensive survivorship care is needed to address the considerable quality-of-life issues experienced by people living with multiple myeloma. Nurse-led care may offer 1 viable model to deliver enhanced patient experience-providing the vital "link" that people described as missing from their survivorship care.
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    A systematic review of cancer caregiver interventions: Appraising the potential for implementation of evidence into practice
    Ugalde, A ; Gaskin, CJ ; Rankin, NM ; Schofield, P ; Boltong, A ; Aranda, S ; Chambers, S ; Krishnasamy, M ; Livingston, PM (WILEY, 2019-04-01)
    OBJECTIVE: nformal caregivers provide substantial support for people living with cancer. Previous systematic reviews report on the efficacy of cancer caregiver interventions but not their potential to be implemented. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the potential for cancer caregiver interventions to be implemented into practice. METHODS: We searched three electronic databases to identify cancer caregiver interventions on 5 January 2018. We operationalised six implementation outcomes (acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, and costs) into a tool to guide data extraction. RESULTS: The search yielded 33 papers (27 papers from electronic databases and six papers from other sources) reporting on 26 studies that met review criteria. Fewer than half the studies (46%) contained evidence about the acceptability of interventions from caregivers' perspectives; only two studies (8%) included interventions developed with input from caregivers. Two studies (8%) addressed potential adoption of interventions, and no studies discussed intentions, agreement, or action to implement interventions into practice. All studies reported on intervention appropriateness by providing a rationale for the interventions. For feasibility, on average less than one-third of caregivers who were eligible to be involved consented to participate. On fidelity, whether interventions were conducted as intended was reported in 62% of studies. Cost data were reported in terms of intervention delivery, requiring a median time commitment of staff of 180 minutes to be delivered. CONCLUSIONS: Caregiver intervention studies lack components of study design and reporting that could bridge the gap between research and practice. There is enormous potential for improvements in cancer caregiver intervention study design to plan for future implementation.
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    Identifying priorities for cancer caregiver interventions: protocol for a three-round modified Delphi study
    Blaschke, S-M ; Lambert, SD ; Livingston, PM ; Aranda, S ; Boltong, A ; Schofield, P ; Chambers, SK ; Krishnasamy, M ; Ugalde, A (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Cancer is often considered a chronic disease, and most people with cancer have a caregiver, often a family member or friend who provides a significant amount of care during the illness trajectory. Caregivers are frequently in need of support, and a range of interventions have been trialled to improve outcomes. Consensus for optimal ways to support caregivers is not known. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe procedures for a modified Delphi study to explore expert consensus about important factors when developing caregiver interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Online modified Delphi methodology will be used to establish consensus for important caregiver intervention factors incorporating the Patient problem, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome framework. Round 1 will comprise a free-text questionnaire and invite the panel to contribute factors they deem important in the development and evaluation of caregiver interventions. Round 2 is designed to determine preliminary consensus of the importance of factors generated in round 1. The panel will be asked to rate each factor using a 4-point Likert-type scale. The option for panellists to state reasoning for their rating will be provided. Descriptive statistics (median scores and IQR) will be calculated to determine each item's relative importance. Levels of consensus will be assessed based on a predefined consensus rating matrix. In round 3, factors will be recirculated including aggregate group responses (statistics and comment summaries) and panellists' own round 2 scores. Panellists will be invited to reconsider their judgements and resubmit ratings using the same rating system as in round 2. This will result in priority lists based on the panel's total rating scores. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics for this study has been gained from the Deakin University Human Ethics Advisory Group. It is anticipated that the results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in a variety of forums.