Nursing - Research Publications

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    Nurses' Experiences After Implementation of an Organization-Wide Electronic Medical Record: Qualitative Descriptive Study.
    Jedwab, RM ; Manias, E ; Hutchinson, AM ; Dobroff, N ; Redley, B (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: Reports on the impact of electronic medical record (EMR) systems on clinicians are mixed. Currently, nurses' experiences of adopting a large-scale, multisite EMR system have not been investigated. Nurses are the largest health care workforce; therefore, the impact of EMR implementation must be investigated and understood to ensure that patient care quality, changes to nurses' work, and nurses themselves are not negatively impacted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore Australian nurses' postimplementation experiences of an organization-wide EMR system. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used focus group and individual interviews and an open-ended survey question to collect data between 12 and 18 months after the implementation of an EMR across 6 hospital sites of a large health care organization in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected between November 2020 and June 2021, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis comprised complementary inductive and deductive approaches. Specifically, reflexive thematic analysis was followed by framework analysis by the coding of data as barriers or facilitators to nurses' use of the EMR using the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: A total of 158 nurses participated in this study. The EMR implementation dramatically changed nurses' work and how they viewed their profession, and nurses were still adapting to the EMR implementation 18 months after implementation. Reflexive thematic analysis led to the development of 2 themes: An unintentional divide captured nurses' feelings of division related to how using the EMR affected nurses, patient care, and the broader nursing profession. This time, it's personal detailed nurses' beliefs about the EMR implementation leading to bigger changes to nurses as individuals and nursing as a profession than other changes that nurses have experienced within the health care organization. The most frequent barriers to EMR use by nurses were related to the Theoretical Domains Framework domain of environmental context and resources. Facilitators of EMR use were most often related to memory, attention, and decision processes. Most barriers and facilitators were related to motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses perceived EMR implementation to have a mixed impact on the provision of quality patient care and on their colleagues. Implementing technology in a health care setting was perceived as a complex endeavor that impacted nurses' perceptions of their autonomy, ways of working, and professional roles. Potential negative consequences were related to nursing workforce retention and patient care delivery. Motivation was the main behavioral driver for nurses' adoption of EMR systems and hence a key consideration for implementing interventions or organizational changes directed at nurses.
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    Development of Screening Tools to Predict Medication-Related Problems Across the Continuum of Emergency Department Care: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.
    Taylor, SE ; Mitri, EA ; Harding, AM ; Taylor, DM ; Weeks, A ; Abbott, L ; Lambros, P ; Lawrence, D ; Strumpman, D ; Senturk-Raif, R ; Louey, S ; Crisp, H ; Tomlinson, E ; Manias, E (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Medication-related problems (MRPs) occur across the continuum of emergency department (ED) care: they may contribute to ED presentation, occur in the ED/short-stay unit (SSU), at hospital admission, or shortly after discharge to the community. This project aimed to determine predictors for MRPs across the continuum of ED care and incorporate these into screening tools (one for use at ED presentation and one at ED/SSU discharge), to identify patients at greatest risk, who could be targeted by ED pharmacists. Methods: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was undertaken in nine EDs, between July 2016 and August 2017. Blocks of ten consecutive adult patients presenting at pre-specified times were identified. Within 1 week of ED discharge, a pharmacist interviewed patients and undertook a medical record review to determine a medication history, patient understanding of treatment, risk factors for MRPs and to manage the MRPs. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine predictor variables. Multivariable regression beta coefficients were used to develop a scoring system for the two screening tools. Results: Of 1,238 patients meeting all inclusion criteria, 904 were recruited. Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED presentation were: patient self-administers regular medications (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 3.79-16.65), carer assists with medication administration (OR = 15.46, 95%CI = 6.52-36.67), or health-professional administers (OR = 5.01, 95%CI = 1.77-14.19); medication-related ED presentation (OR = 9.95, 95%CI = 4.92-20.10); age ≥80 years (OR = 3.63, 95%CI = 1.96-6.71), or age 65-79 years (OR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.17-3.46); potential medication adherence issue (OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.38-3.73); medical specialist seen in past 6-months (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.42-2.85); pharmaceutical benefit/pension/concession cardholder (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.28-2.78); inpatient in previous 4-weeks (OR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02-2.52); being male (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.05-2.10); and difficulties reading labels (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.40-0.99). Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED discharge were: potential medication adherence issue (OR = 6.80, 95%CI = 3.97-11.64); stay in ED > 8 h (OR = 3.23, 95%CI = 1.47-7.78); difficulties reading labels (OR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.30-4.16); and medication regimen changed in ED (OR = 3.91, 95%CI = 2.43-6.30). For ED presentation, the model had a C-statistic of 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.86) (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 70%). For ED discharge, the model had a C-statistic of 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.83) (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 57%). Conclusion: Predictors of MRPs are readily available at the bedside and may be used to screen for patients at greatest risk upon ED presentation and upon ED/SSU discharge to the community. These screening tools now require external validation and implementation studies to evaluate the impact of using such tools on patient care outcomes.
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    Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the Men in Mind training for mental health practitioners to enhance their clinical competencies for working with male clients
    Seidler, ZE ; Wilson, MJ ; Toogood, NW ; Oliffe, JL ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Owen, J ; Mackinnon, A ; Le, LK-D ; Mihalopoulos, C ; Pirkis, J ; Rice, S (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-07-15)
    BACKGROUND: Although the proportion of men seeking professional mental health care has risen over the past two decades, on average, men continue to attend fewer sessions of psychotherapy and are more likely to drop out of treatment prematurely compared to women. Men account for three-quarters of suicide deaths; furthermore, over half of the males who die by suicide have engaged with mental health care in the 12 months prior to their death. These findings highlight a need to equip mental health practitioners with skills to improve male clients' engagement and mental health outcomes. This article reports the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of Men in Mind, a self-paced online training program purpose-built to advance the clinical competencies of practitioners who provide psychotherapy to male clients. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups will be conducted. Participating practitioners will be randomly allocated, on a 1:1 basis, to the intervention group (Men in Mind training) or a waitlist control group. The primary outcome, efficacy of the training, will be evaluated by pre- to post-training (T1 to T2) changes in scores on the Engaging Men in Therapy Scale (EMITS) in the intervention group, relative to the control group. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the efficacy of Men in Mind training, as an interim step towards adjusting content and delivery of the intervention to maximize the potential for sustaining and scaling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered prospectively with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on 3rd December 2021 (ACTRN12621001669886).
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    Strengthening Community End-of-Life Care through Implementing Measurement-Based Palliative Care
    Sandham, MH ; Hedgecock, E ; Hocaoglu, M ; Palmer, C ; Jarden, RJ ; Narayanan, A ; Siegert, RJ (MDPI, 2022-07-01)
    The increasing demand for palliative care in New Zealand presents a potential threat to the quality of service delivery. One strategy to overcome this is through the implementation of valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measures. This mixed-methods study aimed to (1) implement measurement-based palliative care (MBPC) in a community palliative care service in Auckland, New Zealand; (2) evaluate the clinical utility of MBPC perceived by clinicians; (3) describe patient characteristics as measured by the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS), the Australasian Modified Karnofsky Performance Scale (AKPS), and Phase of Illness (POI); and (4) evaluate the internal consistency of the IPOS. Participants were over 18 years of age from a community outpatient palliative care service. In a phased approach to implementation, healthcare staff were educated on each instrument used for patient assessment. Uptake and internal consistency were evaluated through descriptive statistics. An interpretive descriptive methodology was used to explore the clinical utility of MBPC through semi-structured interviews with seven clinical staff members. Individual patient assessments (n = 1507) were undertaken predominantly on admission, with decreasing frequency as patients advanced through to the terminal phase of their care. Mean total IPOS scores were 17.97 (SD = 10.39, α = 0.78). The POI showed that 65% of patients were in the stable phase, 20% were in the unstable phase, 9% were in the deteriorating phase, and 2% were in the terminal phase. Clinicians reported that MBPC facilitated holistic and comprehensive assessments, as well as the development of a common interdisciplinary language. Clinicians expressed discomfort using the psychosocial and spiritual items. Measurement-based palliative care was only partially implemented but it was valued by staff and perceived to increase the quality of service delivery. Future research should determine the optimal timing of assessments, cultural responsivity for Māori and Pacific patients, and the role of MBPC in decision support for clinicians.
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    Mapping Men's Mental Health Help-Seeking After an Intimate Partner Relationship Break-Up
    Oliffe, JL ; Kelly, MT ; Montaner, GG ; Seidler, ZE ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Rice, SM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-06-25)
    Deleterious effects of separation and divorce on men's mental health are well-documented; however, little is known about their help-seeking when adjusting to these all-too-common life transitions. Employing interpretive descriptive methods, interviews with 47 men exploring their mental health help-seeking after a relationship break-up were analyzed in deriving three themes: (1) Solitary work and tapping established connections, (2) Reaching out to make new connections, and (3) Engaging professional mental health care. Men relying on solitary work and established connections accessed relationship-focused self-help books, online resources, and confided in friends and/or family. Some participants supplemented solitary work by reaching out to make new connections including peer-based men's groups and education and social activities. Comprising first-time, returning, and continuing users, many men responded to relationship break-up crises by engaging professional mental health care. The findings challenge longstanding commentaries that men actively avoid mental health promotion by illuminating wide-ranging help resources.
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    Exploring Teacher and Parent Perspectives on School-Based Masculinities in Relation to Mental Health Promotion
    Wilson, MJ ; Gwyther, K ; Simmons, M ; Swann, R ; Oliffe, JL ; Casey, K ; Rice, SM (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-06-13)
    The capacity for boys' and young men's mental health promotion to act via shifting masculine norms that are linked to poor mental health outcomes, highlights the need to improve the extent to which school-based programs can promote mental health through leveraging more positive embodiments of masculinity. To-date, the perspectives of parents and teachers on such processes are understudied. This qualitative study presents teacher and parent views regarding adolescent masculinities and avenues for school-based developmental programming for boys and young men. In this study, 16 individual qualitative interviews were undertaken with 10 parents (six females, four males), and six teachers (three females, three males), recruited from an independent all-boys' grammar school in Melbourne, Australia. Thematic analysis of parents' and teachers' perspectives indicated their perception of the role of context-dependent "public" and "private" masculinities, the influence of Australian masculinity norms, and the role of private boys' school cultures in the development of adolescent masculinities. Additionally, strategies for development encompassed participants' appetite for boys' exposure to positive role models, in addition to consistent and relevant developmental programming to support positive masculinity development. Findings have implications for efforts to support prosocial masculine identity development via school-based initiatives, as an avenue to promoting mental health of boys and young men.
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    Sexual abuse and mental ill health in boys and men: what we do and don't know
    Rice, SM ; Easton, SD ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-06-09)
    The spectrum of adverse mental health trajectories caused by sexual abuse, broadly defined as exposure to rape and unwanted physical sexual contact, is well-known. Few studies have systematically appraised the epidemiology and impact of sexual abuse among boys and men. New meta-analytic insights (k = 44; n = 45 172) reported by Zarchev and colleagues challenge assumptions that men experiencing mental ill health rarely report sexual abuse exposure. Adult-onset sexual abuse rates of 1-7% are observed in the general population, but for men experiencing mental ill health, adult lifetime prevalence was 14.1% (95% CI 7.3-22.4%), with past-year exposure 5.3% (95% CI 1.6-12.8%). We note that these rates are certainly underestimates, as childhood sexual abuse exposures were excluded. Boys and men with a sexual abuse history experience substantial disclosure and treatment barriers. We draw attention to population health gains that could be achieved via implementation of gender-sensitive assessment and intervention approaches for this at-risk population.
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    Including migrant oncology patients in research: A multisite pilot randomised controlled trial testing consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists.
    Hyatt, A ; Lipson-Smith, R ; Gough, K ; Butow, P ; Jefford, M ; Hack, TF ; Hale, S ; Zucchi, E ; White, S ; Ozolins, U ; Schofield, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-08)
    Background: Oncology patients who are migrants or refugees face worse outcomes due to language and communication barriers impacting care. Interventions such as consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists may prove beneficial in mediating communication challenges. However, designing robust research inclusive of patients who do not speak English is challenging. This study therefore aimed to: a) pilot test and assess the appropriateness of the proposed research design and methods for engaging migrant populations, and b) determine whether a multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the communication intervention utilising these methods is feasible. Methods: This study is a mixed-methods parallel-group, randomised controlled feasibility pilot trial. Feasibility outcomes comprised assessment of: i) screening and recruitment processes, ii) design and procedures, and iii) research time and costing. The communication intervention comprised audio-recordings of a key medical consultation with an interpreter, and question prompt lists and cancer information translated into Arabic, Greek, Traditional, and Simplified Chinese. Results: Assessment of feasibility parameters revealed that despite barriers, methods utilised in this study supported the inclusion of migrant oncology patients in research. A future multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the INFORM communication intervention using these methods is feasible if recommendations to strengthen screening and recruitment are adopted. Importantly, hiring of bilingual research assistants, and engagement with community and consumer advocates is essential. Early involvement of clinical and interpreting staff as key stakeholders is likewise recommended. Conclusion: Results from this feasibility RCT help us better understand and overcome the challenges and misconceptions about including migrant patients in clinical research.
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    "Appreciate the Little Things": A Qualitative Survey of Men's Coping Strategies and Mental Health Impacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Wilson, MJ ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL ; Toogood, N ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Walther, A ; Rice, SM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-05-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a suite of circumstances that will simultaneously affect mental health and mobilize coping strategies in response. Building on a lack of research specifically exploring men's mental health impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study presents the results of a qualitative survey exploring men's self-reported aspects of the pandemic giving rise to mental health challenges, alongside their diverse coping strategies applied during this time. The sample comprised 555 men from North America (age M = 38.8 years; SD = 13.5 years), who participated via an online survey with two open-ended qualitative questions assessing, respectively, the aspects of the pandemic affecting their mental health, and the strategies used to manage these challenges. Free-text responses were coded using inductive content analysis. Results pertaining to the mental health impacts of COVID-19 were categorized into two overarching themes: far-reaching ramifications of COVID-19 encompassing consequences for lifestyle, work, and functioning, alongside novel anxieties related to health risks and daily uncertainty. In addition, coping strategies reported were categorized into two broad themes: efforts to avoid, dull or distract oneself from distress, alongside adapting and doing things differently, which encompassed largely approach-oriented efforts to flexibly ameliorate distress. Results signal the far-reaching impacts of COVID-19, alongside profound flexibility and diverse enactments of resilience among men in adapting to unprecedented challenges. Findings have implications for mental health promotion that should aim to leverage men's adaptive coping to encourage opportunities for social connectedness in response to the mental health impacts of the various psychosocial challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    Do palliative care patients and relatives think it would be acceptable to use Bispectral index (BIS) technology to monitor palliative care patients' levels of consciousness? A qualitative exploration with interviews and focus groups for the I-CAN-CARE research programme.
    Krooupa, A-M ; Stone, P ; McKeever, S ; Seddon, K ; Davis, S ; Sampson, EL ; Tookman, A ; Martin, J ; Nambisan, V ; Vivat, B (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05-24)
    BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring uses electroencephalographic data as an indicator of patients' consciousness level. This technology might be a useful adjunct to clinical observation when titrating sedative medications for palliative care patients. However, the use of BIS in palliative care generally, and in the UK in particular, is under-researched. A key area is this technology's acceptability for palliative care service users. Ahead of trialling BIS in practice, and in order to ascertain whether such a trial would be reasonable, we conducted a study to explore UK palliative care patients' and relatives' perceptions of the technology, including whether they thought its use in palliative care practice would be acceptable. METHODS: A qualitative exploration was undertaken. Participants were recruited through a UK hospice. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with separate groups of palliative care patients, relatives of current patients, and bereaved relatives. We explored their views on acceptability of using BIS with palliative care patients, and analysed their responses following the five key stages of the Framework method. RESULTS: We recruited 25 participants. There were ten current hospice patients in three focus groups, four relatives of current patients in one focus group and one individual interview, and eleven bereaved relatives in three focus groups and two individual interviews. Our study participants considered BIS acceptable for monitoring palliative care patients' consciousness levels, and that it might be of use in end-of-life care, provided that it was additional to (rather than a replacement of) usual care, and patients and/or family members were involved in decisions about its use. Participants also noted that BIS, while possibly obtrusive, is not invasive, with some seeing it as equivalent to wearable technological devices such as activity watches. CONCLUSIONS: Participants considered BIS technology might be of benefit to palliative care as a non-intrusive means of assisting clinical assessment and decision-making at the end of life, and concluded that it would therefore be acceptable to trial the technology with patients.