Nursing - Research Publications

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    The effect of alternative methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Cough CPR, percussion pacing or precordial thump - on outcomes following cardiac arrest. A systematic review.
    Dee, R ; Smith, M ; Rajendran, K ; Perkins, GD ; Smith, CM ; Vaillancourt, C ; Avis, S ; Brooks, S ; Castren, M ; Chung, SP ; Considine, J ; Escalante, R ; Han, LS ; Hatanaka, T ; Hazinski, MF ; Hung, K ; Kudenchuk, P ; Morley, P ; Ng, K-C ; Nishiyama, C ; Semeraro, F ; Smyth, M ; Vaillancourt, C ; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Basic Life Support Task Force Collaborators, (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves cardiac arrest survival. Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump have been reported as alternative CPR techniques. We aimed to summarise in a systematic review the effectiveness of these alternative CPR techniques. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library on 24/08/2020. We included randomised controlled trials, observational studies and case series with five or more patients. Two reviewers independently reviewed title and abstracts to identify studies for full-text review, and reviewed bibliographies and 'related articles' (using PubMed) of full-texts for further eligible studies. We extracted data and performed risk-of-bias assessments on studies included in the systematic review. We summarised data in a narrative synthesis, and used GRADE to assess evidence certainty. RESULTS: We included 23 studies (cough CPR n = 4, percussion pacing n = 4, precordial thump n = 16; one study studied two interventions). Only two (both precordial thump) had a comparator group ('standard' CPR). For all techniques evidence certainty was very low. Available evidence suggests that precordial thump does not improve survival to hospital discharge in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The review did not find evidence that cough CPR or percussion pacing improve clinical outcomes following cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump should not be routinely used in established cardiac arrest. In specific inpatient, monitored settings cough CPR (in conscious patients) or percussion pacing may be attempted at the onset of a potential lethal arrhythmia. These must not delay standard CPR efforts in those who lose cardiac output. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019152925.
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    Diagnosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatch: A diagnostic systematic review.
    Drennan, IR ; Geri, G ; Brooks, S ; Couper, K ; Hatanaka, T ; Kudenchuk, P ; Olasveengen, T ; Pellegrino, J ; Schexnayder, SM ; Morley, P ; Basic Life Support (BLS), Pediatric Life Support (PLS) and Education, Implementation and Teams (EIT) Taskforces of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), ; BLS Task Force, ; Pediatric Task Force, ; EIT Task Force, (Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest is a time-sensitive condition requiring urgent intervention. Prompt and accurate recognition of cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatchers at the time of the emergency call is a critical early step in cardiac arrest management allowing for initiation of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and appropriate and timely emergency response. The overall accuracy of dispatchers in recognizing cardiac arrest is not known. It is also not known if there are specific call characteristics that impact the ability to recognize cardiac arrest. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to examine dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest as well as to identify call characteristics that may affect their ability to recognize cardiac arrest at the time of emergency call. We searched electronic databases for terms related to "emergency medical dispatcher", "cardiac arrest", and "diagnosis", among others, with a focus on studies that allowed for calculating diagnostic test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity). The review was consistent with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method for evidence evaluation. RESULTS: We screened 2520 article titles, resulting in 47 studies included in this review. There was significant heterogeneity between studies with a high risk of bias in 18 of the 47 which precluded performing meta-analyses. The reported sensitivities for cardiac arrest recognition ranged from 0.46 to 0.98 whereas specificities ranged from 0.32 to 1.00. There were no obvious differences in diagnostic accuracy between different dispatching criteria/algorithms or with the level of education of dispatchers. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of cardiac arrest recognition at the time of emergency call varied across dispatch centres and did not appear to differ by dispatch algorithm/criteria used or education of the dispatcher, although comparisons were hampered by heterogeneity across studies. Future efforts should focus on ways to improve sensitivity of cardiac arrest recognition to optimize patient care and ensure appropriate and timely resource utilization.
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    "Did You Bring It Home with You?" A Qualitative Investigation of the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Victorian Frontline Healthcare Workers and Their Families.
    Sheen, J ; Clancy, EM ; Considine, J ; Dwyer, A ; Tchernegovski, P ; Aridas, A ; Lee, BEC ; Reupert, A ; Boyd, L (MDPI AG, 2022-04-18)
    Concerns regarding the physical and mental health impacts of frontline healthcare roles during the COVID-19 pandemic have been well documented, but the impacts on family functioning remain unclear. This study provides a unique contribution to the literature by considering the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on frontline healthcare workers and their families. Thirty-nine frontline healthcare workers from Victoria, Australia, who were parents to at least one child under 18 were interviewed. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Five superordinate and 14 subordinate themes were identified. Themes included more family time during lockdowns, but at a cost; changes in family responsibilities and routines; managing increased demands; healthcare workers hypervigilance and fear of bringing COVID-19 home to their family members; ways in which families worked to "get through it". While efforts have been made by many healthcare organisations to support their workers during this challenging time, the changes in family functioning observed by participants suggest that more could be done for this vulnerable cohort, particularly with respect to family support.
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    Implementation of a structured emergency nursing framework results in significant cost benefit.
    Curtis, K ; Sivabalan, P ; Bedford, DS ; Considine, J ; D'Amato, A ; Shepherd, N ; Fry, M ; Munroe, B ; Shaban, RZ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12-09)
    BACKGROUND: Patients are at risk of deterioration on discharge from an emergency department (ED) to a ward, particularly in the first 72 h. The implementation of a structured emergency nursing framework (HIRAID) in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia, resulted in a 50% reduction of clinical deterioration related to emergency nursing care. To date the cost implications of this are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any net financial benefits arising from the implementation of the HIRAID emergency nursing framework. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 2018 and February 2019 across two hospitals in regional NSW, Australia. Costs associated with the implementation of HIRAID at the study sites were calculated using an estimate of initial HIRAID implementation costs (AUD) ($492,917) and ongoing HIRAID implementation costs ($134,077). Equivalent savings per annum (i.e. in less patient deterioration) were calculated using projected estimates of ED admission and patient deterioration episodes via OLS regression with confidence intervals for incremental additional deterioration costs per episode used as the basis for scenario analysis. RESULTS: The HIRAID-equivalent savings per annum exceed the costs of implementation under all scenarios (Conservative, Expected and Optimistic). The estimated preliminary savings to the study sites per annum was $1,914,252 with a payback period of 75 days. Conservative projections estimated a net benefit of $1,813,760 per annum by 2022-23. The state-wide projected equivalent savings benefits of HIRAID equalled $227,585,008 per annum, by 2022-23. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of HIRAID reduced costs associated with resources consumed from patient deterioration episodes. The HIRAID-equivalent savings per annum to the hospital exceed the costs of implementation across a range of scenarios, and upscaling would result in significant patient and cost benefit.
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    Team-based learning in nursing education: A scoping review.
    Considine, J ; Berry, D ; Allen, J ; Hewitt, N ; Oldland, E ; Sprogis, SK ; Currey, J (Wiley, 2021-04)
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the use and student outcomes of Team-Based Learning in nursing education. BACKGROUND: Team-Based Learning is a highly structured, evidence-based, student-centred learning strategy that enhances student engagement and facilitates deep learning in a variety of disciplines including nursing. However, the breadth of Team-Based Learning application in nursing education and relevant outcomes are not currently well understood. DESIGN: A scoping review of international, peer-reviewed research studies was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. METHODS: The following databases were searched on 7 May 2020: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO and Education Resources Information Center. Search terms related to nursing, education and Team-Based Learning. Original research studies, published in English, and reporting on student outcomes from Team-Based Learning in nursing education programmes were included. RESULTS: Of the 1081 potentially relevant citations, 41 studies from undergraduate (n = 29), postgraduate (n = 4) and hospital (n = 8) settings were included. The most commonly reported student outcomes were knowledge or academic performance (n = 21); student experience, satisfaction or perceptions of Team-Based Learning (n = 20); student engagement with behaviours or attitudes towards Team-Based Learning (n = 12); and effect of Team-Based Learning on teamwork, team performance or collective efficacy (n = 6). Only three studies reported clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade, there has been a growing body of knowledge related to the use of Team-Based Learning in nursing education. The major gaps identified in this scoping review were the lack of randomised controlled trials and the dearth of studies of Team-Based Learning in postgraduate and hospital contexts. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This scoping review provides a comprehensive understanding of the use and student outcomes of Team-Based Learning in nursing education and highlights the breadth of application of Team-Based Learning and variability in the outcomes reported.
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    Impact of a care bundle for patients with blunt chest injury (ChIP): A multicentre controlled implementation evaluation.
    Curtis, K ; Kourouche, S ; Asha, S ; Considine, J ; Fry, M ; Middleton, S ; Mitchell, R ; Munroe, B ; Shaban, RZ ; D'Amato, A ; Skinner, C ; Wiseman, G ; Buckley, T ; Balogh, ZJ (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021)
    BACKGROUND: Blunt chest injury leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary chest injury care bundle (ChIP) on patient and health service outcomes. ChIP provides guidance in three key pillars of care for blunt chest injury-respiratory support, analgesia and complication prevention. ChIP was implemented using a multi-faceted implementation plan developed using the Behaviour Change Wheel. METHODS: This controlled pre-and post-test study (two intervention and two non-intervention sites) was conducted from July 2015 to June 2019. The primary outcome measures were unplanned Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, non-invasive ventilation use and mortality. RESULTS: There were 1790 patients included. The intervention sites had a 58% decrease in non-invasive ventilation use in the post- period compared to the pre-period (95% CI 0.18-0.96). ChIP was associated with 90% decreased odds of unplanned ICU admissions (95% CI 0.04-0.29) at the intervention sites compared to the control groups in the post- period. There was no significant change in mortality. There were higher odds of health service team reviews (surgical OR 6.6 (95% CI 4.61-9.45), physiotherapy OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.52-3.11), ICU doctor OR 6.13 (95% CI 3.94-9.55), ICU liaison OR 55.75 (95% CI 17.48-177.75), pain team OR 8.15 (95% CI 5.52 --12.03), analgesia (e.g. patient controlled analgesia OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.64-3.94) and regional analgesia OR 8.8 (95% CI 3.39-22.79), incentive spirometry OR 8.3 (95% CI 4.49-15.37) and, high flow nasal oxygen OR 22.1 (95% CI 12.43-39.2) in the intervention group compared to the control group in the post- period. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a chest injury care bundle using behaviour change theory was associated with a sustained improvement in evidence-based practice resulting in reduced unplanned ICU admissions and non-invasive ventilation requirement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR: ACTRN12618001548224, approved 17/09/2018.
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    The implementation of an emergency nursing framework (HIRAID) reduces patient deterioration: A multi-centre quasi-experimental study.
    HIRAID Research Group, (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
    INTRODUCTION: Timely recognition and treatment of acutely ill patients at appropriate levels of the health system are fundamental to the quality and safety of healthcare. This study determines if the implementation of an emergency nursing framework HIRAID (History, Identify Red flags, Assessment, Interventions, Diagnostics, communication and reassessment) improves patient safety. METHODS: A quasi-experimental cohort study was conducted in two emergency departments in [Anonymised], Australia. HIRAID was implemented using a multi-pronged behaviour change intervention. Data of 920 patients (374 pre and 546 post) who deteriorated within 72-hours of ED departure were collected. Statistical tests were conducted as two-sided, with a 95% confidence interval to determine pre/post cohort association. RESULTS: Patients in the post group had more comorbidities, but experienced less deterioration associated with care delivered in the ED (27% to 13%). There was a reduction in treatment delays [ 28.3% to 15.1%, p = 0.041, 95% CI (1.1%-25.3%)], and delay or failure to escalate care when abnormal vital signs were identified [20.2% to6.9%, p = 0.014, 95% CI (3.5%-23.1%)]. Isolated nursing-related causal factors decreased from 20 (21%) to 6 (8%). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a standardised emergency nursing framework is associated with a reduction in clinical deterioration related to emergency care.
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    Intensive care patients receiving vasoactive medications: A retrospective cohort study.
    Hunter, S ; Manias, E ; Hirth, S ; Considine, J (Elsevier BV, 2022-09)
    BACKGROUND: Vasoactive medications are high-risk drugs commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs), which have wide variations in clinical management. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the patient population, treatment, and clinical characteristics of patients who did and did not receive vasoactive medications while in the ICU and to develop a predictive tool to identify patients needing vasoactive medications. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a level three tertiary referral ICU over a 12-month period from October 2018 to September 2019 was undertaken. Data from electronic medical records were analysed to describe patient characteristics in an adult ICU. Chi square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyse data relating to patients who did and did not receive vasoactive medications. Univariate analysis and Pearson's r2 were used to determine inclusion in multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1276 patients in the cohort, 40% (512/1276) received a vasoactive medication for haemodynamic support, with 84% (428/512) receiving noradrenaline. Older patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.02; p < 0.001) with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.03-1.04; p < 0.001) were more likely to receive vasoactive medications than those not treated with vasoactive medications during an intensive care admission. A model developed using multivariable analysis predicted that patients admitted with sepsis (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.43-4.12; p = 0.001) or shock (OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 2.68-6.10; p < 0.001) and managed on mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.76; 95% CI = 2.81-5.02; p < 0.001) were more likely to receive vasoactive medications. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated patients admitted to intensive care for sepsis and shock with higher APACHE III scores were more likely to receive vasoactive medications. Predictors identified in the multivariable model can be used to direct resources to patients most at risk of receiving vasoactive medications.
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    Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES: A position statement from the Australian Resuscitation Council and supported by stakeholders
    Bray, J ; Acworth, J ; Page, G ; Parr, M ; Morley, P (WILEY, 2021-08-13)
    Every year 25 000 Australians experience a cardiac arrest in our community, but only 12% survive. The faster cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, known as basic life support (BLS), is commenced, the greater the chance of survival. Currently, only half of the Australian adults are trained in BLS. The Australian Resuscitation Council and key stakeholder organisations believe that the best way to ensure all Australians know how to save a life is by mandating BLS education and training in our schools. This 'Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES' position statement outlines our strategy to help facilitate the introduction of a programme of regular BLS training into the Australian school curriculum.
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    Implementation of a hospital-wide multidisciplinary blunt chest injury care bundle (ChIP): Fidelity of delivery evaluation.
    Kourouche, S ; Curtis, K ; Munroe, B ; Asha, SE ; Carey, I ; Considine, J ; Fry, M ; Lyons, J ; Middleton, S ; Mitchell, R ; Shaban, RZ ; Unsworth, A ; Buckley, T (Elsevier BV, 2022-03)
    BACKGROUND: Ineffective intervention for patients with blunt chest wall injury results in high rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this, a blunt chest injury care bundle protocol (ChIP) was developed, and a multifaceted plan was implemented using the Behaviour Change Wheel. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reach, fidelity, and dose of the ChIP intervention to discern if it was activated and delivered to patients as intended at two regional Australian hospitals. METHODS: This is a pretest and post-test implementation evaluation study. The proportion of ChIP activations and adherence to ChIP components received by eligible patients were compared before and after intervention over a 4-year period. Sample medians were compared using the nonparametric median test, with 95% confidence intervals. Differences in proportions for categorical data were compared using the two-sample z-test. RESULTS/FINDINGS: Over the 19-month postimplementation period, 97.1% (n = 440) of eligible patients received ChIP (reach). The median activation time was 134 min; there was no difference in time to activation between business hours and after-hours; time to activation was not associated with comorbidities and injury severity score. Compared with the preimplementation group, the postimplementation group were more likely to receive evidence-based treatments (dose), including high-flow nasal cannula use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.8-9.6]), incentive spirometry in the emergency department (OR = 7.5, [95% CI = 3.2-17.6]), regular analgesia (OR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5-3.8]), regional analgesia (OR = 2.8 [95% CI = 1.5-5.3]), patient-controlled analgesia (OR = 1.8 [95% CI = 1.3-2.4]), and multiple specialist team reviews, e.g., surgical review (OR = 9.9 [95% CI = 6.1-16.1]). CONCLUSIONS: High fidelity of delivery was achieved and sustained over 19 months for implementation of a complex intervention in the acute context through a robust implementation plan based on theoretical frameworks. There were significant and sustained improvements in care practices known to result in better patient outcomes. Findings from this evaluation can inform future implementation programs such as ChIP and other multidisciplinary interventions in an emergency or acute care context.