Nursing - Research Publications

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    Sexual abuse and mental ill health in boys and men: what we do and don't know
    Rice, SM ; Easton, SD ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-06-09)
    The spectrum of adverse mental health trajectories caused by sexual abuse, broadly defined as exposure to rape and unwanted physical sexual contact, is well-known. Few studies have systematically appraised the epidemiology and impact of sexual abuse among boys and men. New meta-analytic insights (k = 44; n = 45 172) reported by Zarchev and colleagues challenge assumptions that men experiencing mental ill health rarely report sexual abuse exposure. Adult-onset sexual abuse rates of 1-7% are observed in the general population, but for men experiencing mental ill health, adult lifetime prevalence was 14.1% (95% CI 7.3-22.4%), with past-year exposure 5.3% (95% CI 1.6-12.8%). We note that these rates are certainly underestimates, as childhood sexual abuse exposures were excluded. Boys and men with a sexual abuse history experience substantial disclosure and treatment barriers. We draw attention to population health gains that could be achieved via implementation of gender-sensitive assessment and intervention approaches for this at-risk population.
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    Including migrant oncology patients in research: A multisite pilot randomised controlled trial testing consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists.
    Hyatt, A ; Lipson-Smith, R ; Gough, K ; Butow, P ; Jefford, M ; Hack, TF ; Hale, S ; Zucchi, E ; White, S ; Ozolins, U ; Schofield, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-08)
    Background: Oncology patients who are migrants or refugees face worse outcomes due to language and communication barriers impacting care. Interventions such as consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists may prove beneficial in mediating communication challenges. However, designing robust research inclusive of patients who do not speak English is challenging. This study therefore aimed to: a) pilot test and assess the appropriateness of the proposed research design and methods for engaging migrant populations, and b) determine whether a multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the communication intervention utilising these methods is feasible. Methods: This study is a mixed-methods parallel-group, randomised controlled feasibility pilot trial. Feasibility outcomes comprised assessment of: i) screening and recruitment processes, ii) design and procedures, and iii) research time and costing. The communication intervention comprised audio-recordings of a key medical consultation with an interpreter, and question prompt lists and cancer information translated into Arabic, Greek, Traditional, and Simplified Chinese. Results: Assessment of feasibility parameters revealed that despite barriers, methods utilised in this study supported the inclusion of migrant oncology patients in research. A future multi-site RCT efficacy assessment of the INFORM communication intervention using these methods is feasible if recommendations to strengthen screening and recruitment are adopted. Importantly, hiring of bilingual research assistants, and engagement with community and consumer advocates is essential. Early involvement of clinical and interpreting staff as key stakeholders is likewise recommended. Conclusion: Results from this feasibility RCT help us better understand and overcome the challenges and misconceptions about including migrant patients in clinical research.
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    "Appreciate the Little Things": A Qualitative Survey of Men's Coping Strategies and Mental Health Impacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Wilson, MJ ; Seidler, ZE ; Oliffe, JL ; Toogood, N ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Walther, A ; Rice, SM (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-05-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a suite of circumstances that will simultaneously affect mental health and mobilize coping strategies in response. Building on a lack of research specifically exploring men's mental health impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study presents the results of a qualitative survey exploring men's self-reported aspects of the pandemic giving rise to mental health challenges, alongside their diverse coping strategies applied during this time. The sample comprised 555 men from North America (age M = 38.8 years; SD = 13.5 years), who participated via an online survey with two open-ended qualitative questions assessing, respectively, the aspects of the pandemic affecting their mental health, and the strategies used to manage these challenges. Free-text responses were coded using inductive content analysis. Results pertaining to the mental health impacts of COVID-19 were categorized into two overarching themes: far-reaching ramifications of COVID-19 encompassing consequences for lifestyle, work, and functioning, alongside novel anxieties related to health risks and daily uncertainty. In addition, coping strategies reported were categorized into two broad themes: efforts to avoid, dull or distract oneself from distress, alongside adapting and doing things differently, which encompassed largely approach-oriented efforts to flexibly ameliorate distress. Results signal the far-reaching impacts of COVID-19, alongside profound flexibility and diverse enactments of resilience among men in adapting to unprecedented challenges. Findings have implications for mental health promotion that should aim to leverage men's adaptive coping to encourage opportunities for social connectedness in response to the mental health impacts of the various psychosocial challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    Do palliative care patients and relatives think it would be acceptable to use Bispectral index (BIS) technology to monitor palliative care patients' levels of consciousness? A qualitative exploration with interviews and focus groups for the I-CAN-CARE research programme.
    Krooupa, A-M ; Stone, P ; McKeever, S ; Seddon, K ; Davis, S ; Sampson, EL ; Tookman, A ; Martin, J ; Nambisan, V ; Vivat, B (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05-24)
    BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring uses electroencephalographic data as an indicator of patients' consciousness level. This technology might be a useful adjunct to clinical observation when titrating sedative medications for palliative care patients. However, the use of BIS in palliative care generally, and in the UK in particular, is under-researched. A key area is this technology's acceptability for palliative care service users. Ahead of trialling BIS in practice, and in order to ascertain whether such a trial would be reasonable, we conducted a study to explore UK palliative care patients' and relatives' perceptions of the technology, including whether they thought its use in palliative care practice would be acceptable. METHODS: A qualitative exploration was undertaken. Participants were recruited through a UK hospice. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with separate groups of palliative care patients, relatives of current patients, and bereaved relatives. We explored their views on acceptability of using BIS with palliative care patients, and analysed their responses following the five key stages of the Framework method. RESULTS: We recruited 25 participants. There were ten current hospice patients in three focus groups, four relatives of current patients in one focus group and one individual interview, and eleven bereaved relatives in three focus groups and two individual interviews. Our study participants considered BIS acceptable for monitoring palliative care patients' consciousness levels, and that it might be of use in end-of-life care, provided that it was additional to (rather than a replacement of) usual care, and patients and/or family members were involved in decisions about its use. Participants also noted that BIS, while possibly obtrusive, is not invasive, with some seeing it as equivalent to wearable technological devices such as activity watches. CONCLUSIONS: Participants considered BIS technology might be of benefit to palliative care as a non-intrusive means of assisting clinical assessment and decision-making at the end of life, and concluded that it would therefore be acceptable to trial the technology with patients.
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    Reframing palliative care to improve the quality of life of people diagnosed with a serious illness
    Hudson, P ; Collins, A ; Boughey, M ; Philip, J (WILEY, 2021-10-22)
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    Elevated Sound Levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: What Is Causing the Problem?
    Mayhew, KJ ; Lawrence, SL ; Squires, JE ; Harrison, D (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2022-04-21)
    BACKGROUND: Premature and sick neonates may require weeks of hospitalization in a noisy neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment with sound levels that may reach 120 decibels. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum sound level of 45 decibels. PURPOSE: To measure sound levels in a level III NICU and to describe contributing environmental factors. METHODS: Descriptive quantitative study. Sound levels were measured using a portable sound meter in an open-bay level III NICU. Contributing environmental factors were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean sound levels for day, evening, and night shifts were 83.5, 83, and 80.9 decibels, respectively. Each period of time exceeded the recommended guidelines 90% of the time and was almost double the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation. Multiple linear regression findings demonstrated significant factors associated with elevated sound levels including number of neonates, number of people, number of alarms, acuity level, and shift type. Observational data explain 14.5% of elevated sound levels. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: An understanding of baseline sound levels and contributing environmental factors is the first step in developing strategies to mitigate excessive noise in the NICU. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Research should focus on effective and sustainable ways to reduce sound levels in the NICU, including inside the isolette, in order to provide an environment that is conducive to optimal growth and neurodevelopment for preterm and sick infants.
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    Safewards: An integrative review of the literature within inpatient and forensic mental health units.
    Mullen, A ; Browne, G ; Hamilton, B ; Skinner, S ; Happell, B (Wiley, 2022-10)
    Mental health inpatient units are complex and challenging environments for care and treatment. Two imperatives in these settings are to minimize restrictive practices such as seclusion and restraint and to provide recovery-oriented care. Safewards is a model and a set of ten interventions aiming to improve safety by understanding the relationship between conflict and containment as a means of reducing restrictive practices. To date, the research into Safewards has largely focused on its impact on measures of restrictive practices with limited exploration of consumer perspectives. There is a need to review the current knowledge and understanding around Safewards and its impact on consumer safety. This paper describes a mixed-methods integrative literature review of Safewards within inpatient and forensic mental health units. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current knowledge and understanding about Safewards in terms of its implementation, acceptability, effectiveness and how it meets the needs of consumers. A systematic database search using Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsychInfo databases was followed by screening and data extraction of findings from 19 articles. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of empirical articles, and the Johanna Brigg's Institute (JBI's) Narrative, Opinion, Text-Assessment and Review Instrument (NOTARI) was used to undertake a critical appraisal of discussion articles. A constant comparative approach was taken to analysing the data and six key categories were identified: training, implementation strategy, staff acceptability, fidelity, effectiveness and consumer perspectives. The success of implementing Safewards was variously determined by a measured reduction of restrictive practices and conflict events, high fidelity and staff acceptability. The results highlighted that Safewards can be effective in reducing containment and conflict within inpatient mental health and forensic mental health units, although this outcome varied across the literature. This review also revealed the limitations of fidelity measures and the importance of involving staff in the implementation. A major gap in the literature to date is the lack of consumer perspectives on the Safewards model, with only two papers to date focusing on the consumers point of view. This is an important area that requires more research to align the Safewards model with the consumer experience and improved recovery orientation.
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    An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale in a sample of help-seeking men
    Rice, SM ; Trail, K ; Walton, CC ; Kealy, D ; Seidler, ZE ; Wilson, MJ ; Oliffe, JL ; Ogrodniczuk, JS (Komitet Redakcyjno - Wydawniczy Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychiatrycznego, 2022-03-01)
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    Behavioural drivers influencing emergency department attendance in Victoria during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed methods investigation.
    Buntine, P ; Aldridge, ES ; Craig, S ; Crellin, D ; Stella, J ; Gill, SD ; Wright, B ; Mitchell, RD ; Arendts, G ; Rawson, H ; Rojek, AM (Wiley, 2022-10)
    OBJECTIVE: To identify behavioural drivers and barriers that may have contributed to changes in ED attendance during the first 10 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Victoria. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods analysis of patients who attended one of eight participating EDs between 1 November 2019 and 31 December 2020. A random sample of patients were chosen after their visit and invited to participate in an online survey assessing behavioural drivers and barriers to attendance. The study timespan was divided into four periods based on local and world events to assess changes in attitudes and behaviours over this period. RESULTS: A total of 5600 patients were invited to complete the survey and 606 (11%) submitted sufficient information for analysis. There were significant differences in participants' attitudes towards healthcare and EDs, levels of concern about contracting and spreading COVID-19 and the influence of mask wearing. Patients expressed more concern about the safety of an ED during the largest outbreak of COVID-19 infections than they did pre-COVID, but this difference was not sustained once community infection numbers dropped. General concerns about hospital attendance were higher after COVID than they were pre-COVID. A total of 27% of patients specifically stated that they had delayed their ED attendance. CONCLUSION: Patients expressed increased concerns around attending ED during the first 10 months of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and frequently cited COVID-19 as a reason for delaying their presentation. These factors would be amenable to mitigation via focussed public health messaging.
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    Suicide amongst young Inuit males: The perspectives of Inuit health and wellness workers in Nunavik
    Affleck, W ; Oliffe, JL ; Inukpuk, MM ; Tempier, R ; Darroch, F ; Crawford, A ; Séguin, M (Elsevier BV, 2022-12)