Nursing - Research Publications

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    Prioritising Responses Of Nurses To deteriorating patient Observations (PRONTO): a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a facilitation intervention on recognition and response to clinical deterioration.
    Bucknall, TK ; Considine, J ; Harvey, G ; Graham, ID ; Rycroft-Malone, J ; Mitchell, I ; Saultry, B ; Watts, JJ ; Mohebbi, M ; Bohingamu Mudiyanselage, S ; Lotfaliany, M ; Hutchinson, A (BMJ, 2022-04-21)
    BACKGROUND: Most hospitals use physiological signs to trigger an urgent clinical review. We investigated whether facilitation could improve nurses' vital sign measurement, interpretation, treatment and escalation of care for deteriorating patients. METHODS: In a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, we randomised 36 inpatient wards at four acute hospitals to receive standard clinical practice guideline (CPG) dissemination to ward staff (n=18) or facilitated implementation for 6 months following standard dissemination (n=18). Expert, hospital and ward facilitators tailored facilitation techniques to promote nurses' CPG adherence. Patient records were audited pre-intervention, 6 and 12 months post-intervention on randomly selected days. Escalation of care as per hospital policy was the primary outcome at 6 and 12 months after implementation. Patients, nurses and assessors were blinded to group assignment. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: From 10 383 audits, improved escalation as per hospital policy was evident in the intervention group at 6 months (OR 1.47, 95% CI (1.06 to 2.04)) with a complete set of vital sign measurements sustained at 12 months (OR 1.22, 95% CI (1.02 to 1.47)). There were no significant differences in escalation of care as per hospital policy between study groups at 6 or 12 months post-intervention. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, a significant change from T0 in mean length of stay between groups at 12 months favoured the intervention group (-2.18 days, 95% CI (-3.53 to -0.82)). CONCLUSION: Multi-level facilitation significantly improved escalation as per hospital policy at 6 months in the intervention group that was not sustained at 12 months. The intervention group had increased vital sign measurement by nurses, as well as shorter lengths of stay for patients at 12 months. Further research is required to understand the dose of facilitation required to impact clinical practice behaviours and patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000544471p.
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    Cancer-related cognitive impairment in patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma undergoing standard chemotherapy: a longitudinal feasibility study
    Gates, P ; Krishnasamy, M ; Wilson, C ; Hawkes, EA ; Dore, V ; Perchyonok, Y ; Rowe, CC ; Walker, AK ; Vardy, JL ; de Ruiter, MB ; Cushion, T ; Dhillon, HM ; Gough, K (SPRINGER, 2022-06-14)
    PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a recognised adverse consequence of cancer and its treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of collecting longitudinal data on cognition in patients with newly diagnosed, aggressive lymphoma undergoing standard therapy with curative intent via self-report, neuropsychological assessment, peripheral markers of inflammation, and neuroimaging. An exploration and description of patterns of cancer-related cognitive impairment over the course of treatment and recovery was also undertaken and will be reported separately. METHODS: Eligible participants completed repeated measures of cognition including self-report and neuropsychological assessment, and correlates of cognition including blood cell-based inflammatory markers, and neuroimaging at three pre-specified timepoints, time 1 (T1) - pre-treatment (treatment naïve), time 2 (T2) - mid-treatment, and time 3 (T3) - 6 to 8 weeks post-completion of treatment. RESULTS: 30/33 eligible patients (91%, 95% CI: 76%, 97%) were recruited over 10 months. The recruitment rate was 3 patients/month (95% CI: 2.0, 4.3 patients/month). Reasons for declining included feeling overwhelmed and rapid treatment commencement. Mean age was 57 years (SD = 17 years) and 16/30 (53%) were male. Most patients (20/30, 67%) had diffuse large B cell lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma (4/30, 13%). The neuroimaging sub-study was optional, 11/30 participants (37%) were eligible to take part, and all agreed. The remaining 19 participants were ineligible as their diagnostic PET/CT scan was completed prior. Retention and compliance with all assessments were 89 to 100% at all timepoints. Only one participant was withdrawn due to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study including excellent recruitment, retention, and compliance rates demonstrate it is feasible to longitudinally assess cognition in people with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma during their initial treatment and recovery to inform the development of future research to improve patient experiences and cognitive outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001649101.
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    Workforce development for better management of physical comorbidities among people with serious mental illness.
    Mc Namara, KP ; Rosenbaum, S ; Rocks, T ; Manias, E ; Freeman, CR ; Shee, AW ; Schlicht, KG ; Calder, RV ; Moloney, J ; Morgan, M (Wiley, 2022-10-02)
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    Nurses' experiences of supporting patients requesting voluntary assisted dying: A qualitative meta-synthesis
    Sandham, M ; Carey, M ; Hedgecock, E ; Jarden, R (WILEY, 2022-06-24)
    AIM: Describe the reported lived experiences of nurses who have participated at any stage of voluntary assisted dying (VAD), from the initial request to the end of life. DESIGN: A qualitative meta-synthesis. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched were CINAHL, MEDLINE, Emcare, Scopus and PsycInfo. The search was undertaken in September 2021 with no date limitations. Qualitative studies were considered if published in English, reported primary data analysis of nurses' experiences who had been involved in VAD and reported direct quotes from nurses. REVIEW METHODS: Qualitative studies meeting the selection criteria were critically appraised, then an open card-sort method was applied. Quotes from nurses were organized to group similar experiences, constructing themes and metaphors across studies as a new understanding of nurses' experiences of VAD. RESULTS: Eight studies were included. Three major themes were constructed: An orderly procedure, reflecting the need for structure to feel adequately prepared; A beautiful death, reflecting the autonomy the patient exercised when choosing VAD facilitated an exceptionally positive death; and Psychological and emotional impact, where nurses recognized the emotional and ethical weight that they carried for themselves and the team when undertaking VAD. CONCLUSION: Nurses may benefit from clear policy, supervision and communication training to support them as countries transition to providing VAD services. Policy provides nurses with confidence that they are undertaking the steps of VAD correctly and provides a layer of emotional protection. Communication training specific to VAD is necessary to prepare nurses to recognize their own emotional experiences when responding to the needs of the patient and their family. IMPACT: VAD is increasingly becoming a legal option that nurses are encountering in their professional practice. Understanding nurses' experiences of being involved in VAD is required to support nurses in countries where VAD is becoming available to prepare professionally and psychologically.
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    Nurses' well-being during the coronavirus (2019) pandemic: A longitudinal mixed-methods study
    Jarden, RJ ; Jarden, AJ ; Weiland, TJ ; Taylor, G ; Brockenshire, N ; Rutherford, M ; Carbery, C ; Moroney, K ; Joshanloo, M ; Gerdtz, M (WILEY, 2022-06-21)
    AIM: To determine prevalence, predictors and change over time of nurses' and student nurses' mental health and well-being, and explore nurses' perceptions, barriers and enablers of well-being. DESIGN: Longitudinal mixed-methods survey. METHODS: Forty-nine students and registered nurses participated from Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from December 2019 to July 2020. Validated psychometrics and free-text response questions were employed. Analysis used latent growth curve modelling, Pearson product-moment correlations and thematic analysis. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation was found between self-determination and work well-being, and a strong negative correlation between work well-being and flight risk. Several moderate relationships were found; a moderate positive correlation between work well-being and nurse manager ability, leadership and support, and a moderate negative correlation between burnout and staffing and resource adequacy. Collegial nurse-physician relationships deteriorated. Three themes, physical health, psychological well-being and social connection, were identified as important for nurses' well-being.
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    Experiences of young adults who have transferred from paediatric to adult congenital heart disease services
    Morris, E ; McKeever, S (Mark Allen Group, 2022-09-02)
    Background/Aims Congenital heart disease services are continuing to develop, yet little is known about the experiences of those who have transitioned from paediatric to adult services in the UK. This study explored patients' perceptions and lived experiences of this process to identify factors that contribute to positive and negative experiences, with the view of devising strategies to improve transition. Methods A phenomenological hermeneutical study was conducted using semi-structured interviews. The experiences of six young adults (aged 20–24 years) who had transitioned from paediatric to adult congenital heart disease services were explored. Results Participants saw transition as a milestone and they generally accepted outgrowing paediatric services, despite maintaining a sense of nostalgia for this time. Adjustment to a new service was ongoing and parental support was valued, although issues such as anxiety could be a barrier to the participant assuming responsibility for their own care. Good communication with healthcare professionals, involving individualistic care, consistency and patience, was perceived as a positive influence in adapting to the new service. Conclusions Participants mainly had positive experiences of transition from paediatric and adult congenital heart disease services, with parental and healthcare professional support being valued during and after transition. Healthcare professionals must integrate assessment of physical and psychological needs to support and empower patients and families in order to deliver a smooth transition into adult life and care.
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    Nurses' Experiences After Implementation of an Organization-Wide Electronic Medical Record: Qualitative Descriptive Study.
    Jedwab, RM ; Manias, E ; Hutchinson, AM ; Dobroff, N ; Redley, B (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: Reports on the impact of electronic medical record (EMR) systems on clinicians are mixed. Currently, nurses' experiences of adopting a large-scale, multisite EMR system have not been investigated. Nurses are the largest health care workforce; therefore, the impact of EMR implementation must be investigated and understood to ensure that patient care quality, changes to nurses' work, and nurses themselves are not negatively impacted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore Australian nurses' postimplementation experiences of an organization-wide EMR system. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used focus group and individual interviews and an open-ended survey question to collect data between 12 and 18 months after the implementation of an EMR across 6 hospital sites of a large health care organization in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected between November 2020 and June 2021, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis comprised complementary inductive and deductive approaches. Specifically, reflexive thematic analysis was followed by framework analysis by the coding of data as barriers or facilitators to nurses' use of the EMR using the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: A total of 158 nurses participated in this study. The EMR implementation dramatically changed nurses' work and how they viewed their profession, and nurses were still adapting to the EMR implementation 18 months after implementation. Reflexive thematic analysis led to the development of 2 themes: An unintentional divide captured nurses' feelings of division related to how using the EMR affected nurses, patient care, and the broader nursing profession. This time, it's personal detailed nurses' beliefs about the EMR implementation leading to bigger changes to nurses as individuals and nursing as a profession than other changes that nurses have experienced within the health care organization. The most frequent barriers to EMR use by nurses were related to the Theoretical Domains Framework domain of environmental context and resources. Facilitators of EMR use were most often related to memory, attention, and decision processes. Most barriers and facilitators were related to motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses perceived EMR implementation to have a mixed impact on the provision of quality patient care and on their colleagues. Implementing technology in a health care setting was perceived as a complex endeavor that impacted nurses' perceptions of their autonomy, ways of working, and professional roles. Potential negative consequences were related to nursing workforce retention and patient care delivery. Motivation was the main behavioral driver for nurses' adoption of EMR systems and hence a key consideration for implementing interventions or organizational changes directed at nurses.
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    Development of Screening Tools to Predict Medication-Related Problems Across the Continuum of Emergency Department Care: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.
    Taylor, SE ; Mitri, EA ; Harding, AM ; Taylor, DM ; Weeks, A ; Abbott, L ; Lambros, P ; Lawrence, D ; Strumpman, D ; Senturk-Raif, R ; Louey, S ; Crisp, H ; Tomlinson, E ; Manias, E (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Medication-related problems (MRPs) occur across the continuum of emergency department (ED) care: they may contribute to ED presentation, occur in the ED/short-stay unit (SSU), at hospital admission, or shortly after discharge to the community. This project aimed to determine predictors for MRPs across the continuum of ED care and incorporate these into screening tools (one for use at ED presentation and one at ED/SSU discharge), to identify patients at greatest risk, who could be targeted by ED pharmacists. Methods: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was undertaken in nine EDs, between July 2016 and August 2017. Blocks of ten consecutive adult patients presenting at pre-specified times were identified. Within 1 week of ED discharge, a pharmacist interviewed patients and undertook a medical record review to determine a medication history, patient understanding of treatment, risk factors for MRPs and to manage the MRPs. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine predictor variables. Multivariable regression beta coefficients were used to develop a scoring system for the two screening tools. Results: Of 1,238 patients meeting all inclusion criteria, 904 were recruited. Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED presentation were: patient self-administers regular medications (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 3.79-16.65), carer assists with medication administration (OR = 15.46, 95%CI = 6.52-36.67), or health-professional administers (OR = 5.01, 95%CI = 1.77-14.19); medication-related ED presentation (OR = 9.95, 95%CI = 4.92-20.10); age ≥80 years (OR = 3.63, 95%CI = 1.96-6.71), or age 65-79 years (OR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.17-3.46); potential medication adherence issue (OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.38-3.73); medical specialist seen in past 6-months (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.42-2.85); pharmaceutical benefit/pension/concession cardholder (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.28-2.78); inpatient in previous 4-weeks (OR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02-2.52); being male (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.05-2.10); and difficulties reading labels (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.40-0.99). Characteristics predicting MRPs related to ED discharge were: potential medication adherence issue (OR = 6.80, 95%CI = 3.97-11.64); stay in ED > 8 h (OR = 3.23, 95%CI = 1.47-7.78); difficulties reading labels (OR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.30-4.16); and medication regimen changed in ED (OR = 3.91, 95%CI = 2.43-6.30). For ED presentation, the model had a C-statistic of 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.86) (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 70%). For ED discharge, the model had a C-statistic of 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.83) (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 57%). Conclusion: Predictors of MRPs are readily available at the bedside and may be used to screen for patients at greatest risk upon ED presentation and upon ED/SSU discharge to the community. These screening tools now require external validation and implementation studies to evaluate the impact of using such tools on patient care outcomes.
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    Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the Men in Mind training for mental health practitioners to enhance their clinical competencies for working with male clients
    Seidler, ZE ; Wilson, MJ ; Toogood, NW ; Oliffe, JL ; Kealy, D ; Ogrodniczuk, JS ; Owen, J ; Mackinnon, A ; Le, LK-D ; Mihalopoulos, C ; Pirkis, J ; Rice, S (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-07-15)
    BACKGROUND: Although the proportion of men seeking professional mental health care has risen over the past two decades, on average, men continue to attend fewer sessions of psychotherapy and are more likely to drop out of treatment prematurely compared to women. Men account for three-quarters of suicide deaths; furthermore, over half of the males who die by suicide have engaged with mental health care in the 12 months prior to their death. These findings highlight a need to equip mental health practitioners with skills to improve male clients' engagement and mental health outcomes. This article reports the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of Men in Mind, a self-paced online training program purpose-built to advance the clinical competencies of practitioners who provide psychotherapy to male clients. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups will be conducted. Participating practitioners will be randomly allocated, on a 1:1 basis, to the intervention group (Men in Mind training) or a waitlist control group. The primary outcome, efficacy of the training, will be evaluated by pre- to post-training (T1 to T2) changes in scores on the Engaging Men in Therapy Scale (EMITS) in the intervention group, relative to the control group. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the efficacy of Men in Mind training, as an interim step towards adjusting content and delivery of the intervention to maximize the potential for sustaining and scaling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered prospectively with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on 3rd December 2021 (ACTRN12621001669886).
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    Strengthening Community End-of-Life Care through Implementing Measurement-Based Palliative Care
    Sandham, MH ; Hedgecock, E ; Hocaoglu, M ; Palmer, C ; Jarden, RJ ; Narayanan, A ; Siegert, RJ (MDPI, 2022-07-01)
    The increasing demand for palliative care in New Zealand presents a potential threat to the quality of service delivery. One strategy to overcome this is through the implementation of valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measures. This mixed-methods study aimed to (1) implement measurement-based palliative care (MBPC) in a community palliative care service in Auckland, New Zealand; (2) evaluate the clinical utility of MBPC perceived by clinicians; (3) describe patient characteristics as measured by the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS), the Australasian Modified Karnofsky Performance Scale (AKPS), and Phase of Illness (POI); and (4) evaluate the internal consistency of the IPOS. Participants were over 18 years of age from a community outpatient palliative care service. In a phased approach to implementation, healthcare staff were educated on each instrument used for patient assessment. Uptake and internal consistency were evaluated through descriptive statistics. An interpretive descriptive methodology was used to explore the clinical utility of MBPC through semi-structured interviews with seven clinical staff members. Individual patient assessments (n = 1507) were undertaken predominantly on admission, with decreasing frequency as patients advanced through to the terminal phase of their care. Mean total IPOS scores were 17.97 (SD = 10.39, α = 0.78). The POI showed that 65% of patients were in the stable phase, 20% were in the unstable phase, 9% were in the deteriorating phase, and 2% were in the terminal phase. Clinicians reported that MBPC facilitated holistic and comprehensive assessments, as well as the development of a common interdisciplinary language. Clinicians expressed discomfort using the psychosocial and spiritual items. Measurement-based palliative care was only partially implemented but it was valued by staff and perceived to increase the quality of service delivery. Future research should determine the optimal timing of assessments, cultural responsivity for Māori and Pacific patients, and the role of MBPC in decision support for clinicians.