Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications
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ItemCombination methotrexate and gefitinib: A potential medical treatment for inoperable nontubal ectopic pregnancyItaliano, S ; Tong, S ; Readman, E ; Tassone, M ; Hastie, R ; Pritchard, N (WILEY, 2019-12-09)Nontubal ectopic pregnancies present as a therapeutic challenge. A 35-year-old primigravida at 7 weeks gestation had a live interstitial ectopic pregnancy and contraindications to surgery. The patient was treated with a multidose methotrexate regimen combined with oral gefitinib (250 mg daily for 7 days). The peak human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) of the patient was recorded at 19 510 IU/L and began declining from day 4 of combination therapy (day 6 of initial treatment). Successful resolution of the ectopic was demonstrated by cessation of the fetal heart by day 15 and hCG falling to 23 IU/L by day 42. A 10-year review of all nontubal ectopic pregnancies treated with methotrexate identified 46 cases, which had a comparable time to resolution to combination therapy. However, for cases where cardiac activity was present, the median time to resolution following methotrexate treatment was 64 days (47-87 days), 22 days longer than combination therapy. Combination therapy may provide a safe medical treatment for inoperable nontubal ectopic pregnancy.
ItemMulticentre retrospective study to assess diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for superficial endometriosisAre we any closer?Chowdary, P ; Stone, K ; Ma, T ; Readman, E ; McIlwaine, K ; Druitt, M ; Ellett, L ; Cameron, M ; Maher, P (WILEY, 2019-04-01)BACKGROUND: To establish whether the ultrasound findings of minimal endometriosis are confirmed at laparoscopy and that a correlation can be established as to the anatomical sites in this mild form of the disease. AIMS: Patients with pain and suspicion of endometriosis had an ultrasound scan by a sonologist with expertise in endometriosis as part of their pre-operative workup. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The clinical histories of 53 patients who had laparoscopy to investigate pelvic pain were reviewed. Ultrasounds were performed between 2012 and 2015 by a single sonologist with expertise in endometriosis assessments. The ultrasound findings were divided into subgroups as follows - presence of uterosacral ligament thickness, thickened pericolic fat, ovarian mobility and focal tenderness. These were compared with operative findings of those patients with superficial endometriosis. Evidence Level 3 - observational studies with controls and health services research that includes adjustment for likely confounding factors. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent (42/53) of the patients had laparoscopic findings consistent with their ultrasound findings (95% CI 68-90%, P < 0.0001). Of the subgroups that we reviewed, uterosacral thickening (P < 0.05) and thickened pericolic fat (P < 0.05) were the most associated with superficial endometriosis at the time of laparoscopy. CONCLUSION: Markers on ultrasound that reliably demonstrated inflammation (thickened uterosacral ligaments and thickened pericolic fat) were shown to be significantly associated with the disease.
ItemIntroduction of the MyoSureLITE in an established outpatient hysteroscopy clinicGordon, HG ; Mooney, S ; Readman, E (WILEY, 2020-07-22)BACKGROUND: Endometrial polyps are a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. The MyoSureLITE intrauterine morcellation device is effective at resecting endometrial polyps; however, its use in the outpatient setting requires appraisal. AIM: To assess the feasibility, utility, acceptability and costs associated with introduction of the MyoSureLITE into an established outpatient hysteroscopy (OPH) clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective clinical database from a tertiary Melbourne hospital was analysed from 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2018. Three 12-month time periods were compared: pre-introduction and trial phase, early use, and established use of the MyoSureLITE. Wait times, patient acceptability, second OPH bookings and procedure costs were measured. RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventy-one women underwent OPH during the study period, with 238 (27.3%) women presenting with endometrial polyp(s). At each timepoint, 78.5, 25 and 6.3% of women required rebooking for a subsequent hysteroscopy for pathology otherwise suitable for MyoSureLITE resection. Introduction of the MyoSureLITE avoided a subsequent procedure for 4, 60 and 69 women respectively for each year of use, with potentially reduced treatment costs for the institution. Median (IQR) wait time for definitive treatment of intrauterine pathology was 56 (24-84) days at time-period 1, decreasing to 0 (0-0) days during time-period 3, (P < 0.001); 87.6% would undergo OPH again. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of the MyoSureLITE is effective, feasible, and acceptable to women. Provision of this device in outpatient service allows a 'see-and-treat' model, saving theatre time and treatment costs, facilitating a more direct throughput from presentation to treatment.
ItemTubal interruption and subsequent surgery for pain after endometrial ablation: A retrospective cohort studyPaul, TD ; Readman, E ; Mooney, S (WILEY, 2021-09-07)BACKGROUND: Endometrial ablation (EA) is an alternative to hysterectomy for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), with reduced recovery time and fewer operative risks. However, post-ablation pain may be associated with subsequent surgery, including hysterectomy. It is uncertain what factors affect surgery rates for post-ablation pain, particularly with respect to timing and technique of tubal interruption. AIM: To evaluate the relationship between tubal interruption and post-ablation pain and subsequent surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving 324 patients at a Melbourne tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2020. The primary outcome was subsequent pelvic surgery for pain following EA. RESULTS: Pain following EA was reported by 29.7% of patients, with 10.5% of patients undergoing subsequent surgery for pain. Patients with tubal interruption were more likely to undergo subsequent surgery for pain than those with no tubal interruption (odds ratio (OR): 3.49, 95% CI: 1.59-7.66; P = 0.002). Tubal ligation was strongly associated with subsequent surgery for pain (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.48-6.57; P = 0.003). In contrast, those with salpingectomy did not have an increased risk of subsequent surgery for pain, compared to those with no tubal interruption (OR: 1.5; 95% CI 0.32-7.13). Pre-ablation pain (adjusted OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.37-6.48; P = 0.006) and previous caesarean section (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.13-6.25; P = 0.025) were also associated with subsequent surgery for pain. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that tubal interruption, pre-ablation pain and previous caesarean section are associated with subsequent surgery for pain. These results can better inform preoperative counselling regarding the risk of subsequent surgery after EA.
ItemBotulinum toxin A (Botox) injection into muscles of pelvic floor as a treatment for persistent pelvic pain secondary to pelvic floor muscular spasm: A pilot studyMooney, SS ; Readman, E ; Hiscock, RJ ; Francis, A ; Fraser, E ; Ellett, L (WILEY, 2021-06-15)BACKGROUND: Persistent pelvic pain (PPP) remains an important cause of morbidity. Pelvic floor muscle spasm is an important contributor to PPP. AIMS: The study's primary aim was to assess if botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection to pelvic floor muscles altered pain scores or quality of life (QoL) at six, 12 and 26 weeks. Secondary aims included investigating the impact of BoNT on opiate usage, examining the role of pain catastrophising, and assessing for complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-centre prospective cohort study enrolled 21 patients with PPP who had failed physiotherapy techniques. Each participant underwent BoNT injection to muscles of the pelvic floor and pudendal nerve block. Questionnaires and digital vaginal examinations were conducted at baseline, six, 12 and 26 weeks. Pain score quantification used visual analogue scales (VAS) and numerical rating scales (NRS). Other outcome assessments included The World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQoL-BREF), Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), and modified Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (APFQ). ACTRN12620000067976. RESULTS: Following BoNT injection, median VAS scores decreased for all domains at six and 12 weeks, with VAS for dyspareunia significant at six weeks (P = 0.026). Scores returned to baseline by 26 weeks. Opiate usage was significantly less following BoNT injection, with a percentage reduction of 23.8% (95% CI -48.3 to 0.7, P = 0.06). Sexual function improved significantly (P < 0.01), and at six months, four previously apareunic participants reported successful penetrative vaginal intercourse. Health-related QoL and PCS demonstrated sustained improvement (P = 0.02-0.05). NRS for muscle tenderness decreased for all assessed muscle groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: BoNT requires further assessment as a treatment modality for select women with PPP.