Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications

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    Breastfeeding Duration and Bone Mineral Density in Childhood: A Prospective Study within GUSTO Cohort
    Gridneva, Z ; Pang, WW ; Vlaskovsky, P ; McEachran, JL ; Perrella, SL ; Yap, F ; Wlodek, ME ; Chong, Y-S ; Eriksson, JG ; Geddes, DT ; Tint, MT (MDPI, )
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    Sampling Procedures for Estimating the Infant Intake of Human Milk Hormones, Glucose and Total Lipids
    Suwaydi, MA ; Lai, CT ; Gridneva, Z ; Perrella, SL ; Wlodek, ME ; Geddes, DT (MDPI, )
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    Shifting incidence and survival of epithelial ovarian cancer (1995-2014): A SurvMark-2 study.
    Cabasag, CJ ; Arnold, M ; Rutherford, M ; Ferlay, J ; Bardot, A ; Morgan, E ; Butler, J ; O'Connell, DL ; Nelson, G ; Høgdall, C ; Schnack, T ; Gavin, A ; Elwood, M ; Hanna, L ; Gourley, C ; De, P ; Saint-Jacques, N ; Mørch, LS ; Woods, RR ; Altman, AD ; Sykes, P ; Cohen, PA ; McNally, O ; Møller, B ; Walsh, P ; Morrison, DS ; Bray, F ; Soerjomataram, I (Wiley, 2023-05-01)
    The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of incidence and survival trends of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) by histological subtype across seven high income countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom). Data on invasive EOC diagnosed in women aged 15 to 99 years during 1995 to 2014 were obtained from 20 cancer registries. Age standardized incidence rates and average annual percentage change were calculated by subtype for all ages and age groups (15-64 and 65-99 years). Net survival (NS) was estimated by subtype, age group and 5-year period using Pohar-Perme estimator. Our findings showed marked increase in serous carcinoma incidence was observed between 1995 and 2014 among women aged 65 to 99 years with average annual increase ranging between 2.2% and 5.8%. We documented a marked decrease in the incidence of adenocarcinoma "not otherwise specified" with estimates ranging between 4.4% and 7.4% in women aged 15 to 64 years and between 2.0% and 3.7% among the older age group. Improved survival, combining all EOC subtypes, was observed for all ages combined over the 20-year study period in all countries with 5-year NS absolute percent change ranging between 5.0 in Canada and 12.6 in Denmark. Several factors such as changes in guidelines and advancement in diagnostic tools may potentially influence the observed shift in histological subtypes and temporal trends. Progress in clinical management and treatment over the past decades potentially plays a role in the observed improvements in EOC survival.
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    Timing of introduction of complementary foods, breastfeeding, and child cardiometabolic risk: a prospective multiethnic Asian cohort study
    Ong, YY ; Pang, WW ; Michael, N ; Aris, IM ; Sadananthan, SA ; Tint, M-T ; Choo, JTL ; Ling, LH ; Karnani, N ; Velan, SS ; Fortier, MV ; Tan, KH ; Gluckman, PD ; Yap, F ; Chong, Y-S ; Godfrey, KM ; Chan, S-Y ; Eriksson, JG ; Chong, MF-F ; Wlodek, ME ; Lee, YS (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2023-01)
    BACKGROUND: The timing of introduction of complementary foods and the duration of breastfeeding (BF) have been independently associated with child overweight and obesity; however, their combined influence on body fat partitioning and cardiometabolic risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of the timing of introduction of complementary foods, the duration of BF, and their interaction with child adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 839 children in the prospective Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Mothers reported the age at which infants were first fed complementary foods and BF duration, classified as early (≤4 mo) versus typical (>4 mo) complementary feeding (CF) and short (≤4 mo) versus long (>4 mo) duration of any BF, respectively. We measured adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers at the age of 6 y and examined their associations with infant feeding patterns using multiple regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, parents' body mass index (BMI), maternal factors, birth weight for gestational age, and infant weight gain. RESULTS: Of 839 children, 18% experienced early CF, whereas 54% experienced short BF. Short (vs. long) BF and early (vs. typical) CF were independently associated with higher z-scores of BMI [β (95% confidence interval), short BF, 0.18 standard deviation score (SDS) (-0.01, 0.38); early CF, 0.34 SDS (0.11, 0.57)] and sum of skinfolds [short BF, 1.83 mm (0.05, 3.61); early CF, 2.73 mm (0.55, 4.91)]. Children who experienced both early CF and short BF (vs. typical CF-long BF) had synergistically higher diastolic blood pressure [1.41 mmHg (-0.15, 2.97), P-interaction = 0.023] and metabolic syndrome score [0.81 (0.16, 1.47), P-interaction = 0.081]. Early CF-long BF (vs. early CF-short BF) was associated with a lower systolic blood pressure [-3.74 mmHg (-7.01, -0.48)], diastolic blood pressure [-2.29 mmHg (-4.47, -0.11)], and metabolic syndrome score [-0.90 (-1.80, 0.00)]. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of early CF and short BF was associated with elevated child adiposity and cardiometabolic markers. Longer BF duration may protect against cardiometabolic risk associated with early CF. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
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    Variation in clinical practice guideline recommendations for medication use in pregnancy in Australia: A systematic review
    Cron, HT ; Simm, P ; Said, JM ; Cheong, JLY ; Cranswick, N ; Hu, YJ (WILEY, 2023-12-17)
    BACKGROUND: Medication use in pregnancy is common; however, it is unknown if clinical practice guideline (CPG) prescribing recommendations referred to in Australia at the state, national and international level are consistent. AIMS: This systematic review aimed to: (1) identify sources of CPGs that inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia; (2) assess CPG quality; and (3) evaluate variation within CPG recommendations for medication use in three common conditions in pregnancy: prophylactic antibiotics following premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term, antidepressants in pregnancy and metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted across PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases. Grey literature was identified through publicly available Australian policy statements. Prescribing recommendations for prophylactic antibiotics following PROM at term, antidepressants in pregnancy and metformin in GDM, were compared at the state, national and international levels. CPG quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. RESULTS: We identified 39 CPG sources that inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia. CPG quality varied between resources. There was minor variation in recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis in PROM at term. Recommendations regarding metformin use in GDM were also variable, with CPGs either recommending its use as a first-line agent when lifestyle modifications are not effective or when insulin therapy is not practicable. Recommendations for antidepressant use were consistent across CPGs analysed. CONCLUSION: Multiple CPGs exist to inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia, with variation present within CPG quality and recommendations. These findings offer insight into potential sources of variation in maternal and neonatal health outcomes.
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    Chemically-Induced Lipoprotein Breakdown for Improved Extracellular Vesicle Purification.
    Iannotta, D ; A, A ; Lai, A ; Nair, S ; Koifman, N ; Lappas, M ; Salomon, C ; Wolfram, J (Wiley, 2023-12-15)
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized biomolecular packages involved in intercellular communication. EVs are released by all cells, making them broadly applicable as therapeutic, diagnostic, and mechanistic components in (patho)physiology. Sample purity is critical for correctly attributing observed effects to EVs and for maximizing therapeutic and diagnostic performance. Lipoprotein contaminants represent a major challenge for sample purity. Lipoproteins are approximately six orders of magnitude more abundant in the blood circulation and overlap in size, shape, and density with EVs. This study represents the first example of an EV purification method based on the chemically-induced breakdown of lipoproteins. Specifically, a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer is used to selectively breakdown lipoproteins, enabling subsequent size-based separation of the breakdown products from plasma EVs. The use of the polymer followed by tangential flow filtration or size-exclusion chromatography results in improved EV yield, preservation of EV morphology, increased EV markers, and reduced contaminant markers. SMA-based EV purification enables improved fluorescent labeling, reduces interactions with macrophages, and enhances accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity to detect EV biomarkers, indicating benefits for various downstream applications. In conclusion, SMA is a simple and effective method to improve the purity and yield of plasma-derived EVs, which favorably impacts downstream applications.
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    Interventions to improve oncofertility knowledge and decision-making in patients with low health literacy: A systematic review.
    Ong, C ; Li, AD ; Marino, JL ; Peate, M (Elsevier BV, 2024-02)
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of interventions that improve knowledge, health and decision-related outcomes in cancer, fertility or the intersection of both among low health literacy (LHL) patients. METHODS: Articles published from 2000 to March 2022 in English were identified through searching MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Embase databases on 29/03/2022. Studies were independently screened against eligibility criteria and appraised for quality. A narrative synthesis of data was presented. RESULTS: Of 235 citations, 11 studies (2585 participants) investigating three categories were included: decision-support tools (n = 8), mobile health applications (n = 2) and communication tools (n = 1). No eligible study was identified for fertility or oncofertility. All interventions integrated multimedia or interactivity to supplement plain-language text. Decision aids and mobile health applications improved knowledge, reduced decisional conflict and increased clarity around cancer-related choices. Overall, findings favoured the use of online interventions tailored for LHL patients. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of data on LHL interventions in fertility and oncofertility. In cancer, LHL interventions improved knowledge and decision-making outcomes. The ideal intervention remains inconclusive. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Lack of engagement with LHL needs in oncofertility and fertility settings have implications for informed treatment decision-making. In cancer, further research is required to ascertain most effective intervention format.
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    Pre-Vaccination Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and HPV16 Variants among Women Aged 25 Years or Less with Cervical Cancer
    Jayasinghe, YN ; Tabrizi, S ; Stevens, M ; Leong, TY-M ; Pyman, JR ; Grover, SM ; Garland, S (MDPI, 2023-03)
    BACKGROUND: In 2007, Australia introduced a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program. In 2017, the onset of cervical screening changed from 18 to 25 years of age, utilising human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid testing. The objective of the study is to describe the HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in biopsies from women ≤ 25 years of age with cervical carcinoma (CC) (cases), compared with those aged >25 years (controls), in a pre-vaccination cohort. METHODS: HPV genotyping of archival paraffin blocks (n = 96) was performed using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping assay. HPV16-positive samples were analysed for variants by type-specific PCR spanning L1, E2 and E6 regions. RESULTS: HPV16 was the commonest genotype in cases (54.5%, 12/22) and controls (66.7%, 46/69) (p = 0.30), followed by HPV18 (36.3%, 8/22 vs. 17.3% 12/69, respectively) (p = 0.08). Furthermore, 90% (20/22) of cases and 84.1% (58/69) of controls were positive for HPV16 or 18 (p = 0.42); 100% (22/22) of cases and 95.7% (66/69) of controls had at least one genotype targeted by the nonavalent vaccine (p = 0.3). The majority of HPV16 variants (87.3%, 48/55) were of European lineage. The proportion of unique nucleotide substitutions was significantly higher in cases (83.3%, 10/12) compared with controls (34.1%, 15/44), (p < 0.003, χ2, OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.7-97.7). CONCLUSIONS: Virological factors may account for the differences in CCs observed in younger compared with older women. All CCs in young women in this study had preventable 9vHPV types, which is important messaging for health provider adherence to new cervical screening guidelines.
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    The Regulation of Endothelin-1 in Pregnancies Complicated by Gestational Diabetes: Uncovering the Vascular Effects of Insulin
    Fato, BR ; Beard, S ; Binder, NK ; Pritchard, N ; Kaitu'u-Lino, TJ ; de Alwis, N ; Hannan, NJ (MDPI, 2023-10)
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition of pregnancy defined by new-onset hyperglycemia. GDM is associated with impaired maternal endothelial and vascular reactivity. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor that contributes to endothelial dysfunction, however, its abundance and actions in GDM are unclear. Maternal plasma was obtained from pregnancies complicated by GDM (n = 24) and gestation-matched controls (n = 42); circulating ET-1 levels were assessed by ELISA. Human omental arteries from healthy pregnancies and those complicated by GDM were dissected from omental fat biopsies and collected at cesarean section. mRNA expression of ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in addition to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) were assessed by qPCR (n = 28). Using wire myography, we investigated vascular constriction to ET-1 (10-11-10-4 M) in omental arteries from pregnancies complicated by GDM, compared to gestation-matched controls (n = 7). GDM cases were stratified by clinical management, diet intervention (n = 5), or insulin treatment (n = 6). Additionally, arteries from healthy pregnancies were treated with insulin (1 mU/mL (n = 7) and 10 mU/mL (n = 5)) or vehicle control. Vasoactive response to ET-1 was measured via wire myography. Circulating ET-1 levels and mRNA expression of the ET-1 system in omental arteries were not found to be significantly different between pregnancies complicated by GDM compared to healthy controls. However, we found insulin treatment during pregnancy and in ex vivo models reduced ET-1 vasoconstriction of maternal vasculature in GDM. These data suggest insulin may improve vascular function in GDM, however, further investigation is needed to define the role of ET-1 in pregnancy.
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    A Matched Molecular and Clinical Analysis of the Epithelioid Haemangioendothelioma Cohort in the Stafford Fox Rare Cancer Program and Contextual Literature Review
    Abdelmogod, A ; Papadopoulos, L ; Riordan, S ; Wong, M ; Weltman, M ; Lim, R ; Mcevoy, C ; Fellowes, A ; Fox, S ; Bedo, J ; Penington, J ; Pham, K ; Hofmann, O ; Vissers, JHA ; Grimmond, S ; Ratnayake, G ; Christie, M ; Mitchell, C ; Murray, WK ; Mcclymont, K ; Luk, P ; Papenfuss, AT ; Kee, D ; Scott, CL ; Goldstein, D ; Barker, HE (MDPI, 2023-09)
    BACKGROUND: Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an ultra-rare malignant vascular tumour with a prevalence of 1 per 1,000,000. It is typically molecularly characterised by a WWTR1::CAMTA1 gene fusion in approximately 90% of cases, or a YAP1::TFE3 gene fusion in approximately 10% of cases. EHE cases are typically refractory to therapies, and no anticancer agents are reimbursed for EHE in Australia. METHODS: We report a cohort of nine EHE cases with comprehensive histologic and molecular profiling from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Stafford Fox Rare Cancer Program (WEHI-SFRCP) collated via nation-wide referral to the Australian Rare Cancer (ARC) Portal. The diagnoses of EHE were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Molecular profiling was performed using the TruSight Oncology 500 assay, the TruSight RNA fusion panel, whole genome sequencing (WGS), or whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: Molecular analysis of RNA, DNA or both was possible in seven of nine cases. The WWTR1::CAMTA1 fusion was identified in five cases. The YAP1::TFE3 fusion was identified in one case, demonstrating unique morphology compared to cases with the more common WWTR1::CAMTA1 fusion. All tumours expressed typical endothelial markers CD31, ERG, and CD34 and were negative for pan-cytokeratin. Cases with a WWTR1::CAMTA1 fusion displayed high expression of CAMTA1 and the single case with a YAP1::TFE3 fusion displayed high expression of TFE3. Survival was highly variable and unrelated to molecular profile. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort of EHE cases provides molecular and histopathological characterisation and matching clinical information that emphasises the molecular patterns and variable clinical outcomes and adds to our knowledge of this ultra-rare cancer. Such information from multiple studies will advance our understanding, potentially improving treatment options.