Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications

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    Translating antenatal magnesium sulphate neuroprotection for infants born < 28 weeks' gestation into practice: A geographical cohort study
    Doyle, LW ; Spittle, AJ ; Olsen, JE ; Kwong, A ; Boland, RA ; Lee, KJ ; Anderson, PJ ; Cheong, JLY (WILEY, 2021-02-02)
    BACKGROUND: Magnesium sulphate was introduced for fetal neuroprotection in Australia in 2010. The aim of this study was to determine how often antenatal magnesium sulphate is used currently and its association with cerebral palsy in children born <28 weeks' gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants comprised all survivors born <28 weeks' gestational age in the state of Victoria in 2016-17, and earlier, in 1991-92, 1997, 2005. Rates of cerebral palsy, diagnosed at two years for the 2016-17 cohort, and at eight years in the earlier cohorts, were compared across eras. Within 2016-17, the proportions of children exposed to antenatal magnesium sulphate were determined, and rates of cerebral palsy were compared between those with and without exposure to magnesium sulphate. RESULTS: Overall, cerebral palsy was present in 6% (11/171) of survivors born in 2016-17, compared with 12% (62/499) of survivors born in the three earlier eras (odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.94; P = 0.032). Data were available for 213/215 (99%) survivors born in 2016-17, of whom 147 (69%) received magnesium sulphate. Data on cerebral palsy at two years were available for 171 (80%) survivors with magnesium data. Cerebral palsy was present in 5/125 (4%) children exposed to magnesium sulphate and in 6/46 (13%) of those not exposed (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.96; P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal magnesium sulphate is being translated into clinical practice for infants born <28 weeks' gestation, but there is room for improvement. It is associated with lower rates of cerebral palsy in survivors.
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    Psychiatric disorders in individuals born very preterm / very low-birth weight: An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis
    Anderson, PJ ; de Miranda, DM ; Albuquerque, MR ; Indredavik, MS ; Evensen, KA ; Van Lieshout, R ; Saigal, S ; Taylor, HG ; Raikkonen, K ; Kajantie, E ; Marlow, N ; Johnson, S ; Woodward, LJ ; Austin, N ; Nosarti, C ; Jaekel, J ; Wolke, D ; Cheong, JL ; Burnett, A ; Treyvaud, K ; Lee, KJ ; Doyle, LW (ELSEVIER, 2021-11-27)
    BACKGROUND: Data on psychiatric disorders in survivors born very preterm (VP; <32 weeks) or very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) are sparse. We compared rates of psychiatric diagnoses between VP/VLBW and term-born, normal birthweight (term/NBW) control participants. METHODS: This individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis pooled data from eligible groups in the Adults born Preterm International Collaboration (APIC). Inclusion criteria included: 1) VP/VLBW group (birth weight <1500 g and/or gestational age <32 weeks), 2) normal birth weight/term-born control group (birth weight >2499 g and/or gestational age ≥37 weeks), and 3) structured measure of psychiatric diagnoses using DSM or ICD criteria. Diagnoses of interest were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Anxiety Disorder, Mood Disorder, Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD), Eating Disorder, and Psychotic Disorder. A systematic search for eligible studies was conducted (PROSPERO Registration Number 47555). FINDINGS: Data were obtained from 10 studies (1385 VP/VLBW participants, 1780 controls), using a range of instruments and approaches to assigning diagnoses. Those born VP/VLBW had ten times higher odds of meeting criteria for ASD (odds ratio [OR] 10·6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2·50, 44·7), five times higher odds of meeting criteria for ADHD (OR 5·42, 95% CI 3·10, 9·46), twice the odds of meeting criteria for Anxiety Disorder (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·36, 2·69), and 1·5 times the odds of meeting criteria for Mood Disorder (OR 1·51, 95% CI 1·08, 2·12) than controls. This pattern of findings was consistent within age (<18 years vs. ≥18 years) and sex subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggests that individuals born VP/VLBW might have higher odds of meeting criteria for certain psychiatric disorders through childhood and into adulthood than term/NBW controls. Further research is needed to corroborate our results and identify factors associated with psychiatric disorders in individuals born VP/VLBW. FUNDING: Australia's National Health & Medical Research Council; CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal deNível Superior) - International Cooperation General Program; Canadian Institutes of Health Research Team Grant; National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Academy of Finland; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme: Project RECAP-Preterm; European Commission Dynamics of Inequality Across the Life-course: structures and processes (DIAL); Neurologic Foundation of New Zealand; MRC programme grant; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institutes of Health, USA; The Research Council of Norway; Joint Research Committee between St. Olavs Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Liaison Committee between Central Norway Regional Health Authority and NTNU.
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    Development of brain white matter and math computation ability in children born very preterm and full-term
    Collins, SE ; Thompson, DK ; Kelly, CE ; Yang, JYM ; Pascoe, L ; Inder, TE ; Doyle, LW ; Cheong, JLY ; Burnett, AC ; Anderson, PJ (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2021-07-14)
    Children born very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestation) have alterations in brain white matter and poorer math ability than full-term (FT) peers. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest a link between white matter microstructure and math in VPT and FT children, although longitudinal studies using advanced modelling are lacking. In a prospective longitudinal cohort of VPT and FT children we used Fixel-Based Analysis to investigate associations between maturation of white matter fibre density (FD), fibre-bundle cross-section (FC), and combined fibre density and cross-section (FDC) and math computation ability at 7 (n = 136 VPT; n = 32 FT) and 13 (n = 130 VPT; n = 44 FT) years, as well as between change in white matter and math computation ability from 7 to 13 years (n = 103 VPT; n = 21 FT). In both VPT and FT children, higher FD, FC and FDC in visual, sensorimotor and cortico-thalamic/thalamo-cortical white matter tracts were associated with better math computation ability at 7 and 13 years. Longitudinally, accelerated maturation of the posterior body of the corpus callosum (FDC) was associated with greater math computation development. White matter-math associations were similar for VPT and FT children. In conclusion, white matter maturation is associated with math computation ability across late childhood, irrespective of birth group.
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    Individual Attention Patterns in Children Born Very Preterm and Full Term at 7 and 13 Years of Age
    Bogicevic, L ; Pascoe, L ; Nguyen, T-N-N ; Burnett, AC ; Verhoeven, M ; Thompson, DK ; Cheong, JLY ; Inder, TE ; van Baar, AL ; Doyle, LW ; Anderson, PJ (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-11-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To identify attention profiles at 7 and 13 years, and transitions in attention profiles over time in children born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks' gestation) and full term (FT), and examine predictors of attention profiles and transitions. METHODS: Participants were 167 VP and 60 FT children, evaluated on profiles across five attention domains (selective, shifting and divided attention, processing speed, and behavioral attention) at 7 and 13 years using latent profile analyses. Transitions in profiles were assessed with contingency tables. For VP children, biological and social risk factors were tested as predictors with a multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: At 7 and 13 years, three distinct profiles of attentional functioning were identified. VP children were 2-3 times more likely to show poorer attention profiles compared with FT children. Transition patterns between 7 and 13 years were stable average, stable low, improving, and declining attention. VP children were two times less likely to have a stable average attention pattern and three times more likely to have stable low or improving attention patterns compared with FT children. Groups did not differ in declining attention patterns. For VP children, brain abnormalities on neonatal MRI and greater social risk at 7 years predicted stable low or changing attention patterns over time. CONCLUSIONS: VP children show greater variability in attention profiles and transition patterns than FT children, with almost half of the VP children showing adverse attention patterns over time. Early brain pathology and social environment are markers for attentional functioning.
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    Impact of moderate and late preterm birth on neurodevelopment, brain development and respiratory health at school age: protocol for a longitudinal cohort study (LaPrem study)
    Cheong, J ; Cameron, KLI ; Thompson, D ; Anderson, PJ ; Ranganathan, S ; Clark, R ; Mentiplay, B ; Burnett, A ; Lee, K ; Doyle, LW ; Spittle, AJ (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Children born moderate to late preterm (MLP, 32-36 weeks' gestation) account for approximately 85% of all preterm births globally. Compared with children born at term, children born MLP are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite making up the largest group of preterm children, developmental outcomes of children born MLP are less well studied than in other preterm groups. This study aimed to (1) compare neurodevelopmental, respiratory health and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes between children born MLP and term at 9 years of age; (2) examine the differences in brain growth trajectory from infancy to 9 years between children born MLP and term; and in children born MLP; (3) examine the relationship between brain development and neurodevelopment at 9 years; and (4) identify risk factors for poorer outcomes at 9 years. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The "LaPrem" (Late Preterm MRI Study) study is a longitudinal cohort study of children born MLP and term controls, born at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, between 2010 and 2013. Participants were recruited in the neonatal period and were previously followed up at 2 and 5 years. This 9-year school-age follow-up includes neuropsychology, motor and physical activities, and lung function assessments, as well as brain MRI. Outcomes at 9 years will be compared between birth groups using linear and logistic regressions. Trajectories of brain development will be compared between birth groups using mixed effects models. The relationships between MRI and neurodevelopmental outcomes, as well as other early predictors of poor 9-year outcomes, will be explored using linear and logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the human research ethics committee at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Study outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and social media.
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    Missing out on precious time: Extending paid parental leave for parents of babies admitted to neonatal intensive or special care units for prolonged periods
    Spittle, AJ ; McKinnon, C ; Huang, L ; Burnett, A ; Cameron, K ; Doyle, LW ; Anderson, P ; Baird, M ; Colditz, P ; Cruz, M ; Pussell, K ; Dalziel, K ; Eeles, A ; Newnham, J ; Hunt, RW ; Cheong, J (WILEY, 2021-11-27)
    In Australia, approximately 18% of newborn babies are admitted to a neonatal intensive or special care nursery. While most babies admitted to a neonatal intensive or special care nursery are discharged home within a few weeks, around 6% of babies spend more than 2 weeks in hospital. For the parents of these babies, much of their leave entitlements (Australian Government Paid Parental Leave Scheme is up to18 weeks for the primary care giver and up to 2 weeks for partners) are used before their baby comes home from hospital. The time babies and parents spend together in the early developmental period, during the hospitalisation and when the baby is discharged home, is crucial for optimal child development and bonding. Yet care givers who have a baby admitted to neonatal intensive or special care for extended periods are not currently entitled to any extra parental leave payments in Australia. We recommend the Australian Paid Parental Leave Act is changed to allow primary carers access to 1 week of extra parental leave pay for every week in hospital (for babies admitted to hospital for more than 2 weeks), up to a maximum of 14 weeks. For fathers and partners of these babies, we recommend an additional 2 weeks of extra Dad and Partner Pay. The net cost, taking into account likely productivity benefits, would be less than 1.5% of the current cost of the scheme and would improve health and socio-economic outcomes for the baby, family and society.
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    Changing consumption of resources for respiratory support and short-term outcomes in four consecutive geographical cohorts of infants born extremely preterm over 25 years since the early 1990s
    Cheong, JLY ; Olsen, JE ; Huang, L ; Dalziel, KM ; Boland, RA ; Burnett, AC ; Haikerwal, A ; Spittle, AJ ; Opie, G ; Stewart, AE ; Hickey, LM ; Anderson, PJ ; Doyle, LW (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-01-01)
    OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how newer methods of respiratory support for infants born extremely preterm (EP; 22-27 weeks gestation) have affected in-hospital sequelae. We aimed to determine changes in respiratory support, survival and morbidity in EP infants since the early 1990s. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: The State of Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All EP births offered intensive care in four discrete eras (1991-1992 (24 months): n=332, 1997 (12 months): n=190, 2005 (12 months): n=229, and April 2016-March 2017 (12 months): n=250). OUTCOME MEASURES: Consumption of respiratory support, survival and morbidity to discharge home. Cost-effectiveness ratios describing the average additional days of respiratory support associated per additional survivor were calculated. RESULTS: Median duration of any respiratory support increased from 22 days (1991-1992) to 66 days (2016-2017). The increase occurred in non-invasive respiratory support (2 days (1991-1992) to 51 days (2016-2017)), with high-flow nasal cannulae, unavailable in earlier cohorts, comprising almost one-half of the duration in 2016-2017. Survival to discharge home increased (68% (1991-1992) to 87% (2016-2017)). Cystic periventricular leukomalacia decreased (6.3% (1991-1992) to 1.2% (2016-2017)), whereas retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment increased (4.0% (1991-1992) to 10.0% (2016-2017)). The average additional costs associated with one additional infant surviving in 2016-2017 were 200 (95% CI 150 to 297) days, 326 (183 to 1127) days and 130 (70 to 267) days compared with 1991-1992, 1997 and 2005, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of resources for respiratory support has escalated with improved survival over time. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia reduced in incidence but retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment increased. How these changes translate into long-term respiratory or neurological function remains to be determined.
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    The causal effect of being born extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight on neurodevelopment and social-emotional development at 2 years
    Olsen, JE ; Lee, KJ ; Spittle, AJ ; Anderson, PJ ; Doyle, LW ; Cheong, JLY (WILEY, 2021-09-12)
    AIM: To assess the causal effect of being born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g), compared with being born at term, on neurodevelopment and social-emotional development at 2 years' corrected age. METHODS: Prospective geographical cohort study of children born EP/ELBW over 12 months in 2016 from Victoria, Australia, and term-born controls. Children were assessed at 2 years' corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd edition and the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Delay was defined as <-1 standard deviation relative to the mean of controls. The estimand of interest was the mean difference/odds ratio (OR) between the EP/ELBW and control groups estimated using linear/logistic regression, adjusted for multiple pregnancy and social risk. RESULTS: A total of 205 EP/ELBW and 201 controls were assessed at 2 years. Delay/concerns were more common in the EP/ELBW group compared with controls, for cognitive (OR 3.7 [95% confidence interval 2.3, 6.0]), language (5.3 [3.1, 9.0]) and motor (3.9 [2.3, 6.3]) development, and social-emotional competence (4.1 [1.6, 10.2]). CONCLUSION: Being born EP/ELBW has an adverse effect on cognitive, language and motor development, and social-emotional competence at 2 years' corrected age. Close developmental surveillance, including social-emotional development, is recommended.