Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications

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    Long-term trends of Chlamydia trachomatis in a clinic population at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne
    Garland, SM ; Subasinghe, AK ; Ahmed, N ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Marceglia, A (WILEY, 2019-12-27)
    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) prevalence has been reported to be increasing. Whether this is a true increase over time or confounded by increases in testing and/or use of more sensitive assays is to be determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One laboratory service has been detecting C. trachomatis for the past 30 years within the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. We conducted a retrospective audit of records over the period 1986-2016 from a clinic population routinely offered chlamydia screening. These were women presenting for family planning advice (termination of pregnancy, intrauterine device insertion or considered at high risk), who underwent chlamydia testing in the context of various diagnostic assays used over this time period. Assays utilised included culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), DNA probe, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Non-parametric test for trend was used to determine significant differences between prevalence estimates across ordered groups. Least squares regression was conducted to describe a linear trend matching known data points. RESULTS: Overall, there was no significant change for chlamydia prevalence which was 2.2%, in the 30-year study period (P = 0.7). Over time diagnostic assays changed from culture, to EIA, DNA probe, to the more sensitive NAAT. The bulk of the positives were in women under 25 years of age (57%). CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence has been stable over 30 years, remaining a problem in young women. Screening for those at risk needs underscoring in a national sexual health program.
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    Audit of referrals for concern regarding labial appearance at the Royal Children's Hospital: 2000-2012
    McQuillan, SK ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Grover, SR (WILEY, 2018-04-01)
    AIM: To audit the clinical features and outcomes for all patients referred to our centre with concerns regarding labial appearance. METHODS: Young females referred to a paediatric/adolescent gynaecology tertiary centre between 2000 and 2012 with concerns regarding their labial appearance were retrospectively identified. Adolescents presenting with anomalies were excluded. Retrospective chart review was undertaken to identify reasons for referral, patient characteristics, outcome of referral and concurrent health problems. RESULTS: In total, 46 females presenting with concerns about labial appearance were identified. Five were excluded. Median age of the study population was 14.5 years (range 5-21 years). Only four (9.8%) underwent surgery after a minimum of five consultations each, with mental health review in three of four cases prior to surgery. None of the 41 patients had documented abnormal labia; however, 6 patients had asymmetry, and 3 had a labial width of >5 cm. Of mothers, 24% (n = 10) raised the initial concern regarding labial appearance to a physician, of whom, 50% of patients had a comorbid condition. In total, 70.7% initially reported interference with daily activities, and 87.8% were reassured following discussion. CONCLUSIONS: With appropriate education and counselling, the majority of girls with concerns regarding labial appearance can be managed without surgery. Overall, our data support current international policy that female cosmetic genital surgery not be performed in mature minors unless there are specific indications. More research about characteristics of patients referred with labial concerns, definition of labial size and long-term satisfaction of conservative versus surgical methods is necessary to determine the best approach.
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    Recurrent post-coital bleeding: Should colposcopy still be mandatory?
    Tan, JHJ ; Jayasinghe, YL ; Osinski, MJ ; Brotherton, JML ; Wrede, CDH (WILEY, 2020-09-10)
    BACKGROUND: Colposcopy has been recommended for all women with recurrent post-coital bleeding (PCB) even if their cervical cytology or co-test (involving oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and cytology) are negative. AIMS: To determine the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors among women with recurrent PCB with negative cytology or co-test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of two cohorts of women with PCB referred to a tertiary colposcopy clinic. Cohort (1) (n = 1846) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2016 (cytology-based screening) and Cohort (2) (n = 215) from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 after introduction of primary HPV screening. RESULTS: In 1217 (65.9%) women in Cohort (1) referred with negative cytology, there was one cancer (0.08%) and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3)) on histopathology. In Cohort (2), there was no cancer or HSIL in 83 women with negative co-tests (negative for oncogenic HPV and cytology). False-negative cytology after a negative referral cytology or co-test was low with 2% of repeat cytology at initial colposcopy showing possible HSIL or worse. CONCLUSIONS: Women presenting with PCB and negative cytology alone have a low risk of cancer and could have HPV testing before being triaged to colposcopy. We showed that with the assurance of a negative co-test and the low likelihood of false-negative cytology, these women could avoid colposcopy unless cervical cancer is clinically suspected. There is a need for a larger cohort study to substantiate our findings with more precision.
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    Creating a Global Community of Practice for Oncofertility
    Ataman, LM ; Rodrigues, JK ; Marinho, RM ; Caetano, JPJ ; Chehin, MB ; Alves da Motta, EL ; Serafini, P ; Suzuki, N ; Furui, T ; Takae, S ; Sugishita, Y ; Morishige, K-I ; Almeida-Santos, T ; Melo, C ; Buzaglo, K ; Irwin, K ; Wallace, WH ; Anderson, RA ; Mitchell, RT ; Telfer, EE ; Adiga, SK ; Anazodo, A ; Stern, C ; Sullivan, E ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Orme, L ; Cohn, R ; McLachlan, R ; Deans, R ; Agresta, F ; Gerstl, B ; Ledger, WL ; Robker, RL ; de Meneses e Silva, JM ; Melo e Silva, LHF ; Lunardi, FO ; Lee, JR ; Suh, CS ; De Vos, M ; Van Moer, E ; Stoop, D ; Vloeberghs, V ; Smitz, J ; Tournaye, H ; Wildt, L ; Winkler-Crepaz, K ; Andersen, CY ; Smith, BM ; Smith, K ; Woodruff, TK (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-01-01)
    Fertility preservation in the cancer setting, known as oncofertility, is a field that requires cross-disciplinary interaction between physicians, basic scientists, clinical researchers, ethicists, lawyers, educators, and religious leaders. Funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Oncofertility Consortium (OC) was formed to be a scientifically grounded, transparent, and altruistic resource, both intellectual and monetary, for building this new field of practice capable of addressing the unique needs of young patients with cancer. The OC has expanded its attention to include other nonmalignant conditions that can threaten fertility, and the work of the OC now extends around the globe, involving partners who together have created a community of shared effort, resources, and practices. The OC creates materials that are translated, disseminated, and amended by all participants in the field, and local programs of excellence have developed worldwide to accelerate the pace and improve the quality of oncofertility research and practice. Here we review the global oncofertility programs and the capacity building activities that strengthen these research and clinical programs, ultimately improving patient care.
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    Exploring the facilitators and barriers to using an online infertility risk prediction tool (FoRECAsT) for young women with breast cancer: a qualitative study protocol.
    Edib, Z ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Hickey, M ; Stafford, L ; Anderson, RA ; Su, HI ; Stern, K ; Saunders, C ; Anazodo, A ; Macheras-Magias, M ; Chang, S ; Pang, P ; Agresta, F ; Chin-Lenn, L ; Cui, W ; Pratt, S ; Gorelik, A ; Peate, M (BMJ Journals, 2020-02-10)
    INTRODUCTION: As cancer treatments may impact on fertility, a high priority for young patients with breast cancer is access to evidence-based, personalised information for them and their healthcare providers to guide treatment and fertility-related decisions prior to cancer treatment. Current tools to predict fertility outcomes after breast cancer treatments are imprecise and do not offer individualised prediction. To address the gap, we are developing a novel personalised infertility risk prediction tool (FoRECAsT) for premenopausal patients with breast cancer that considers current reproductive status, planned chemotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy to determine likely post-treatment infertility. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of implementing this FoRECAsT tool into clinical practice by exploring the barriers and facilitators of its use among patients and healthcare providers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional exploratory study is being conducted using semistructured in-depth telephone interviews with 15-20 participants each from the following groups: (1) premenopausal patients with breast cancer younger than 40, diagnosed within last 5 years, (2) breast surgeons, (3) breast medical oncologists, (4) breast care nurses (5) fertility specialists and (6) fertility preservation nurses. Patients with breast cancer are being recruited from the joint Breast Service of three affiliated institutions of Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia-Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Women's Hospital, and clinicians are being recruited from across Australia. Interviews are being audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and imported into qualitative data analysis software to facilitate data management and analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by Melbourne Health Human Research Ethics Committee, Australia (HREC number: 2017.163). Confidentiality and privacy are maintained at every stage of the study. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific journals, national and international conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities.
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    Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer: Pilot of a Decision Aid for Parents of Children and Adolescents With Cancer
    Allingham, C ; Gillam, L ; MCCARTHY, M ; Zacharin, M ; Jayasuriya, S ; HELOURY, Y ; Orme, L ; Sullivan, M ; Peate, M ; Jayasinghe, Y (JMIR Publications, 2018)
    Background: Future infertility is a significant concern for survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Children and adolescents may have the opportunity to undergo fertility preservation (FP) procedures (which preserve gonadal tissue or gametes for future use) prior to the cancer treatment. However, the decision is very complex, as it is often made by parents as proxy decision makers at the time of cancer diagnosis, and is time-sensitive (needing to occur before the cancer treatment begins). Furthermore, FP procedures in children and adolescents are experimental and cannot guarantee future fertility. An uninformed decision may result in future decision regret. Objective: This study aimed to assess the acceptability, usability, and feasibility of a Web-based FP decision aid (DA) in parents of children and adolescents with cancer and clinicians. Fertility knowledge and decision regret were compared in families who reviewed the DA compared with those who did not. Methods: The Web-based DA was developed according to the International Patient Decision Aid Standards. A cross-sectional study of parents of patients with cancer, who discussed fertility, and clinicians at a tertiary children’s hospital was undertaken. The acceptability, usability, and feasibility of the DA were assessed using a pre-post survey design. Measures included the validated Decision Regret Scale, a purpose-designed fertility-related knowledge scale, questions regarding satisfaction with the DA, and open-ended responses for additional feedback. Furthermore, clinicians involved in FP were also invited to review the DA. Results: We enrolled 34 parents and 11 clinicians in this study. Participants who reviewed the DA (15 parents and 11 clinicians) expressed satisfaction with its content and functionality. Parents reported an improved understanding of cancer treatments, infertility, and FP procedures and did not report greater decision regret after DA review. Most parents (13/15, 86%) would recommend the DA to other parents. All clinicians had a consensus that this was a valid and relevant information source for all involved in fertility care. Conclusions: It is an international standard of care to discuss the impact of cancer treatment on fertility before cancer treatment. This is the first fertility DA for parents of children and adolescents with cancer and is found to be relevant and acceptable by parents and clinicians. This DA has the potential to help support parents to make informed fertility-related decisions for their children and adolescents. However, future research is needed to assess the impact of the DA on prospective decision making.
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    The Association Between Unwanted Sexual Experiences and Early-Onset Cervical Cancer and Precancer by Age 25: A Case-Control Study
    Jayasinghe, YL ; Sasongko, V ; Lim, RW ; Grover, SR ; Tabrizi, SN ; Moore, EE ; Donath, S ; Garland, SM (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2017-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: We examined the association between unwanted sexual experiences and cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, diagnosed ≤25 years of age. METHODS: A case-control study of women ≤55 years who attended gynecological hospitals in Australia between 1983 and 2007. Cases were ≤25 years when diagnosed with disease, control group 1 were "older women" >25 years at diagnosis; control group 2 were "well women" ≤25 years attending preventive health clinics. A self-administered postal survey was utilized. The main outcome measures were prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (<16 years) and unwanted adolescent sexual experiences (between 16 and 18 years) in cases compared to controls. RESULTS: Of 400 contactable subjects, 251 participated (62.8%). Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in cases (26.6% [25/94]) was similar to other groups. Prevalence of childhood genital contact abuse in cases with cervical cancer was 45.5% [5/11], compared to older women (20% [10/50], p = 0.08) and well women (13.8% [8/58], p = 0.01), and was marginally more common compared to well women when adjusted for other lifestyle factors (odds ratio [OR]: 4.7 [1.0-22.6], p = 0.05). Prevalence of unwanted adolescent sexual experiences in cases was 28.9% [33/114]. Prevalence of adolescent penile-genital contact experiences in cervical cancer cases was 46.7% [7/15], compared to older women (9.4%, [6/64], p < 0.001) and well women (13.7%, [10/73], p = 0.003), and was more common compared to well women when adjusted for lifestyle (OR: 5.9 [1.4-24.9], p = 0.02) and sexual health risk factors (OR: 5.6 [1.4-22.1] p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Unwanted sexual experiences with genital contact were a risk factor for invasive cervical cancer ≤25 years, likely due to a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors.
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    Literature Review of Benign Mullerian Papilloma Contrasted With Vaginal Rhabdomyosarcoma
    McQuillan, SK ; Grover, SR ; Pyman, J ; Jayasinghe, YL (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2016-08-01)
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Benign müllerian papillomas of the genital tract are rare and, hence, can be mistaken for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma on initial clinical review. This review of the literature will consolidate the previous cases of müllerian papilloma reported and looks for clues to differentiate the 2 entities. DESIGN AND SETTING: We provide a case report and literature review, with patients from a pediatric adolescent gynecology clinic in a tertiary center. METHODS: We conducted a search of English-language publications from 1951 (the first case report) until January 2014 by using the search words "Müllerian papilloma" and "prepubertal bleeding." References from previous published reports were also obtained for completeness. MAIN OUTCOME: Literature review of benign müllerian papilloma. RESULTS: Since 1951, 56 cases of müllerian papilloma were reported, including 4 cases at our institution. Comorbid conditions were found in 31.5% of cases (with 3 cases associated with mesenchymal tumors). The average length of time from onset of symptoms (primarily vaginal bleeding) to diagnosis was 6.7 months (range, 1 day to 3 years), with only 1 case diagnosed incidentally. Median age of presentation was 5 years (range, 1 day to 52 years). Most cases were localized and resected with ease. Histology reveals complex papillary lesions without cytologic atypia. CONCLUSION: Benign müllerian papilloma is distinguished from the more significant diagnosis of vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma by initial length of vaginal bleeding at presentation, lack of vaginal wall extension, ease of resection, and histopathology. This is compared with vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma which commonly exhibits both localized and distant spread.
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    Utilizing the Experience of Consumers in Consultation to Develop the Australasian Oncofertility Consortium Charter
    Anazodo, AC ; Gerstl, B ; Stern, CJ ; McLachlan, RI ; Agresta, F ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Cohn, RJ ; Wakefield, CE ; Chapman, M ; Ledger, W ; Sullivan, EA (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2016-09-01)
    PURPOSE: In Australia and New Zealand, there has not been a national systematic development of oncofertility services for cancer patients of reproductive age although many cancer and fertility centers have independently developed services. A number of barriers exist to the development of these services, including a lack of clear referral pathways, a lack of communication between clinicians and patients about fertility preservation, differences in the knowledge base of clinicians about the risk of cancer treatment causing infertility and fertility preservation options, a lack of national health insurance funding covering all aspects of fertility preservation, and storage costs and cultural, religious, and ethical barriers. The development of strategies to overcome these barriers is a high priority for oncofertility care to ensure that equitable access to the best standard of care is available for all patients. METHOD: The FUTuRE Fertility Research Group led a collaborative consultation process with the Australasian Oncofertility Consumer group and oncofertility specialists to explore consumers' experiences of oncofertility care. Consumers participated in qualitative focus group meetings to define and develop a model of consumer driven or informed "gold standard oncofertility care" with the aim of putting together a Charter that specifically described this. CONCLUSIONS: The finalized Australasian Oncofertility Consortium Charter documents eight key elements of gold standard oncofertility care that will be used to monitor the implementation of oncofertility services nationally, to ensure that these key elements are incorporated into standard practice over time.
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    A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand
    Anazodo, AC ; Stern, CJ ; McLachlan, RI ; Gerstl, B ; Agresta, F ; Cohn, RJ ; Jayasinghe, Y ; Wakefield, CE ; Daly, G ; Chan, D ; Gilbert, L ; Kemertzis, M ; Orme, LM ; Wand, H ; Viney, R ; Gillam, L ; Deans, R ; Jetti, M ; Wu, J ; Chapman, M ; Ledger, W ; Sullivan, EA (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2016-09-01)
    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550.