Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications

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    Attitudes, knowledge and practice behaviours of oncology health care professionals towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex (LGBTQI) patients and their carers: A mixed-methods study
    Ussher, JM ; Perz, J ; Allison, K ; Power, R ; Hawkey, A ; Dowsett, GW ; Hickey, M ; Parton, C ; McDonald, FEJ ; Davis, ID ; Quinn, GP ; Boydell, K ; Robinson, KH ; Chambers, S ; Anazodo, A (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2022-07-01)
    OBJECTIVE: There is growing recognition that health care professionals (HCPs) and policy makers are insufficiently equipped to provide culturally competent care to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex (LGBTQI) cancer patients and their families. We examined HCP attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding LGBTQI cancer care using a mixed-methods research design. METHOD: Surveys were completed by 357 oncology HCPs in nursing (40%), medical (24%), allied health (19%), and clinical leadership roles (11%); 48 of the surveyed HCPs were interviewed. RESULTS: Most HCPs reported being comfortable treating LGBTQI patients, but reported low levels of confidence and knowledge and systemic barriers to LGBTQI cancer care. Most wanted more education and training, particularly on trans and gender-diverse people (TGD) and those born with intersex variations. CONCLUSION: Education of HCPs and health system changes are required to overcome barriers to the provision of culturally competent cancer care for LGBTQI patients. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: These findings reinforce the need for inclusion of LGBTQI content in HCP education and professional training curricula, and institutional support for LGBTQI-inclusive practice behaviours. This includes administrative and visual cues to signal safety of LGBTQI patients within cancer care, facilitating inclusive environments, and the provision of tailored patient-centred care.
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    The menopause after cancer study (MACS)-A multimodal technology assisted intervention for the management of menopausal symptoms after cancer-Trial protocol of a phase II study
    Donohoe, F ; O'Meara, Y ; Roberts, A ; Comerford, L ; Kelly, CM ; Walshe, JM ; Peate, M ; Hickey, M ; Brennan, DJ (ELSEVIER INC, 2021-11-24)
    AIMS: This study will aim to assess if a composite intervention which involves a specific evidence-based intervention for management of insomnia and non-hormonal pharmacotherapy to manage vasomotor symptoms (VMS) of menopause can improve quality of life for patients experiencing troublesome VMS after cancer who are not eligible for standard systemic menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Participants will be asked to nominate a partner or companion to support them during this process as an additional form of support. BACKGROUND: The menopause transition and its symptoms represent a significant challenge for many patients after cancer treatment, particularly those for whom conventional MHT is contraindicated. These symptoms include hot flushes, night sweats, urogenital symptoms as well as mood and sleep disturbance. These symptoms can exacerbate the consequences of cancer and its treatment. METHODS: We will recruit 205 women who meet inclusion criteria and enrol them on a composite intervention which consists of four parts: (1) use of non-hormonal pharmacotherapy for the management of troublesome vasomotor symptoms of menopause tailored to the timing of predominant symptoms, (2) digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia through the web based Sleepio service, (3) access to information regarding self-management strategies for the common symptoms of menopause and their consequences and (4) identification of a partner or other support person who commits to providing support during the study period. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome will be cancer specific quality of life measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ C30). Secondary outcomes will include sleep quality, bother/interference of vasomotor symptoms and communication between couples about their cancer diagnosis and their menopause experience. Sleep will be measured using the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) tool, bother/interference of vasomotor symptoms will be measured by the Hot Flush Rating Scale (HFRS) and communication will be measured using the Couples' Illness Communication Scale (CICS). These validated scales will be administered at baseline, four weeks, three months and six months. REGISTRATION: This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with number NCT04766229.
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    The association between in utero exposure to maternal psychological stress and female reproductive function in adolescence: A prospective cohort study.
    Bräuner, EV ; Koch, T ; Doherty, DA ; Dickinson, JE ; Juul, A ; Hart, R ; Hickey, M (Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
    Background: Experimental studies suggest that prenatal stress affects reproductive function in female offspring, but human evidence is sparse and inconsistent. In this present study, we aim to investigate whether maternal psychological stress, quantified as stressful life events during pregnancy, affect reproductive function in the female offspring. Method: In a large population-based pregnancy cohort study (The Raine Study) continuously followed from prenatal life through to adolescence we examined the association between the number of maternal stressful life events in both early and late gestation and subsequent ovarian and uterine function in 228 female adolescent offspring. Mothers prospectively reported stressful life events during pregnancy at 18 and 34 weeks using a standardized 10-point questionnaire. Female offspring (n ​= ​228) age 14-16 years underwent gynecological examination including transabdominal abdominal ultrasound (TAUS) to measure uterine volume and ovarian AFC. Plasma samples on day 2-6 of the spontaneous menstrual cycle measured circulating AMH and inhibin B. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between maternal stressful life events and reproductive function in female offspring. Adolescents taking hormonal contraception were excluded. Results: Most adolescents (145/228, 64%) were exposed to at least one stressful life event in early gestation and around half (125/228, 55%) were exposed to at least one in later gestation. Exposure to one or more maternal stressful life events in late gestation was associated with a greater uterine volume (β ​= ​0.13, 95% CI 0.04; 0.23) and higher ovarian AFC (β ​= ​0.19, 95% CI 0.02; 0.35) at age 14-16 years. No associations between maternal stressful events in late gestation and reproductive function were identified. No associations between stressful life events in early or late gestation and circulating AMH or Inhibin B were observed. Conclusion: Maternal psychological stress in late, but not early gestation was associated with a significantly greater uterine volume and ovarian antral follicle count (AFC) in adolescent offspring but did not affect ovarian production of antimullerian hormone (AMH) or Inhibin B. These findings suggest that female reproductive function is influenced by prenatal exposure to stress.
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    Top 10 priorities for future infertility research: an international consensus development study
    Duffy, JMN ; Adamson, GD ; Benson, E ; Bhattacharya, S ; Bofill, M ; Brian, K ; Collura, B ; Curtis, C ; Evers, JLH ; Farquharson, RG ; Fincham, A ; Franik, S ; Giudice, LC ; Glanville, E ; Hickey, M ; Horne, AW ; Hull, ML ; Johnson, NP ; Jordan, V ; Khalaf, Y ; Knijnenburg, JML ; Legro, RS ; Lensen, S ; MacKenzie, J ; Mavrelos, D ; Mol, BW ; Morbeck, DE ; Nagels, H ; Ng, EHY ; Niederberger, C ; Otter, AS ; Puscasiu, L ; Rautakallio-Hokkanen, S ; Sadler, L ; Sarris, I ; Showell, M ; Stewart, J ; Strandell, A ; Strawbridge, C ; Vail, A ; van Wely, M ; Vercoe, M ; Vuong, NL ; Wang, AY ; Wang, R ; Wilkinson, J ; Wong, K ; Wong, TY ; Farquharf, CM (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-01-04)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can the priorities for future research in infertility be identified? SUMMARY ANSWER: The top 10 research priorities for the four areas of male infertility, female and unexplained infertility, medically assisted reproduction, and ethics, access, and organization of care for people with fertility problems were identified. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Many fundamental questions regarding the prevention, management, and consequences of infertility remain unanswered. This is a barrier to improving the care received by those people with fertility problems. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Potential research questions were collated from an initial international survey, a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines, and Cochrane systematic reviews. A rationalized list of confirmed research uncertainties was prioritized in an interim international survey. Prioritized research uncertainties were discussed during a consensus development meeting. Using a formal consensus development method, the modified nominal group technique, diverse stakeholders identified the top 10 research priorities for each of the categories male infertility, female and unexplained infertility, medically assisted reproduction, and ethics, access, and organization of care. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthcare professionals, people with fertility problems, and others (healthcare funders, healthcare providers, healthcare regulators, research funding bodies and researchers) were brought together in an open and transparent process using formal consensus methods advocated by the James Lind Alliance. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The initial survey was completed by 388 participants from 40 countries, and 423 potential research questions were submitted. Fourteen clinical practice guidelines and 162 Cochrane systematic reviews identified a further 236 potential research questions. A rationalized list of 231 confirmed research uncertainties were entered into an interim prioritization survey completed by 317 respondents from 43 countries. The top 10 research priorities for each of the four categories male infertility, female and unexplained infertility (including age-related infertility, ovarian cysts, uterine cavity abnormalities, and tubal factor infertility), medically assisted reproduction (including ovarian stimulation, IUI, and IVF), and ethics, access, and organization of care, were identified during a consensus development meeting involving 41 participants from 11 countries. These research priorities were diverse and seek answers to questions regarding prevention, treatment, and the longer-term impact of infertility. They highlight the importance of pursuing research which has often been overlooked, including addressing the emotional and psychological impact of infertility, improving access to fertility treatment, particularly in lower resource settings, and securing appropriate regulation. Addressing these priorities will require diverse research methodologies, including laboratory-based science, qualitative and quantitative research, and population science. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We used consensus development methods, which have inherent limitations, including the representativeness of the participant sample, methodological decisions informed by professional judgement, and arbitrary consensus definitions. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: We anticipate that identified research priorities, developed to specifically highlight the most pressing clinical needs as perceived by healthcare professionals, people with fertility problems, and others, will help research funding organizations and researchers to develop their future research agenda. STUDY FUNDING/ COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study was funded by the Auckland Medical Research Foundation, Catalyst Fund, Royal Society of New Zealand, and Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust. Geoffrey Adamson reports research sponsorship from Abbott, personal fees from Abbott and LabCorp, a financial interest in Advanced Reproductive Care, committee membership of the FIGO Committee on Reproductive Medicine, International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, International Federation of Fertility Societies, and World Endometriosis Research Foundation, and research sponsorship of the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies from Abbott and Ferring. Siladitya Bhattacharya reports being the Editor-in-Chief of Human Reproduction Open and editor for the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group. Hans Evers reports being the Editor Emeritus of Human Reproduction. Andrew Horne reports research sponsorship from the Chief Scientist's Office, Ferring, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Wellbeing of Women and consultancy fees from Abbvie, Ferring, Nordic Pharma, and Roche Diagnostics. M. Louise Hull reports grants from Merck, grants from Myovant, grants from Bayer, outside the submitted work and ownership in Embrace Fertility, a private fertility company. Neil Johnson reports research sponsorship from Abb-Vie and Myovant Sciences and consultancy fees from Guerbet, Myovant Sciences, Roche Diagnostics, and Vifor Pharma. José Knijnenburg reports research sponsorship from Ferring and Theramex. Richard Legro reports consultancy fees from Abbvie, Bayer, Ferring, Fractyl, Insud Pharma and Kindex and research sponsorship from Guerbet and Hass Avocado Board. Ben Mol reports consultancy fees from Guerbet, iGenomix, Merck, Merck KGaA and ObsEva. Ernest Ng reports research sponsorship from Merck. Craig Niederberger reports being the Co Editor-in-Chief of Fertility and Sterility and Section Editor of the Journal of Urology, research sponsorship from Ferring, and retains a financial interest in NexHand. Jane Stewart reports being employed by a National Health Service fertility clinic, consultancy fees from Merck for educational events, sponsorship to attend a fertility conference from Ferring, and being a clinical subeditor of Human Fertility. Annika Strandell reports consultancy fees from Guerbet. Jack Wilkinson reports being a statistical editor for the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group. Andy Vail reports that he is a Statistical Editor of the Cochrane Gynaecology & Fertility Review Group and of the journal Reproduction. His employing institution has received payment from HFEA for his advice on review of research evidence to inform their 'traffic light' system for infertility treatment 'add-ons'. Lan Vuong reports consultancy and conference fees from Ferring, Merck and Merck Sharp and Dohme. The remaining authors declare no competing interests in relation to the present work. All authors have completed the disclosure form. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.
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    Developing a core outcome set for future infertility research: an international consensus development study
    Duffy, JMN ; AlAhwany, H ; Bhattacharya, S ; Collura, B ; Curtis, C ; Evers, JLH ; Farquharson, RG ; Franik, S ; Giudice, LC ; Khalaf, Y ; Knijnenburg, JML ; Leeners, B ; Legro, RS ; Lensen, S ; Vazquez-Niebla, JC ; Mavrelos, D ; Mol, BWJ ; Niederberger, C ; Ng, EHY ; Otter, AS ; Puscasiu, L ; Rautakallio-Hokkanen, S ; Repping, S ; Sarris, I ; Simpson, JL ; Strandell, A ; Strawbridge, C ; Torrance, HL ; Vail, A ; Wely, MV ; Vercoe, MA ; Vuong, NL ; Wang, AY ; Wang, R ; Wilkinson, J ; Youssef, MA ; Farquharg, CM (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-01-04)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can a core outcome set to standardize outcome selection, collection, and reporting across future infertility research be developed? SUMMARY ANSWER: A minimum data set, known as a core outcome set, has been developed for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and systematic reviews evaluating potential treatments for infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Complex issues, including a failure to consider the perspectives of people with fertility problems when selecting outcomes, variations in outcome definitions, and the selective reporting of outcomes on the basis of statistical analysis, make the results of infertility research difficult to interpret. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A three-round Delphi survey (372 participants from 41 countries) and consensus development workshop (30 participants from 27 countries). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthcare professionals, researchers, and people with fertility problems were brought together in an open and transparent process using formal consensus science methods. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The core outcome set consists of: viable intrauterine pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound (accounting for singleton, twin, and higher multiple pregnancy); pregnancy loss (accounting for ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth, and termination of pregnancy); live birth; gestational age at delivery; birthweight; neonatal mortality; and major congenital anomaly. Time to pregnancy leading to live birth should be reported when applicable. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We used consensus development methods which have inherent limitations, including the representativeness of the participant sample, Delphi survey attrition, and an arbitrary consensus threshold. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Embedding the core outcome set within RCTs and systematic reviews should ensure the comprehensive selection, collection, and reporting of core outcomes. Research funding bodies, the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) statement, and over 80 specialty journals, including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group, Ferility and Sterility, and Human Reproduction, have committed to implementing this core outcome set. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was funded by the Catalyst Fund, Royal Society of New Zealand, Auckland Medical Research Fund, and Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust. Siladitya Bhattacharya reports being the Editor-in-Chief of Human Reproduction Open and an editor of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility group. Hans Evers reports being the Editor Emeritus of Human Reproduction. José Knijnenburg reports research sponsorship from Ferring and Theramex. Richard Legro reports consultancy fees from Abbvie, Bayer, Ferring, Fractyl, Insud Pharma and Kindex and research sponsorship from Guerbet and Hass Avocado Board. Ben Mol reports consultancy fees from Guerbet, iGenomix, Merck, Merck KGaA and ObsEva. Craig Niederberger reports being the Co Editor-in-Chief of Fertility and Sterility and Section Editor of the Journal of Urology, research sponsorship from Ferring, and retains a financial interest in NexHand. Annika Strandell reports consultancy fees from Guerbet. Ernest Ng reports research sponsorship from Merck. Lan Vuong reports consultancy and conference fees from Ferring, Merck and Merck Sharp and Dohme. The remaining authors declare no competing interests in relation to the work presented. All authors have completed the disclosure form. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials Initiative: 1023.
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    Standardizing definitions and reporting guidelines for the infertility core outcome set: an international consensus development study
    Duffy, JMN ; Bhattacharya, S ; Bofill, M ; Collura, B ; Curtis, C ; Evers, JLH ; Giudice, LC ; Farquharson, RG ; Franik, S ; Hickey, M ; Hull, ML ; Jordan, V ; Khalaf, Y ; Legro, RS ; Lensen, S ; Mavrelos, D ; Mol, BW ; Niederberger, C ; Ng, EHY ; Puscasiu, L ; Repping, S ; Sarris, I ; Showell, M ; Strandell, A ; Vail, A ; van Wely, M ; Vercoe, M ; Vuong, NL ; Wang, AY ; Wang, R ; Wilkinson, J ; Youssef, MA ; Farquhar, CM (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-01-04)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can consensus definitions for the core outcome set for infertility be identified in order to recommend a standardized approach to reporting? SUMMARY ANSWER: Consensus definitions for individual core outcomes, contextual statements, and a standardized reporting table have been developed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Different definitions exist for individual core outcomes for infertility. This variation increases the opportunities for researchers to engage with selective outcome reporting, which undermines secondary research and compromises clinical practice guideline development. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Potential definitions were identified by a systematic review of definition development initiatives and clinical practice guidelines and by reviewing Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group guidelines. These definitions were discussed in a face-to-face consensus development meeting, which agreed consensus definitions. A standardized approach to reporting was also developed as part of the process. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthcare professionals, researchers, and people with fertility problems were brought together in an open and transparent process using formal consensus development methods. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Forty-four potential definitions were inventoried across four definition development initiatives, including the Harbin Consensus Conference Workshop Group and International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, 12 clinical practice guidelines, and Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group guidelines. Twenty-seven participants, from 11 countries, contributed to the consensus development meeting. Consensus definitions were successfully developed for all core outcomes. Specific recommendations were made to improve reporting. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We used consensus development methods, which have inherent limitations. There was limited representation from low- and middle-income countries. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: A minimum data set should assist researchers in populating protocols, case report forms, and other data collection tools. The generic reporting table should provide clear guidance to researchers and improve the reporting of their results within journal publications and conference presentations. Research funding bodies, the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials statement, and over 80 specialty journals have committed to implementing this core outcome set. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was funded by the Catalyst Fund, Royal Society of New Zealand, Auckland Medical Research Fund, and Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust. Siladitya Bhattacharya reports being the Editor-in-Chief of Human Reproduction Open and an editor of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility group. Hans Evers reports being the Editor Emeritus of Human Reproduction. Richard Legro reports consultancy fees from Abbvie, Bayer, Ferring, Fractyl, Insud Pharma and Kindex and research sponsorship from Guerbet and Hass Avocado Board. Ben Mol reports consultancy fees from Guerbet, iGenomix, Merck, Merck KGaA and ObsEva. Craig Niederberger reports being the Editor-in-Chief of Fertility and Sterility and Section Editor of the Journal of Urology, research sponsorship from Ferring, and a financial interest in NexHand. Ernest Ng reports research sponsorship from Merck. Annika Strandell reports consultancy fees from Guerbet. Jack Wilkinson reports being a statistical editor for the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility group. Andy Vail reports that he is a Statistical Editor of the Cochrane Gynaecology & Fertility Review Group and of the journal Reproduction. His employing institution has received payment from HFEA for his advice on review of research evidence to inform their 'traffic light' system for infertility treatment 'add-ons'. Lan Vuong reports consultancy and conference fees from Ferring, Merck and Merck Sharp and Dohme. The remaining authors declare no competing interests in relation to the work presented. All authors have completed the disclosure form. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials Initiative: 1023.
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    Accessibility of web-based health information for women in midlife from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds or with low health literacy
    Bandyopadhyay, M ; Stanzel, K ; Hammarberg, K ; Hickey, M ; Fisher, J (WILEY, 2021-12-23)
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the accessibility of Australian web-based health information for midlife women including those from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds or with low health literacy. METHODS: Search terms relating to midlife health were entered into Google Australia to identify health information websites. The content of the first two results pages was assessed using the European Commission's quality criteria for health websites. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Readability Ease Score with Grade 8 accepted as the average Australian reading level. RESULTS: Sixteen websites were evaluated. Accessibility scores ranged between 0 and 8. The Victorian Government's health website Better Health Channel and the Jean Hailes for Women's Health website contained the most accessible information, each scoring 8, but were both 'difficult to read' on the readability test. Four websites included written resources in languages other than English and two had information in audio-visual format in languages other than English. CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap in accessible online health information for Australian women from CALD backgrounds or those with low health literacy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Healthy behaviour changes in midlife may lead to better health in older age. More accessible health information resources are needed for women in midlife from CALD backgrounds and those with low health literacy.
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    Screening and risk reducing surgery for endometrial or ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome: a systematic review.
    Lim, N ; Hickey, M ; Young, GP ; Macrae, FA ; Kelly, C (BMJ, 2022-05-03)
    OBJECTIVE: Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by mismatch repair gene mutations, and female carriers are at an increased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. The best approach to screening is not yet clear and practice varies across countries and centers. We aimed to provide evidence to inform the best approach to screening and risk reduction. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted (Medline, Embase, PubMed). Studies evaluating the following were included: women with Lynch syndrome (by mismatch repair mutation or Amsterdam II criteria), screening methods for endometrial and/or ovarian cancer, intervention included endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasound, or serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), outcomes evaluated were number of cancers and/or endometrial hyperplasia. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies of Lynch syndrome carriers which screened for endometrial cancer using transvaginal ultrasound and/or hysteroscopy/endometrial biopsy revealed an incidence of 3.9% at the time of screening. Most (64.1%) endometrial cancers detected were from screening, with the balance detected in symptomatic women at the first screening visits, regular review, or between screening intervals. In mismatch repair carriers, the overall sensitivity of endometrial screening was 66.7%, and the number needed to screen ranged between 4 and 38 (median 7). The sensitivity of endometrial biopsy was 57.1% and the number needed to screen was 23-380 (median 78). The sensitivity of transvaginal ultrasound was 34.4% and the number needed to screen was 35-973 (median 170). Fourteen studies which screened for ovarian cancer using transvaginal ultrasound and/or CA-125 revealed an incidence of 1.3% at the time of screening and 42.9% of ovarian cancers were detected at asymptomatic screening. The sensitivity of ovarian screening was 54.6%, and the number needed to screen was 9-191 (median 23) in mismatch repair carriers. Thirteen studies reported 5.8% incident endometrial cancers and 0.5% ovarian cancers at time of risk reducing surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence to support screening for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome and data on mortality reduction are not available. Further prospective, randomized trials comparing targeted screening methods are needed. Risk reducing surgery remains the most reliable way to reduce endometrial and ovarian cancer risk in Lynch syndrome.
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    Using menopausal hormone therapy after a cancer diagnosis in Ireland
    Donohoe, F ; O'Meara, Y ; Roberts, A ; Comerford, L ; Kelly, CM ; Walshe, JM ; Lundy, D ; Hickey, M ; Brennan, DJ (SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2022-02-09)
    BACKGROUND: Menopause may cause a constellation of symptoms that affect quality of life. Many women will have menopause induced or exacerbated by treatment for cancer whether that be through surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or anti-endocrine therapy. As treatments advance, the number of people living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis is set to increase over the coming years meaning more people will be dealing with the after effects of cancer and its treatment. AIMS: This review aims to summarise available data to guide clinicians treating women with menopausal symptoms after the common cancer diagnoses encountered in Ireland. The use of menopausal hormone therapy is discussed as well as non-hormonal and non-pharmacological options. CONCLUSIONS: Managing menopausal symptoms is an important consideration for all physicians involved in the care of people living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis. High-quality data may not be available to guide treatment decisions, and, thus, it is essential to take into account the impact of the symptoms on quality of life as well as the likelihood of recurrence in each individual case.
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    Birthweight, gestational age and familial confounding in sex differences in infant mortality: a matched co-twin control study of Brazilian male-female twin pairs identified by population data linkage
    Calais-Ferreira, L ; Barreto, ME ; Mendonca, E ; Dite, GS ; Hickey, M ; Ferreira, PH ; Scurrah, KJ ; Hopper, JL (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-11-29)
    BACKGROUND: In infancy, males are at higher risk of dying than females. Birthweight and gestational age are potential confounders or mediators but are also familial and correlated, posing epidemiological challenges that can be addressed by studying male-female twin pairs. METHODS: We studied 28 558 male-female twin pairs born in Brazil between 2012 and 2016, by linking their birth and death records. Using a co-twin control study matched for gestational age and familial factors, we applied logistic regression with random effects (to account for paired data) to study the association between male sex and infant death, adjusting for: birthweight, within- and between-pair effects of birthweight, birth order and gestational age, including interactions. The main outcome was infant mortality (0-365 days) stratified by neonatal (early and late) and postneonatal deaths. RESULTS: Males were 100 g heavier and more at risk of infant death than their female co-twins before [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.49, P = 0.001] and after (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.39-1.83, P <0.001) adjusting for birthweight and birth order. When adjusting for birthweight within-pair difference and mean separately, the OR attenuated to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.21-1.61, P <0.001), with evidence of familial confounding (likelihood ratio test, P <0.001). We found evidence of interaction (P = 0.001) between male sex and gestational age for early neonatal death. CONCLUSIONS: After matching for gestational age and familial factors by design and controlling for birthweight and birth order, males remain at greater risk of infant death than their female co-twins. Birthweight's role as a confounder can be partially explained by familial factors.