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ItemRelease of proinflammatory cytokines and 8-isoprostane from placenta, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitusLappas, M ; Permezel, M ; Rice, GE (ENDOCRINE SOC, 2004-11-01)The aim of this study was to 1) profile the basal release of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and 8-isoprostane (a marker of oxidative stress); and 2) investigate the effect of stimulation on the release of cytokines from sc adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Placenta, sc adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle were incubated in the absence (control) or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 microg/ml), TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml), IL-6 (10 ng/ml), or IL-8 (10 ng/ml). After an 18-h incubation, the medium was collected, and the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and 8-isoprostane was quantified by ELISA. In all three tissues, 8-isoprostane release was greater in women with GDM, and stimulation with LPS increased 8-isoprostane release from adipose and skeletal muscle, but not placenta, obtained from women with GDM. However, in tissues obtained from normal pregnant women, LPS stimulation increased 8-isoprostane release in placenta and had no effect in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Their was no difference in the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 from placenta, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle obtained from normal pregnant women and women with GDM. Stimulation of placenta, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle with LPS and TNF-alpha resulted in greater release of IL-6 and IL-8, whereas only LPS increased TNF-alpha release from all three tissues. The data presented in this study demonstrate that there is a differential release of 8-isoprostane from fetal (placenta) and maternal (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) tissues obtained from normal pregnant women and women with GDM. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in the progression and/or pathogenesis of GDM.
ItemN-acetyl-cysteine inhibits phospholipid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokine release, protease activity, and nuclear factor-kappa B deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity in human fetal membranes in vitroLappas, M ; Permezel, M ; Rice, GE (ENDOCRINE SOC, 2003-04-01)The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandins (PGs), proinflammatory cytokines, and proteases has been implicated in the pathogenesis of term and preterm labor. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription pathway is activated by ROS and is a key regulator of PGs, proinflammatory cytokine release, and protease activity. N-Acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that through its ability to scavenger ROS suppresses NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity and resultant gene expression. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of NAC on NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity, phospholipid metabolism, cytokine release, and protease activity from human fetal membranes. Human amnion and choriodecidua (n = 9 separate placentas) were treated with 0 (control), 5, 10, or 15 mM NAC in the presence of 10 micro g/ml lipopolysaccharide. After 6-h incubation, the tissues were collected, NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was assessed by gel shift binding assays, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator activity were determined by zymography. The incubation medium was collected and assayed for type II phospholipase A(2) tissue content, IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha, and 8-isoprostane release by ELISA. The release of PGF(2alpha) was measured by RIA. Treatment of fetal membranes with NAC significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated type II phospholipase A(2) release and content; PGF(2alpha), IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha, and 8-isoprostane release; and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator enzyme activity and suppressed NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity (by ANOVA, P < 0.05). The data presented in this study demonstrate that NAC inhibits an NF-kappaB-activated pathway and subsequent phospholipid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokine release, and protease activity in human fetal membranes.