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ItemNo Preview AvailableNOD1 and NOD2 Regulate Proinflammatory and Prolabor Mediators in Human Fetal Membranes and Myometrium via Nuclear Factor-Kappa BLappas, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2013-07-01)Preterm birth remains one of the most important issues facing perinatal medicine today, with chronic inflammation and/or infection being the biggest etiological factor. The nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) intracellular molecules recognize a wide range of microbial products as well as other intracellular danger signals, thereby initiating inflammation through activation of nuclear factor KB (NFKB), a central regulator of the terminal processes of human labor and delivery. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of 1) human labor, proinflammatory cytokines, and bacterial endotoxin LPS on NOD1 and NOD2 expression and 2) NOD1 and NOD2 activation on the expression of prolabor mediators in human fetal membranes and myometrium. NOD1 and NOD2 expression was significantly higher in fetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous labor when compared to nonlaboring tissues. Bacterial endotoxin LPS and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL1B significantly increased NOD2, but not NOD1, expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced NOD2 expression was decreased by the NFKB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. In both fetal membranes and myometrium, the NOD1 ligand bacterial iE-DAP and the NOD2 ligand bacterial MDP significantly increased the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 and IL8), cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) expression and subsequent release of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2alpha, and the expression and activity of MMP9. The effects of these NOD1 and NOD2 ligands were mediated via NFKB, as 1) both iE-DAP and MDP significantly increased NFKB activation and 2) the NFKB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 attenuated iE-DAP- and MDP-induced expression and secretion of prolabor mediators. In conclusion, NOD1 and NOD2 are increased in laboring fetal membranes and myometrium and with bacterial infection. Agonist activation of NOD1 and NOD2 by bacterial products leads to NFKB activation and transcription of NFKB induced prolabor genes. NOD1 and NOD2 may thus represent therapeutic targets for the treatment and/or management of preterm birth.
ItemNo Preview AvailableSIRT6 Is Decreased with Preterm Labor and Regulates Key Terminal Effector Pathways of Human Labor in Fetal MembranesLim, R ; Barker, G ; Lappas, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2013-01-01)Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, affecting approximately one-third of preterm births as a result of prelabor rupturing of membranes. Infection and inflammation have strong causal links to preterm delivery, resulting in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFKB) and its downstream targets. Human sirtuin (SIRT) 6, which has ADP-ribosyl transferase and deacetylase activity, exhibits anti-inflammatory actions. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of 1) human preterm labor on SIRT6 expression in human gestational tissue and 2) the effect in primary amnion cells of SIRT6 inhibition, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) on prolabor mediators. To determine the effect of human preterm labor on SIRT6 expression, human fetal membranes were collected from women at preterm at the time of Cesarean section (no labor; n = 9) and from women after spontaneous labor and delivery (n = 9). SIRT6 mRNA and protein expression were significantly lower in fetal membranes after spontaneous preterm labor. Transfection of primary amnion cells with SIRT6 siRNA was associated with an increase in IL-1beta-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and release (IL6, IL8, TNF [TNF-alpha]), cyclooxygenase ([COX]-2; official symbol PTGS2) expression and subsequent prostaglandin (PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha)) release, and MMP9 gene expression and release of pro-MMP9. To determine whether SIRT6 affects NFKB transcriptional activity, primary amnion cells were transfected with NFKB tagged with luciferase and stimulated with IL1B. As expected, IL1B induced NFKB transcriptional activity. However, when cells were also cotransfected with a vector expressing SIRT6, there was a decrease in NFKB transcriptional activity. In conclusion, SIRT6 plays a role in regulating the terminal effector pathways of human labor and delivery via the NFKB pathway.
ItemNo Preview AvailableComplement C5a Regulates Prolabor Mediators in Human PlacentaLappas, M ; Woodruff, TM ; Taylor, SM ; Permezel, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2012-06-01)Human preterm and term parturition is associated with inflammatory cascades in the uteroplacental unit. Activation of the complement cascade releases potent proinflammatory mediators, including the anaphylatoxin C5a, which exerts its biological effects through its receptors, C5AR (also known as CD88) and C5L2, official symbol GPR77. To date, there are few data available on the role of C5a and CD88 in human pregnancy, so the aim of this study was to determine the effect of C5a and CD88 on some key inflammatory pathways involved in human parturition. Placental tissue samples were obtained from normal pregnancies at the time of Cesarean section. Human placental and fetal membranes were incubated in the absence (basal control) or presence of 0.5 μg/ml (~60 nM) human recombinant C5a for 24 h. Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and 8-isoprostane (a marker of oxidative stress) were quantified by ELISA and secretory matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity by zymography. NFKB DNA binding activity and NFKBIA (IkappaB-alpha; inhibitor of NFKB) protein degradation were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting, respectively. In the presence of C5a, proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 and IL8), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2; official symbol PTGS2) expression, and subsequent prostaglandin (PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha)), MMP9 enzyme production, and NFKB DNA activation were all significantly increased. The C5a-induced prolabor responses were significantly reduced by treatment with the selective CD88 antagonist PMX53 and the NFKB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. We conclude that C5a upregulates prolabor mediators in human gestational tissues via CD88-mediated NFKB activation.