Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Dual Pathway Model of Responses Between Climate Change and Livestock Production
    Iyiola-Tunji, AO ; Adamu, JI ; John, PA ; Muniru, I (Springer International Publishing, 2021)
    Abstract This chapter was aimed at evaluating the responses of livestock to fluctuations in climate and the debilitating effect of livestock production on the environment. Survey of livestock stakeholders (farmers, researchers, marketers, and traders) was carried out in Sahel, Sudan, Northern Guinea Savannah, Southern Guinea Savannah, and Derived Savannah zones of Nigeria. In total, 362 respondents were interviewed between April and June 2020. The distribution of the respondents was 22 in Sahel, 57 in Sudan, 61 in Northern Guinea Savannah, 80 in Southern Guinea Savannah, and 106 in Derived Savannah. The respondents were purposively interviewed based on their engagement in livestock production, research or trading activities. Thirty-eight years’ climate data from 1982 to 2019 were obtained from Nigerian Metrological Agency, Abuja. Ilela, Kiyawa, and Sabon Gari were chosen to represent Sahel, Sudan, and Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria, respectively. The data contained precipitation, relative humidity, and minimum and maximum temperature. The temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated using the formula: THI = 0.8*T + RH*(T-14.4) + 46.4, where T = ambient or dry-bulb temperature in °C and RH=relative humidity expressed as a proportion. Three Machine Learning model were built to predict the monthly minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and relative humidity respectively based on information from the previous 11 months. The methodology adopted is to treat each prediction task as a supervised learning problem. This involves transforming the time series data into a feature-target dataset using autoregressive (AR) technique. The major component of the activities of livestock that was known to cause injury to the environment as depicted in this chapter was the production of greenhouse gases. From the respondents in this chapter, some adaptive measures were stated as having controlling and mitigating effect at reducing the effect of activities of livestock on the climate and the environment. The environment and climate on the other side of the dual pathway is also known to induce stress on livestock. The concept of crop-livestock integration system is advocated in this chapter as beneficial to livestock and environment in the short and long run. Based on the predictive model developed for temperature and relative humidity in a sample location (Ilela) using Machine Learning in this chapter, there is need for development of a web or standalone application that will be useable by Nigerian farmers, meteorological agencies, and extension organizations as climate fluctuation early warning system. Development of this predictive model needs to be expanded and made functional.
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    The Consumer Labelling Turn in Farmed Animal Welfare Politics: From the Margins of Animal Advocacy to Mainstream Supermarket Shelves
    Parker, C ; Carey, R ; Scrinis, G ; Phillipov, M ; Kirkwood, K (Routledge, 2019)
    “Free range” and other higher welfare label claims are increasingly visible on Australian egg, pork and chicken meat products. This paper critically examines the way in which these claims have shifted animal welfare concerns from the “margins” of the animal advocacy movement to the “mainstream” of everyday consumer choice. It asks what has been lost and what gained as mainstream producers and retailers have adopted these label claims. The chapter argues that the growing market share of higher welfare labelled foods and the increasing public discussion and contestation of the meaning of terms such as “free range”, “free to roam” and “bred free range” does represent the success of animal advocacy campaigns aimed at activating mainstream consumers to express their concern about animal welfare. At the same time label claims also exhibit the creativity of industry and retailers in appropriating and accommodating civil society critiques of dominant production and distribution systems by narrowing down the range of contested issues, and sentimentalising, simplifying and de-radicalising potential solutions. This indicates a governance gap - a chasm between what can be achieved via voluntary certification and labelling and the need for a more inclusive, sustainable and official government regulation of animal welfare.
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    Therapeutic Potential of Seaweed Bioactive Compounds
    Khalid, S ; Abbas, M ; Saeed, F ; Bader-Ul-Ain, H ; Ansar Rasul Suleria, H ; Maiti, S (IntechOpen, 2018)
    Edible seaweeds are rich in bioactive compounds such as soluble dietary fibers, proteins, peptides, minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Previously, seaweeds were only used as gelling and thickening agents in the food or pharmaceutical industries, recent researches have revealed their potential as complementary medicine. The red, brown and green seaweeds have been shown to have therapeutic properties for health and disease management, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiestrogenic, thyroid stimulating, neuroprotective, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and tissue healing properties. In proposed chapter, we discussed various active compounds include sulphated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, carotenoids (e.g. fucoxanthin), minerals, peptides and sulfolipids, with proven benefits against degenerative metabolic diseases. Moreover, therapeutic modes of action of these bioactive components and their reports are summarized in this chapter.
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    Fundamental molecular techniques for rhizobia
    Melino, V ; Reeve, W ; Tiwari, RP ; Poole, PS ; Howieson, JG ; Dilworth, MJ (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 2016)
    Study of the legume/rhizobium symbiosis necessitates an understanding of methods to isolate and characterise the bacteria. Since the publication of ‘A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria’ by Jim Vincent (1970) a number of sequels have been published, such as the NifTAL, CIAT and CIMMYT manuals, which are now out of date and out of print. Discoveries of a much wider range of root-nodulating bacteria than previously known means that even simple isolation methods need revisiting to ensure unusual types of bacteria are not discarded. Drawing on the rich experience from earlier publications, this manual brings together state-of-the-art methods for the study of root-nodule bacteria, both in the free-living state and in symbiosis with legumes. In each chapter, we introduce the topic and provide guidance on how study of the symbiosis might best be tackled. We then provide a detailed description of protocols that need to be followed and highlight potential problems and pitfalls. Topics covered include acquiring, recognising, growing and storing rhizobia, experimenting with strains in the laboratory, glasshouse and field, and applying contemporary molecular and genetic methodologies to assist in the study of rhizobia. We include a chapter that describes the current taxonomy and physiological understanding of rhizobia, and another on the production of inoculants and quality control in the supply chain.
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    MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ADDRESS DIFFUSE CAUSES OF HYDROLOGIC ALTERATION
    Horne, AC ; Morris, CR ; Fowler, KJA ; Costelloe, JF ; Fletcher, TD ; Horne, AC ; Webb, JA ; Stewardson, MJ ; Richter, B ; Acreman, M (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017-01-01)
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    Transforming Farming Systems: Expanding the Production of Soybeans in Ontario
    Hume, D ; Pearson, CJ ; Tow, P ; Cooper, I ; Partridge, I ; Birch, C (Springer, 2011)