Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Input-to-state stability analysis via averaging for parameterized discrete-time systems
    Wang, W ; Nešíc, D (Watam Press, 2010-12-15)
    The paper studies semi-global practical input-to-state stability (SGP-ISS) of a parameterized family of discrete-time systems that may arise when an approximate discrete-time model of a sampled-data system with disturbances is used for controller design. It is shown under appropriate conditions that if the solutions of the time varying family of discrete-time systems with disturbances converge uniformly on compact time intervals to the solutions of the average family of discrete-time systems, then ISS of the average family of systems implies SGP-ISS of the original family of systems. A trajectory based approach is utilized to establish the main result.
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    In vitro antidiabetic effects of selected fruits and vegetables against glycosidase and aldose reductase.
    Wu, T ; Luo, J ; Xu, B (Wiley, 2015-11)
    In vitro antidiabetic effect of fruits and vegetables with reports as folk remedies were investigated. The antidiabetic effects were evaluated by comparing the inhibitory properties of α-glycosidase, aldose reductase, and antioxidant activity. The results indicated that lychee extract exhibited the best dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glycosidase with IC 50 of 10.4 mg/mL, and lemon peel extract exhibited aldose reductase inhibitory potential with IC 50 value at 3.63 mg/mL. Besides, the result also showed that the inhibitory effects of blueberry and plum against α-glycosidase were strong among the fruits samples. Bitter gourd and eggplant demonstrated significant inhibitory potential against aldose reductase, with IC 50 values at 8.55 mg/mL and 8.06 mg/mL, respectively. The result from correlation analysis part showed that the antioxidant activities of selected fruits and vegetables were found related to their health beneficial effects, as there was positive correlations between total flavonoids content (TFC) and aldose reductase inhibitory activity (r (2) = 0.556).
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    Renewal ecology: conservation for the Anthropocene
    Bowman, DMJS ; Garnett, ST ; Barlow, S ; Bekessy, SA ; Bellairs, SM ; Bishop, MJ ; Bradstock, RA ; Jones, DN ; Maxwell, SL ; Pittock, J ; Toral-Granda, MV ; Watson, JEM ; Wilson, T ; Zander, KK ; Hughes, L (WILEY, 2017-09-01)
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    High-throughput physiological phenotyping and screening system for the characterization of plant-environment interactions
    Halperin, O ; Gebremedhin, A ; Wallach, R ; Moshelion, M (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    We present a simple and effective high-throughput experimental platform for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of water relations in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum of numerous plants under dynamic environmental conditions. This system provides a simultaneously measured, detailed physiological response profile for each plant in the array, over time periods ranging from a few minutes to the entire growing season, under normal, stress and recovery conditions and at any phenological stage. Three probes for each pot in the array and a specially designed algorithm enable detailed water-relations characterization of whole-plant transpiration, biomass gain, stomatal conductance and root flux. They also enable quantitative calculation of the whole plant water-use efficiency and relative water content at high resolution under dynamic soil and atmospheric conditions. The system has no moving parts and can fit into many growing environments. A screening of 65 introgression lines of a wild tomato species (Solanum pennellii) crossed with cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum), using our system and conventional gas-exchange tools, confirmed the accuracy of the system as well as its diagnostic capabilities. The use of this high-throughput diagnostic screening method is discussed in light of the gaps in our understanding of the genetic regulation of whole-plant performance, particularly under abiotic stress.
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    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cellulose synthase-like D2 gene (HvCslD2) mediates penetration resistance to host-adapted and nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus
    Douchkov, D ; Lueck, S ; Hensel, G ; Kumlehn, J ; Rajaraman, J ; Johrde, A ; Doblin, MS ; Beahan, CT ; Kopischke, M ; Fuchs, R ; Lipka, V ; Niks, RE ; Bulone, V ; Chowdhury, J ; Little, A ; Burton, RA ; Bacic, A ; Fincher, GB ; Schweizer, P (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-10-01)
    Cell walls and cellular turgor pressure shape and suspend the bodies of all vascular plants. In response to attack by fungal and oomycete pathogens, which usually breach their host's cell walls by mechanical force or by secreting lytic enzymes, plants often form local cell wall appositions (papillae) as an important first line of defence. The involvement of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes in the formation of these papillae is still poorly understood, especially in cereal crops. To investigate the role in plant defence of a candidate gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare) encoding cellulose synthase-like D2 (HvCslD2), we generated transgenic barley plants in which HvCslD2 was silenced through RNA interference (RNAi). The transgenic plants showed no growth defects but their papillae were more successfully penetrated by host-adapted, virulent as well as avirulent nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Papilla penetration was associated with lower contents of cellulose in epidermal cell walls and increased digestion by fungal cell wall degrading enzymes. The results suggest that HvCslD2-mediated cell wall changes in the epidermal layer represent an important defence reaction both for nonhost and for quantitative host resistance against nonadapted wheat and host-adapted barley powdery mildew pathogens, respectively.
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    The Use of Audio Playback to Deter Crop-Raiding Asian Elephants
    Wijayagunawardane, MPB ; Short, RV ; Samarakone, TS ; Nishany, KBM ; Harrington, H ; Perera, BVP ; Rassool, R ; Bittner, EP (WILEY, 2016-06-01)
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    Water Experts' Perception of Risk for New and Unfamiliar Water Projects
    Kosovac, A ; Hurlimann, A ; Davidson, B (MDPI AG, 2017-12-01)
    In the context of a changing urban environment and increasing demand due to population growth, alternative water sources must be explored in order to create future water security. Risk assessments play a pivotal role in the take-up of new and unfamiliar water projects, acting as a decision-making tool for business cases. Perceptions of risk ultimately drive risk assessment processes, therefore providing insight into understanding projects that proceed and those that do not. Yet there is limited information on the risk perceptions water professionals have of new and unfamiliar water projects. In this study, 77 water professionals were surveyed from across the Melbourne metropolitan water industry to examine risk perceptions over a range of different, unfamiliar water projects. The qualitative data was thematically analysed, resulting in a number of risk perception factors for each hypothetical project. Risk factors that recurred most frequently are those that relate to community backlash and to the reputation of the organisation. These social risk perceptions occurred more frequently than other more technical risks, such as operational risks and process-related risks. These results were at odds with the existing literature assessing risk perceptions of business-as-usual projects, which presented cost as the key risk attribute. This study sheds light on the perceived nature of new and unfamiliar processes in the water sector, providing an understanding that public perceptions do matter to experts involved in water infrastructure decision-making.
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    A systematic review and meta-analysis of salivary cortisol measurement in domestic canines
    Cobb, ML ; Iskandarani, K ; Chinchilli, VM ; Dreschel, NA (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2016-10-01)
    Salivary cortisol is widely used as an indicator of stress and welfare in canine research. However, much remains unclear about the basic features of this hormone marker in domestic dogs. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine a reference range for cortisol concentration in the saliva of dogs and examine how canine characteristics, environmental effects and experimental considerations relate to salivary cortisol concentrations. A systematic review of literature databases and conference proceedings from 1992 to 2012 identified 61 peer-reviewed studies using domestic dog salivary cortisol. Researchers were contacted via email, and 31 raw data sets representing a total of 5,153 samples from 1,205 dogs were shared. Meta-analysis provided a cortisol concentration range of 0 to 33.79 μg/dL (mean 0.45 μg/dL, SEM 0.13). Significant effects (P < 0.05) were found for sex and neuter status, age, regular living environment, time in environment before testing, testing environment, owner presence during testing, and collection media. Significant effects were not found for dog breed, body weight, dog type, coat color, assay type, exercise, eating, or use of salivary stimulant. Care should be taken when using cortisol studies for dogs at a group or population level as there is a large amount of intraindividual and interindividual variability and external variables could influence salivary cortisol concentration. This analysis highlights the importance of carefully controlling experimental design to compare samples within and between individual dogs, as well as establishing and using best practices for saliva collection. Caution should be exercised in comparing different studies, as the results could be the reflection of a plethora of factors.
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    RIPLET, and not TRIM25, is required for endogenous RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses
    Hayman, TJ ; Hsu, AC ; Kolesnik, TB ; Dagley, LF ; Willemsen, J ; Tate, MD ; Baker, PJ ; Kershaw, NJ ; Kedzierski, L ; Webb, A ; Wark, PA ; Kedzierska, K ; Masters, SL ; Belz, GT ; Binder, M ; Hansbro, PM ; Nicola, NA ; Nicholson, SE (WILEY, 2019-08-19)
    The innate immune system is our first line of defense against viral pathogens. Host cell pattern recognition receptors sense viral components and initiate immune signaling cascades that result in the production of an array of cytokines to combat infection. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes viral RNA and, when activated, results in the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) and the upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. Ubiquitination of RIG-I by the E3 ligases tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) and Riplet is thought to be requisite for RIG-I activation; however, recent studies have questioned the relative importance of these two enzymes for RIG-I signaling. In this study, we show that deletion of Trim25 does not affect the IFN response to either influenza A virus (IAV), influenza B virus, Sendai virus or several RIG-I agonists. This is in contrast to deletion of either Rig-i or Riplet, which completely abrogated RIG-I-dependent IFN responses. This was consistent in both mouse and human cell lines, as well as in normal human bronchial cells. With most of the current TRIM25 literature based on exogenous expression, these findings provide critical evidence that Riplet, and not TRIM25, is required endogenously for the ubiquitination of RIG-I. Despite this, loss of TRIM25 results in greater susceptibility to IAV infection in vivo, suggesting that it may have an alternative role in host antiviral defense. This study refines our understanding of RIG-I signaling in viral infections and will inform future studies in the field.