Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Curcumin's Nanomedicine Formulations for Therapeutic Application in Neurological Diseases.
    Salehi, B ; Calina, D ; Docea, AO ; Koirala, N ; Aryal, S ; Lombardo, D ; Pasqua, L ; Taheri, Y ; Marina Salgado Castillo, C ; Martorell, M ; Martins, N ; Iriti, M ; Suleria, HAR ; Sharifi-Rad, J (MDPI AG, 2020-02-05)
    The brain is the body's control center, so when a disease affects it, the outcomes are devastating. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis are brain diseases that cause a large number of human deaths worldwide. Curcumin has demonstrated beneficial effects on brain health through several mechanisms such as antioxidant, amyloid β-binding, anti-inflammatory, tau inhibition, metal chelation, neurogenesis activity, and synaptogenesis promotion. The therapeutic limitation of curcumin is its bioavailability, and to address this problem, new nanoformulations are being developed. The present review aims to summarize the general bioactivity of curcumin in neurological disorders, how functional molecules are extracted, and the different types of nanoformulations available.
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    Microencapsulation and Characterization of Natural Polyphenols from PHF Extract
    Hussain, SA ; Hameed, A ; Nazir, Y ; Naz, T ; Wu, Y ; Suleria, HAR ; Song, Y (MDPI AG, 2018-05-23)
    Microencapsulation of polyherbal formulation (PHF) extract was carried out by freeze drying method, by employing gum arabic (GA), gelatin (GE), and maltodextrin (MD) with their designated different combinations as encapsulating wall materials. Antioxidant components (i.e total phenolic contents (TPC),Total flavonoids contents (TFC), and total condensed contents (TCT)), antioxidant activity (i.e. DPPH, β-carotene & ABTS+ assays), moisture contents, water activity (aw), solubility, hygroscopicity, glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size, morphology, in vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition and bioavailability ratios of the powders were investigated. Amongst all encapsulated products, TB (5% GA and 5% MD) and TC (10% GA) has proven to be the best treatments with respect to the highest preservation of antioxidant components and their antioxidant potential by DPPH and β-carotene assays and noteworthy for an ABTS+ assays, in addition, the aforesaid treatments also demonstrated lower moisture content, aw, particle size and higher solubility, hygroscopicity and glass transition temperature (Tg). All freeze dried samples showed irregular (asymmetrical) microcrystalline structures. Furthermore, TB and TC also illustrated the highest in vitro anti-diabetic potential due to great potency for inhibiting alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities. In the perspective of bioavailability, TA, TB and TC demonstrated the excellent bioavailability ratios (%).Futhermore, the phytochemo-profiling of ethanolic extract of PHF was also revealed to find out the bioactive compounds.
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    Effect of cabbage or its aqueous extract incorporated croquettes on chemical composition and storage stability in relation to antioxidant potential and sensory profile
    Ashfaq, F ; Butt, MS ; Bilal, A ; Tehseen, S ; Suleria, HAR (Wiley, 2020-01-01)
    Green or red cabbage or their aqueous extracts based croquettes were formulated and compared with control croquettes over one‐month frozen storage, involving baking and frying procedures. Maximum ash (p < .05) was quantified in red cabbage croquettes, 3.99 ± 0.24% (Baked) and 4.27 ± 0.09% (Fried) while minimal fat was found in green and red cabbage croquettes, predominantly via baking; 3.07 ± 0.25% and 3.15 ± 0.30%, respectively. Antioxidant activity was maximally reported (p < .05) in red cabbage based treatments, though, it reduced with the progression in storage. Total polyphenols in baked and fried cabbage croquettes were in the range from 70.59 ± 3.25 to 121.61 ± 5.85 and 71.17 ± 3.06 to 125.82 ± 6.09 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100 g F.W., respectively, and demonstrated linear relationship with antioxidant potential. Among treated samples, maximum score for overall acceptability was attained by green cabbage based croquettes among fried (7.71 ± 1.35) and baked (7.27 ± 0.49) samples. Thus, cabbage based croquettes showed high nutritional and antioxidant potential without affecting product acceptability.
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    The global, regional, and national burden of inflammatory bowel disease in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
    Alatab, S ; Sepanlou, SG ; Ikuta, K ; Vahedi, H ; Bisignano, C ; Safiri, S ; Sadeghi, A ; Nixon, MR ; Abdoli, A ; Abolhassani, H ; Alipour, V ; Almadi, MAH ; Almasi-Hashiani, A ; Anushiravani, A ; Arabloo, J ; Atique, S ; Awasthi, A ; Badawi, A ; Baig, AAA ; Bhala, N ; Bijani, A ; Biondi, A ; Borzi, AM ; Burke, KE ; Carvalho, F ; Daryani, A ; Dubey, M ; Eftekhari, A ; Fernandes, E ; Fernandes, JC ; Fischer, F ; Haj-Mirzaian, A ; Haj-Mirzaian, A ; Hasanzadeh, A ; Hashemian, M ; Hay, S ; Hoang, CL ; Househ, M ; Ilesanmi, OS ; Balalami, NJ ; James, SL ; Kengne, AP ; Malekzadeh, MM ; Merat, S ; Meretoja, TJ ; Mestrovic, T ; Mirrakhimov, EM ; Mirzaei, H ; Mohammad, KA ; Mokdad, AH ; Monasta, L ; Negoi, I ; Nguyen, TH ; Nguyen, CT ; Pourshams, A ; Poustchi, H ; Rabiee, M ; Rabiee, N ; Ramezanzadeh, K ; Rawaf, DL ; Rawaf, S ; Rezaei, N ; Robinson, SR ; Ronfani, L ; Saxena, S ; Sepehrimanesh, M ; Shaikh, MA ; Sharafi, Z ; Sharif, M ; Siabani, S ; Sima, AR ; Singh, JA ; Soheili, A ; Sotoudehmanesh, R ; Suleria, HAR ; Tesfay, BE ; Bach, T ; Tsoi, D ; Vacante, M ; Wondmieneh, AB ; Zarghi, A ; Zhang, Z-J ; Dirac, M ; Malekzadeh, R ; Naghavi, M (ELSEVIER INC, 2020-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising globally, with substantial variation in levels and trends of disease in different countries and regions. Understanding these geographical differences is crucial for formulating effective strategies for preventing and treating IBD. We report the prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of IBD in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. METHODS: We modelled mortality due to IBD using a standard Cause of Death Ensemble model including data mainly from vital registrations. To estimate the non-fatal burden, we used data presented in primary studies, hospital discharges, and claims data, and used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, to ensure consistency between measures. Mortality, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated. All of the estimates were reported as numbers and rates per 100 000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). FINDINGS: In 2017, there were 6·8 million (95% UI 6·4-7·3) cases of IBD globally. The age-standardised prevalence rate increased from 79·5 (75·9-83·5) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 84·3 (79·2-89·9) per 100 000 population in 2017. The age-standardised death rate decreased from 0·61 (0·55-0·69) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 0·51 (0·42-0·54) per 100 000 population in 2017. At the GBD regional level, the highest age-standardised prevalence rate in 2017 occurred in high-income North America (422·0 [398·7-446·1] per 100 000) and the lowest age-standardised prevalence rates were observed in the Caribbean (6·7 [6·3-7·2] per 100 000 population). High Socio-demographic Index (SDI) locations had the highest age-standardised prevalence rate, while low SDI regions had the lowest age-standardised prevalence rate. At the national level, the USA had the highest age-standardised prevalence rate (464·5 [438·6-490·9] per 100 000 population), followed by the UK (449·6 [420·6-481·6] per 100 000). Vanuatu had the highest age-standardised death rate in 2017 (1·8 [0·8-3·2] per 100 000 population) and Singapore had the lowest (0·08 [0·06-0·14] per 100 000 population). The total YLDs attributed to IBD almost doubled over the study period, from 0·56 million (0·39-0·77) in 1990 to 1·02 million (0·71-1·38) in 2017. The age-standardised rate of DALYs decreased from 26·5 (21·0-33·0) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 23·2 (19·1-27·8) per 100 000 population in 2017. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of IBD increased substantially in many regions from 1990 to 2017, which might pose a substantial social and economic burden on governments and health systems in the coming years. Our findings can be useful for policy makers developing strategies to tackle IBD, including the education of specialised personnel to address the burden of this complex disease. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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    Farm to Consumer: Factors Affecting the Organoleptic Characteristics of Coffee. II: Postharvest Processing Factors
    Hameed, A ; Hussain, SA ; Ijaz, MU ; Ullah, S ; Pasha, I ; Suleria, HAR (Wiley, 2018-09-01)
    The production and consumption of coffee are increasing despite the roadblocks to its agriculture and global trade. The unique, refreshing, and stimulating final cupping quality of coffee is the only reason for this rising production and consumption. Coffee quality is a multifaceted trait and is inevitably influenced by the way it is successively processed after harvesting. Reportedly, 60% of the quality attributes of coffee are governed by postharvest processing. The current review elaborates and establishes for the first time the relationship between different methods of postharvest processing of coffee and its varying organoleptic and sensory quality attributes. In view of the proven significance of each processing step, this review has been subdivided into three sections, secondary processing, primary processing, and postprocessing variables. Secondary processing addresses the immediate processing steps on the farm after harvest and storage before roasting. The primary processing section adheres specifically to roasting, grinding and brewing/extraction, topics which have been technically addressed more than any others in the literature and by industry. The postprocessing attribute section deals generally with interaction of the consumer with products of different visual appearance. Finally, there are still some bottlenecks which need to be addressed, not only to completely understand the relationship of varying postharvest processing methods with varying in-cup quality attributes, but also to devise the next generation of coffee processing technologies.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Peng, D ; Zahid, HF ; Ajlouni, S ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-10-18)
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is e_ectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w).
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    Marine Processing Waste: In Search of Bioactive Molecules
    Rasul Suleria, HA (Longdom Publishing, 2016)
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    Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia
    Sultan, MT ; Butt, MS ; Ahmad, RS ; Batool, R ; Naz, A ; Suleria, H (Functional Food Center, 2011)
    Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin seed in reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. For the purpose, thirty Sprague dawley rats were procured from the National Institute of Health (NIH) in Islamabad, Pakistan, and further split up into three groups, (10 rats each). Experimental diets were prepared using powdered black cumin (PBC) at 1% and 2%, and compared with the placebo. Results: The results revealed that PBC was effective in reducing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Additionally, the experimental diets resulted in a non-significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Overall, powdered black cumin at 1% and 2% reduced cholesterol level by 6.73, and 4.48%, LDL by 24.79, and 24.32% respectively. However, the supplementation of PBC at 2% resulted in marked variations as increasing tendency, which was recorded for cholesterol and triglycerides contents after 28 days of study. Conclusion: Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using powdered black cumin seed in diet based therapies to improve the lipid profile. Further studies are still required to assess the phytochemistry of the plants and indeed the functional ingredients responsible for such health benefits. Such studies would bring meticulousness for utilization of black cumin seeds as a functional food.
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    Therapeutic Potential of Seaweed Bioactive Compounds
    Khalid, S ; Abbas, M ; Saeed, F ; Bader-Ul-Ain, H ; Ansar Rasul Suleria, H ; Maiti, S (IntechOpen, 2018)
    Edible seaweeds are rich in bioactive compounds such as soluble dietary fibers, proteins, peptides, minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Previously, seaweeds were only used as gelling and thickening agents in the food or pharmaceutical industries, recent researches have revealed their potential as complementary medicine. The red, brown and green seaweeds have been shown to have therapeutic properties for health and disease management, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiestrogenic, thyroid stimulating, neuroprotective, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and tissue healing properties. In proposed chapter, we discussed various active compounds include sulphated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, carotenoids (e.g. fucoxanthin), minerals, peptides and sulfolipids, with proven benefits against degenerative metabolic diseases. Moreover, therapeutic modes of action of these bioactive components and their reports are summarized in this chapter.
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    Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts of filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides (WJ11): Extraction, characterization and storage stability of food emulsions
    Hameed, A ; Hussain, SA ; Ijaz, MU ; Ullah, S ; Muhammad, Z ; Suleria, HAR ; Song, Y (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
    Optimized extraction of antioxidants from Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (MCWJ11) biomass was studied. Storage, stability, composition and antioxidant properties in model food emulsion systems were also investigated. Both the extraction approach and solvent type were found to significantly (p<0.05) influence the recovery yield of antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity. The 90% aqueous binary solvent system with semi-polar solvents (i.e., acetone and ethanol) showed increased recovery levels of TPC, TFC and TCT, with the highest antioxidant bioactivity obtained using a pressurized liquid extraction. Ninety-day storage studies of microbial ethanolic extracts with accelerated storage/processing showed increased degradation of antioxidants at elevated temperatures (22–28 oC), with a negligible influence of white light. Substantial loss of microbial polyphenolic compounds was also observed, especially in fetal bovine serum at 37 °C with a 48 h stability test in biologically relevant buffers. Liquid–liquid fractionation of microbial ethanolic extracts led to the most active antioxidative fractions with ethyl acetate and 1-butanol. Comparatively, EtAc had better antioxidative activity (in a dose-dependent manner) against lipid oxidation in the tested food model emulsion systems. Furthermore, metabolic fingerprinting of the ethanolic extracts showed that the secondary metabolites of MCWJ11 were alkaloids, pigments, benzoic acids, terpenoids, cinnamic acids, benzopyrans, aspalathins and phloretins.