Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    High expression of CD38 and MHC class II on CD8(+) T cells during severe influenza disease reflects bystander activation and trogocytosis
    Jia, X ; Chua, BY ; Loh, L ; Koutsakos, M ; Kedzierski, L ; Olshansky, M ; Heath, WR ; Chang, SY ; Xu, J ; Wang, Z ; Kedzierska, K (WILEY, 2021-01-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Although co-expression of CD38 and HLA-DR reflects T-cell activation during viral infections, high and prolonged CD38+HLA-DR+ expression is associated with severe disease. To date, the mechanism underpinning expression of CD38+HLA-DR+ is poorly understood. METHODS: We used mouse models of influenza A/H9N2, A/H7N9 and A/H3N2 infection to investigate mechanisms underpinning CD38+MHC-II+ phenotype on CD8+ T cells. To further understand MHC-II trogocytosis on murine CD8+ T cells as well as the significance behind the scenario, we used adoptively transferred transgenic OT-I CD8+ T cells and A/H3N2-SIINKEKL infection. RESULTS: Analysis of influenza-specific immunodominant DbNP366 +CD8+ T-cell responses showed that CD38+MHC-II+ co-expression was detected on both virus-specific and bystander CD8+ T cells, with increased numbers of both CD38+MHC-II+CD8+ T-cell populations observed in immune organs including the site of infection during severe viral challenge. OT-I cells adoptively transferred into MHC-II-/- mice had no MHC-II after infection, suggesting that MHC-II was acquired via trogocytosis. The detection of CD19 on CD38+MHC-II+ OT-I cells supports the proposition that MHC-II was acquired by trogocytosis sourced from B cells. Co-expression of CD38+MHC-II+ on CD8+ T cells was needed for optimal recall following secondary infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study demonstrates that both virus-specific and bystander CD38+MHC-II+ CD8+ T cells are recruited to the site of infection during severe disease, and that MHC-II presence occurs via trogocytosis from antigen-presenting cells. Our findings highlight the importance of the CD38+MHC-II+ phenotype for CD8+ T-cell recall.
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    Defective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Immune Responses in an Immunocompromised Individual With Prolonged Viral Replication
    Gordon, CL ; Smibert, OC ; Holmes, NE ; Chua, KYL ; Rose, M ; Drewett, G ; James, F ; Mouhtouris, E ; Nguyen, THO ; Zhang, W ; Kedzierski, L ; Rowntree, LC ; Chua, BY ; Caly, L ; Catton, MG ; Druce, J ; Sait, M ; Seemann, T ; Sherry, NL ; Howden, BP ; Kedzierska, K ; Kwong, JC ; Trubiano, JA (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-08-02)
    We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immune responses in a patient with lymphoma and recent programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy with late onset of severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 replication, in comparison to age-matched and immunocompromised controls. High levels of HLA-DR+/CD38+ activation, interleukin 6, and interleukin 18 in the absence of B cells and PD-1 expression was observed. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were absent and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were minimally detected. This case highlights challenges in managing immunocompromised hosts who may fail to mount effective virus-specific immune responses.
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    Altered microRNA expression in COVID-19 patients enables identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Farr, RJ ; Rootes, CL ; Rowntree, LC ; Nguyen, THO ; Hensen, L ; Kedzierski, L ; Cheng, AC ; Kedzierska, K ; Au, GG ; Marsh, GA ; Vasan, SS ; Foo, CH ; Cowled, C ; Stewart, CR ; Fouchier, RAM (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-07-01)
    The host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection provide insights into both viral pathogenesis and patient management. The host-encoded microRNA (miRNA) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, remains poorly defined. Here we profiled circulating miRNAs from ten COVID-19 patients sampled longitudinally and ten age and gender matched healthy donors. We observed 55 miRNAs that were altered in COVID-19 patients during early-stage disease, with the inflammatory miR-31-5p the most strongly upregulated. Supervised machine learning analysis revealed that a three-miRNA signature (miR-423-5p, miR-23a-3p and miR-195-5p) independently classified COVID-19 cases with an accuracy of 99.9%. In a ferret COVID-19 model, the three-miRNA signature again detected SARS-CoV-2 infection with 99.7% accuracy, and distinguished SARS-CoV-2 infection from influenza A (H1N1) infection and healthy controls with 95% accuracy. Distinct miRNA profiles were also observed in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygenation. This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust host miRNA response that could improve COVID-19 detection and patient management.
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    RIPLET, and not TRIM25, is required for endogenous RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses
    Hayman, TJ ; Hsu, AC ; Kolesnik, TB ; Dagley, LF ; Willemsen, J ; Tate, MD ; Baker, PJ ; Kershaw, NJ ; Kedzierski, L ; Webb, A ; Wark, PA ; Kedzierska, K ; Masters, SL ; Belz, GT ; Binder, M ; Hansbro, PM ; Nicola, NA ; Nicholson, SE (WILEY, 2019-08-19)
    The innate immune system is our first line of defense against viral pathogens. Host cell pattern recognition receptors sense viral components and initiate immune signaling cascades that result in the production of an array of cytokines to combat infection. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes viral RNA and, when activated, results in the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) and the upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. Ubiquitination of RIG-I by the E3 ligases tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) and Riplet is thought to be requisite for RIG-I activation; however, recent studies have questioned the relative importance of these two enzymes for RIG-I signaling. In this study, we show that deletion of Trim25 does not affect the IFN response to either influenza A virus (IAV), influenza B virus, Sendai virus or several RIG-I agonists. This is in contrast to deletion of either Rig-i or Riplet, which completely abrogated RIG-I-dependent IFN responses. This was consistent in both mouse and human cell lines, as well as in normal human bronchial cells. With most of the current TRIM25 literature based on exogenous expression, these findings provide critical evidence that Riplet, and not TRIM25, is required endogenously for the ubiquitination of RIG-I. Despite this, loss of TRIM25 results in greater susceptibility to IAV infection in vivo, suggesting that it may have an alternative role in host antiviral defense. This study refines our understanding of RIG-I signaling in viral infections and will inform future studies in the field.
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    Temporal differences in culturable severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in a patient with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
    Audsley, JM ; Holmes, NE ; Mordant, FL ; Douros, C ; Zufan, SE ; Nguyen, THO ; Kedzierski, L ; Rowntree, LC ; Hensen, L ; Subbarao, K ; Kedzierska, K ; Nicholson, S ; Sherry, N ; Thevarajan, I ; Tran, T ; Druce, J (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-05-10)
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    CD8(+) T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope display high naive precursor frequency and TCR promiscuity
    Nguyen, THO ; Rowntree, LC ; Petersen, J ; Chua, BY ; Hensen, L ; Kedzierski, L ; van de Sandt, CE ; Chaurasia, P ; Tan, H-X ; Habel, JR ; Zhang, W ; Allen, LF ; Earnest, L ; Mak, KY ; Juno, JA ; Wragg, K ; Mordant, FL ; Amanat, F ; Krammer, F ; Mifsud, NA ; Doolan, DL ; Flanagan, KL ; Sonda, S ; Kaur, J ; Wakim, LM ; Westall, GP ; James, F ; Mouhtouris, E ; Gordon, CL ; Holmes, NE ; Smibert, OC ; Trubiano, JA ; Cheng, AC ; Harcourt, P ; Clifton, P ; Crawford, JC ; Thomas, PG ; Wheatley, AK ; Kent, SJ ; Rossjohn, J ; Torresi, J ; Kedzierska, K (CELL PRESS, 2021-05-11)
    To better understand primary and recall T cell responses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to examine unmanipulated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells. By using peptide-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tetramers for direct ex vivo analysis, we characterized CD8+ T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 patients and unexposed individuals. Unlike CD8+ T cells directed toward subdominant epitopes (B7/N257, A2/S269, and A24/S1,208) CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant B7/N105 epitope were detected at high frequencies in pre-pandemic samples and at increased frequencies during acute COVID-19 and convalescence. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells in pre-pandemic samples from children, adults, and elderly individuals predominantly displayed a naive phenotype, indicating a lack of previous cross-reactive exposures. T cell receptor (TCR) analyses revealed diverse TCRαβ repertoires and promiscuous αβ-TCR pairing within B7/N105+CD8+ T cells. Our study demonstrates high naive precursor frequency and TCRαβ diversity within immunodominant B7/N105-specific CD8+ T cells and provides insight into SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell origins and subsequent responses.
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    High expression of CD38 and MHC class II on CD8+ T cells during severe influenza disease reflects bystander activation and trogocytosis
    Jia, X ; Chua, B ; Loh, L ; Koutsakos, M ; Kedzierski, L ; Olshanski, M ; Heath, W ; Xu, J ; Wang, Z ; Kedzierska, K ( 2021-02-09)
    Although co-expression of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8 + T cells reflects activation during influenza, SARS-CoV-2, Dengue, Ebola and HIV-1 viral infections, high and prolonged CD38 + HLA-DR + expression can be associated with severe and fatal disease outcomes. As the expression of CD38 + HLA-DR + is poorly understood, we used mouse models of influenza A/H7N9, A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 infection to investigate the mechanisms underpinning CD38 + MHC-II + phenotype on CD8 + T-cells. Our analysis of influenza-specific immunodominant D b NP 366 +CD8 + T-cell responses showed that CD38 + MHC-II + co-expression was detected on both virus-specific and bystander CD8 + T-cells, with increased numbers of both CD38 + MHC-II + CD8 + T-cell populations observed in the respiratory tract during severe infection. To understand the mechanisms underlying CD38 and MHC-II expression, we also used adoptively-transferred transgenic OT-I CD8 + T-cells recognising the ovalbumin-derived K b SIINFEKL epitope and A/H1N1-SIINKEKL infection. Strikingly, we found that OT-I cells adoptively-transferred into MHC-II −/− mice did not display MHC-II after influenza virus infection, suggesting that MHC-II was acquired via trogocytosis in wild-type mice. Additionally, detection of CD19 on CD38 + MHC II + OT-I cells further supports that MHC-II was acquired by trogocytosis, at least partially, sourced from B-cells. Our results also revealed that co-expression of CD38 + MHC II + on CD8 + T-cells was needed for the optimal recall ability following secondary viral challenge. Overall, our study provides evidence that both virus-specific and bystander CD38 + MHC-II + CD8 + T-cells are recruited to the site of infection during severe disease, and that MHC-II expression occurs via trogocytosis from antigen-presenting cells. Our findings also highlight the importance of the CD38 + MHC II + phenotype for CD8 + T-cell memory establishment and recall.

    Summary

    Co-expression of CD38 and MHC-II on CD8 + T cells is recognized as a classical hallmark of activation during viral infections. High and prolonged CD38 + HLA-DR + expression, however, can be associated with severe disease outcomes and the mechanisms are unclear. Using our established influenza wild-type and transgenic mouse models, we determined how disease severity affected the activation of influenza-specific CD38 + MHC-II + CD8 + T cell responses in vivo and the antigenic determinants that drive their activation and expansion. Overall, our study provides evidence that both virus-specific and bystander CD38 + MHC-II + CD8 + T-cells are recruited to the site of infection during severe disease, and that MHC-II expression occurs, at least in part, via trogocytosis from antigen-presenting cells. Our findings also highlight the importance of the CD38 + MHC II + phenotype for CD8 + T-cell memory establishment and recall.
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    Integrated immune dynamics define correlates of COVID-19 severity and antibody responses
    Koutsakos, M ; Rowntree, LC ; Hensen, L ; Chua, BY ; van de Sandt, CE ; Habel, JR ; Zhang, W ; Jia, X ; Kedzierski, L ; Ashhurst, TM ; Putri, GH ; Marsh-Wakefield, F ; Read, MN ; Edwards, DN ; Clemens, EB ; Wong, CY ; Mordant, FL ; Juno, JA ; Amanat, F ; Audsley, J ; Holmes, NE ; Gordon, CL ; Smibert, OC ; Trubiano, JA ; Hughes, CM ; Catton, M ; Denholm, JT ; Tong, SYC ; Doolan, DL ; Kotsimbos, TC ; Jackson, DC ; Krammer, F ; Godfrey, D ; Chung, AW ; King, NJC ; Lewin, SR ; Wheatley, AK ; Kent, SJ ; Subbarao, K ; McMahon, J ; Thevarajan, I ; Thi, HON ; Cheng, AC ; Kedzierska, K (ELSEVIER, 2021-03-16)
    SARS-CoV-2 causes a spectrum of COVID-19 disease, the immunological basis of which remains ill defined. We analyzed 85 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals at acute and/or convalescent time points, up to 102 days after symptom onset, quantifying 184 immunological parameters. Acute COVID-19 presented with high levels of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-10 and broad activation marked by the upregulation of CD38 on innate and adaptive lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Importantly, activated CXCR3+cTFH1 cells in acute COVID-19 significantly correlate with and predict antibody levels and their avidity at convalescence as well as acute neutralization activity. Strikingly, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe COVID-19 display higher levels of soluble IL-6, IL-6R, and IL-18, and hyperactivation of innate, adaptive, and myeloid compartments than patients with moderate disease. Our analyses provide a comprehensive map of longitudinal immunological responses in COVID-19 patients and integrate key cellular pathways of complex immune networks underpinning severe COVID-19, providing important insights into potential biomarkers and immunotherapies.
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    Vaccines for the Leishmaniases: Proposals for a Research Agenda
    Nery Costa, CH ; Peters, NC ; Maruyama, SR ; de Brito, EC ; Ferreira de Miranda Santos, IK ; Louzir, H (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2011-03-01)
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    Induction of Protective CD4(+) T Cell-Mediated Immunity by a Leishmania Peptide Delivered in Recombinant Influenza Viruses
    Kedzierska, K ; Curtis, JM ; Valkenburg, SA ; Hatton, LA ; Kiu, H ; Doherty, PC ; Kedzierski, L ; Rodrigues, MM (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-03-21)
    The available evidence suggests that protective immunity to Leishmania is achieved by priming the CD4(+) Th1 response. Therefore, we utilised a reverse genetics strategy to generate influenza A viruses to deliver an immunogenic Leishmania peptide. The single, immunodominant Leishmania-specific LACK(158-173) CD4(+) peptide was engineered into the neuraminidase stalk of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses. These recombinant viruses were used to vaccinate susceptible BALB/c mice to determine whether the resultant LACK(158-173)-specific CD4(+) T cell responses protected against live L. major infection. We show that vaccination with influenza-LACK(158-173) triggers LACK(158-173)-specific Th1-biased CD4(+) T cell responses within an appropriate cytokine milieu (IFN-γ, IL-12), essential for the magnitude and quality of the Th1 response. A single intraperitoneal exposure (non-replicative route of immunisation) to recombinant influenza delivers immunogenic peptides, leading to a marked reduction (2-4 log) in parasite burden, albeit without reduction in lesion size. This correlated with increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated mice compared to controls. Importantly, the subsequent prime-boost approach with a serologically distinct strain of influenza (H1N1->H3N2) expressing LACK(158-173) led to a marked reduction in both lesion size and parasite burdens in vaccination trials. This protection correlated with high levels of IFN-γ producing cells in the spleen, which were maintained for 6 weeks post-challenge indicating the longevity of this protective effector response. Thus, these experiments show that Leishmania-derived peptides delivered in the context of recombinant influenza viruses are immunogenic in vivo, and warrant investigation of similar vaccine strategies to generate parasite-specific immunity.