Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    A disrupted transsulphuration pathway results in accumulation of redox metabolites and induction of gametocytogenesis in malaria
    Beri, D ; Balan, B ; Chaubey, S ; Subramaniam, S ; Surendra, B ; Tatu, U (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2017-01-16)
    Intra-erythrocytic growth of malaria parasite is known to induce redox stress. In addition to haem degradation which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), the parasite is also thought to efflux redox active homocysteine. To understand the basis underlying accumulation of homocysteine, we have examined the transsulphuration (TS) pathway in the parasite, which is known to convert homocysteine to cysteine in higher eukaryotes. Our bioinformatic analysis revealed absence of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of cysteine namely cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the parasite. Using mass spectrometry, we confirmed the absence of cystathionine, which is formed by enzymatic conversion of homocysteine thereby confirming truncation of TS pathway. We also quantitated levels of glutathione and homocysteine in infected erythrocytes and its spent medium. Our results showed increase in levels of these metabolites intracellularly and in culture supernatants. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for the long-known occurrence of hyperhomocysteinemia in malaria. Most importantly we find that homocysteine induces the transcription factor implicated in gametocytogenesis namely AP2-G and consequently triggers sexual stage conversion. We confirmed this observation both in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and in vivo in the mouse model of malaria. Our study implicates homocysteine as a potential physiological trigger of gametocytogenesis.
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    Input-to-state stability analysis via averaging for parameterized discrete-time systems
    Wang, W ; Nešíc, D (Watam Press, 2010-12-15)
    The paper studies semi-global practical input-to-state stability (SGP-ISS) of a parameterized family of discrete-time systems that may arise when an approximate discrete-time model of a sampled-data system with disturbances is used for controller design. It is shown under appropriate conditions that if the solutions of the time varying family of discrete-time systems with disturbances converge uniformly on compact time intervals to the solutions of the average family of discrete-time systems, then ISS of the average family of systems implies SGP-ISS of the original family of systems. A trajectory based approach is utilized to establish the main result.
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    In vitro antidiabetic effects of selected fruits and vegetables against glycosidase and aldose reductase.
    Wu, T ; Luo, J ; Xu, B (Wiley, 2015-11)
    In vitro antidiabetic effect of fruits and vegetables with reports as folk remedies were investigated. The antidiabetic effects were evaluated by comparing the inhibitory properties of α-glycosidase, aldose reductase, and antioxidant activity. The results indicated that lychee extract exhibited the best dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glycosidase with IC 50 of 10.4 mg/mL, and lemon peel extract exhibited aldose reductase inhibitory potential with IC 50 value at 3.63 mg/mL. Besides, the result also showed that the inhibitory effects of blueberry and plum against α-glycosidase were strong among the fruits samples. Bitter gourd and eggplant demonstrated significant inhibitory potential against aldose reductase, with IC 50 values at 8.55 mg/mL and 8.06 mg/mL, respectively. The result from correlation analysis part showed that the antioxidant activities of selected fruits and vegetables were found related to their health beneficial effects, as there was positive correlations between total flavonoids content (TFC) and aldose reductase inhibitory activity (r (2) = 0.556).
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    Renewal ecology: conservation for the Anthropocene
    Bowman, DMJS ; Garnett, ST ; Barlow, S ; Bekessy, SA ; Bellairs, SM ; Bishop, MJ ; Bradstock, RA ; Jones, DN ; Maxwell, SL ; Pittock, J ; Toral-Granda, MV ; Watson, JEM ; Wilson, T ; Zander, KK ; Hughes, L (WILEY, 2017-09-01)
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    High-throughput physiological phenotyping and screening system for the characterization of plant-environment interactions
    Halperin, O ; Gebremedhin, A ; Wallach, R ; Moshelion, M (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    We present a simple and effective high-throughput experimental platform for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of water relations in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum of numerous plants under dynamic environmental conditions. This system provides a simultaneously measured, detailed physiological response profile for each plant in the array, over time periods ranging from a few minutes to the entire growing season, under normal, stress and recovery conditions and at any phenological stage. Three probes for each pot in the array and a specially designed algorithm enable detailed water-relations characterization of whole-plant transpiration, biomass gain, stomatal conductance and root flux. They also enable quantitative calculation of the whole plant water-use efficiency and relative water content at high resolution under dynamic soil and atmospheric conditions. The system has no moving parts and can fit into many growing environments. A screening of 65 introgression lines of a wild tomato species (Solanum pennellii) crossed with cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum), using our system and conventional gas-exchange tools, confirmed the accuracy of the system as well as its diagnostic capabilities. The use of this high-throughput diagnostic screening method is discussed in light of the gaps in our understanding of the genetic regulation of whole-plant performance, particularly under abiotic stress.
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    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cellulose synthase-like D2 gene (HvCslD2) mediates penetration resistance to host-adapted and nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus
    Douchkov, D ; Lueck, S ; Hensel, G ; Kumlehn, J ; Rajaraman, J ; Johrde, A ; Doblin, MS ; Beahan, CT ; Kopischke, M ; Fuchs, R ; Lipka, V ; Niks, RE ; Bulone, V ; Chowdhury, J ; Little, A ; Burton, RA ; Bacic, A ; Fincher, GB ; Schweizer, P (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-10-01)
    Cell walls and cellular turgor pressure shape and suspend the bodies of all vascular plants. In response to attack by fungal and oomycete pathogens, which usually breach their host's cell walls by mechanical force or by secreting lytic enzymes, plants often form local cell wall appositions (papillae) as an important first line of defence. The involvement of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes in the formation of these papillae is still poorly understood, especially in cereal crops. To investigate the role in plant defence of a candidate gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare) encoding cellulose synthase-like D2 (HvCslD2), we generated transgenic barley plants in which HvCslD2 was silenced through RNA interference (RNAi). The transgenic plants showed no growth defects but their papillae were more successfully penetrated by host-adapted, virulent as well as avirulent nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Papilla penetration was associated with lower contents of cellulose in epidermal cell walls and increased digestion by fungal cell wall degrading enzymes. The results suggest that HvCslD2-mediated cell wall changes in the epidermal layer represent an important defence reaction both for nonhost and for quantitative host resistance against nonadapted wheat and host-adapted barley powdery mildew pathogens, respectively.
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    The Use of Audio Playback to Deter Crop-Raiding Asian Elephants
    Wijayagunawardane, MPB ; Short, RV ; Samarakone, TS ; Nishany, KBM ; Harrington, H ; Perera, BVP ; Rassool, R ; Bittner, EP (WILEY, 2016-06-01)
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    Water Experts' Perception of Risk for New and Unfamiliar Water Projects
    Kosovac, A ; Hurlimann, A ; Davidson, B (MDPI AG, 2017-12-01)
    In the context of a changing urban environment and increasing demand due to population growth, alternative water sources must be explored in order to create future water security. Risk assessments play a pivotal role in the take-up of new and unfamiliar water projects, acting as a decision-making tool for business cases. Perceptions of risk ultimately drive risk assessment processes, therefore providing insight into understanding projects that proceed and those that do not. Yet there is limited information on the risk perceptions water professionals have of new and unfamiliar water projects. In this study, 77 water professionals were surveyed from across the Melbourne metropolitan water industry to examine risk perceptions over a range of different, unfamiliar water projects. The qualitative data was thematically analysed, resulting in a number of risk perception factors for each hypothetical project. Risk factors that recurred most frequently are those that relate to community backlash and to the reputation of the organisation. These social risk perceptions occurred more frequently than other more technical risks, such as operational risks and process-related risks. These results were at odds with the existing literature assessing risk perceptions of business-as-usual projects, which presented cost as the key risk attribute. This study sheds light on the perceived nature of new and unfamiliar processes in the water sector, providing an understanding that public perceptions do matter to experts involved in water infrastructure decision-making.
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    Predicted genetic gain and realised gain in stand volume of Eucalyptus globulus
    Callister, AN ; England, N ; Collins, S (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2013-04-01)