Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    High NH3 deposition in the environs of a commercial fattening pig farm in central south China
    Yi, W ; Shen, J ; Liu, G ; Wang, J ; Yu, L ; Li, Y ; Reis, S ; Wu, J (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Abstract Intensive livestock production has been increasing, and has resulted in the emission of more than seven teragram per year of ammonia (NH3) in China in recent years. However, little is known about the fate of the emitted NH3, especially the dry deposition of NH3 in the environs of intensive animal farms. In this study, the spatial and temporal variations of NH3 deposition in the environs of an intensive fattening pig farm were investigated in the central south of China. NH3 concentrations were measured at sites situated 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m in the downwind direction from the farm each month from July 2018 to June 2019. The NH3 deposition was calculated based on a bidirectional NH3 exchange model. The monthly NH3 emissions from the pig farm were estimated based on the breeding stock. The annual average NH3 concentrations ranged from 1200 to 14 μg m−3 at the downwind sites within 500 m of the pig farm, exhibiting exponential decay as distance increased. Strong seasonality in NH3 deposition was observed, with the highest season being in the summer and lowest in the winter, and air temperature was found to be an important factor affecting this seasonal variation. The estimated monthly total dry deposition within 500 m of the pig farm ranged from 92 to 1400 kg NH3–N mo−1, which accounted for 4.1%–14% of the total monthly NH3 emissions from the pig farm. The estimated total NH3 emissions and NH3 deposition from the pig farm were 63 000 kg NH3–N yr−1 and 5400 kg NH3–N yr−1, respectively, with the annual average ratio of NH3 deposition to NH3 emission being 8.6%. This study found NH3 deposition around intensive pig farms is high, and determined it as a significant fate of the NH3 emitted from pig farms.
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    Irrigation subsidies and their externalities
    Hellegers, P ; Davidson, B ; Russ, J ; Waalewijn, P (ELSEVIER, 2021-10-30)
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    Chemical pollution: A growing peril and potential catastrophic risk to humanity
    Naidu, R ; Biswas, B ; Willett, IR ; Cribb, J ; Singh, BK ; Nathanail, CP ; Coulon, F ; Semple, KT ; Jones, KC ; Barclay, A ; Aitken, RJ (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021-05-12)
    Anthropogenic chemical pollution has the potential to pose one of the largest environmental threats to humanity, but global understanding of the issue remains fragmented. This article presents a comprehensive perspective of the threat of chemical pollution to humanity, emphasising male fertility, cognitive health and food security. There are serious gaps in our understanding of the scale of the threat and the risks posed by the dispersal, mixture and recombination of chemicals in the wider environment. Although some pollution control measures exist they are often not being adopted at the rate needed to avoid chronic and acute effects on human health now and in coming decades. There is an urgent need for enhanced global awareness and scientific scrutiny of the overall scale of risk posed by chemical usage, dispersal and disposal.
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    Absence of high priority critically important antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella sp. isolated from Australian commercial egg layer environments
    Veltman, T ; Jordan, D ; McDevitt, CA ; Bell, J ; Howden, BP ; Valcanis, M ; O'Dea, M ; Abraham, S ; Scott, P ; Kovac, JH ; Chia, R ; Combs, B ; Chousalkar, K ; Wilson, T ; Trott, DJ (ELSEVIER, 2021-01-16)
    The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.
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    Rice paddy soils are a quantitatively important carbon store according to a global synthesis
    Liu, Y ; Ge, T ; van Groenigen, KJ ; Yang, Y ; Wang, P ; Cheng, K ; Zhu, Z ; Wang, J ; Li, Y ; Guggenberger, G ; Sardans, J ; Penuelas, J ; Wu, J ; Kuzyakov, Y (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12)
    Abstract Rice paddies account for ~9% or the world’s cropland area and are characterized by environmental conditions promoting soil organic carbon storage, methane emissions and to a lesser extent nitrous oxide emissions. Here, we synthesize data from 612 sites across 51 countries to estimate global carbon stocks in paddy soils and determine the main factors affecting paddy soil carbon storage. Paddy soils (0–100 cm) contain 18 Pg carbon worldwide. Paddy soil carbon stocks decrease with increasing mean annual temperature and soil pH, whereas mean annual precipitation and clay content had minor impacts. Meta-analysis shows that paddy soil carbon stocks can be increased through several management practices. However, greenhouse gas mitigation through paddy soil carbon storage is generally outweighed by increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Our results emphasize the key role of paddies in the global carbon cycle, and the importance of paddy management in minimizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.
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    An improved process-oriented hydro-biogeochemical model for simulating dynamic fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in alpine ecosystems with seasonally frozen soils
    Zhang, W ; Yao, Z ; Li, S ; Zheng, X ; Zhang, H ; Ma, L ; Wang, K ; Wang, R ; Liu, C ; Han, S ; Deng, J ; Li, Y (Copernicus GmbH, 2021-07-14)
    Abstract. The hydro-biogeochemical model Catchment Nutrient Management Model – DeNitrification-DeComposition (CNMM-DNDC) was established to simultaneously quantify ecosystem productivity and losses of nitrogen and carbon at the site or catchment scale. As a process-oriented model, this model is expected to be universally applied to different climate zones, soils, land uses and field management practices. This study is one of many efforts to fulfill such an expectation, which was performed to improve the CNMM-DNDC by incorporating a physically based soil thermal module to simulate the soil thermal regime in the presence of freeze–thaw cycles. The modified model was validated with simultaneous field observations in three typical alpine ecosystems (wetlands, meadows and forests) within a catchment located in seasonally frozen regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, including observations of soil profile temperature, topsoil moisture, and fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The validation showed that the modified CNMM-DNDC was able to simulate the observed seasonal dynamics and magnitudes of the variables in the three typical alpine ecosystems, with index-of-agreement values of 0.91–1.00, 0.49–0.83, 0.57–0.88 and 0.26–0.47, respectively. Consistent with the emissions determined from the field observations, the simulated aggregate emissions of CH4 and N2O were highest for the wetland among three alpine ecosystems, which were dominated by the CH4 emissions. This study indicates the possibility for utilizing the process-oriented model CNMM-DNDC to predict hydro-biogeochemical processes, as well as related gas emissions, in seasonally frozen regions. As the original CNMM-DNDC was previously validated in some unfrozen regions, the modified CNMM-DNDC could be potentially applied to estimate the emissions of CH4 and N2O from various ecosystems under different climate zones at the site or catchment scale.
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    Expression of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF in feline mammary gland carcinomas: association with pathological characteristics and clinical outcomes
    Chen, B ; Lin, SJ-H ; Li, W-T ; Chang, H-W ; Pang, VF ; Chu, P-Y ; Lee, C-C ; Nakayama, H ; Wu, C-H ; Jeng, C-R (BMC, 2020-05-06)
    BACKGROUND: The microenvironment within solid malignant tumors, including feline mammary gland carcinomas (FMGCs), is commonly hypoxic, possibly due to the lack of functional blood vessels in rapidly proliferating neoplastic tissue. Malignant cells can undergo genetic and adaptive changes that prevent them from dying due to oxygen deprivation through expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, HIF-1α and VEGF are ideal biomarkers for cancer therapy and prognostic evaluation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in feline mammary carcinomas and analyze their correlations with clinical and pathological factors, such as clinical stage, histologic grading, regional metastasis, and overall survival rate. RESULTS: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected from 72 cats with FMGCs were retrospectively studied. Histologic pattern and histologic grading (Elston and Ellis grading system) of these FMGCs were determined. Our data indicated that grade II tubulopapillary carcinomas (43/72, 59.7%) prevailed in this study, and most FMCGs showed apparent necrosis, squamous metaplasia, and intratumoral stromal response. According to the results of immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings performed in tissue microarrays (TMAs), HIF-1α and VEGF overexpressions were respectively noted in 69.4% (50/72) and 77.8% (56/72) of FMGC cases. Chi-square test showed no correlation of HIF-1α overexpression with clinical and pathological factors. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with histologic pattern (p = 0.021), stromal response (p = 0.048), squamous metaplasia (p = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.007). However, neither HIF-1α nor VEGF overexpression was correlated with histologic grading and metastasis. Of 38 cats with 1-year follow-up, IHC stainings of HIF-1α and VEGF were performed on whole tissue sections. The results showed that overexpression of HIF-1α was significantly correlated with the overall survival rate (p < 0.05) (log-rank test), whereas there was no significant correlation between VEGF overexpression and overall survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the overexpression of HIF-1α may indicate poor prognosis/overall survival rate in cats with FMGCs. Developing compounds that inhibit HIF-1α may be a potential approach to FMGC treatment.
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    CBM: An IoT Enabled LiDAR Sensor for In-Field Crop Height and Biomass Measurements.
    Banerjee, BP ; Spangenberg, G ; Kant, S (MDPI AG, 2021-12-29)
    The phenotypic characterization of crop genotypes is an essential, yet challenging, aspect of crop management and agriculture research. Digital sensing technologies are rapidly advancing plant phenotyping and speeding-up crop breeding outcomes. However, off-the-shelf sensors might not be fully applicable and suitable for agricultural research due to the diversity in crop species and specific needs during plant breeding selections. Customized sensing systems with specialized sensor hardware and software architecture provide a powerful and low-cost solution. This study designed and developed a fully integrated Raspberry Pi-based LiDAR sensor named CropBioMass (CBM), enabled by internet of things to provide a complete end-to-end pipeline. The CBM is a low-cost sensor, provides high-throughput seamless data collection in field, small data footprint, injection of data onto the remote server, and automated data processing. The phenotypic traits of crop fresh biomass, dry biomass, and plant height that were estimated by CBM data had high correlation with ground truth manual measurements in a wheat field trial. The CBM is readily applicable for high-throughput plant phenotyping, crop monitoring, and management for precision agricultural applications.
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    A pilot study comparing the pharmacokinetics of injectable cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin associated with a trace mineral injection in cattle
    Gonzalez-Rivas, PA ; Chambers, M ; Liu, J (WILEY, 2021-03-08)
    Injectable vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is traditionally used to prevent or treat vitamin B12 deficiencies in ruminants. Sheep and human studies have demonstrated the superiority of a single dose of hydroxocobalamin (OHB12) over cyanocobalamin (CNB12) in maintaining high levels of cobalamin in plasma and liver. However, limited data are available for cattle. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of two forms of cobalamin-OHB12 and CNB12-as a single subcutaneous injection of 28 µg/kg BW at the same time of a trace mineral injection in six non-cobalt/B12 -deficient Holstein-Friesian steers. Plasma and liver samples were obtained to determine cobalamin concentration after treatment. Cyanocobalamin had lower retention in plasma and liver than OHB12 (p < .05). Cobalamin levels peaked in plasma by 8 h after treatment in both groups. However, OHB12 reached a higher peak compared to CNB12. Levels of cobalamin in plasma dropped closer to baseline levels 24 h after CNB12 treatment while OHB12 maintained higher concentrations. Hydroxocobalamin increased significantly hepatic concentration of cobalamin 28 days after treatment, while CNB12 did not increase liver levels relative to pre-treatment (p < .05). These results confirm that a single subcutaneous OHB12 injection increases the level of cobalamin in the blood in the first 24 hours, and this increase is maintained in the liver for at least 28 days.