Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import.
    Jacobs, SC ; Taylor, A ; Herrero, LJ ; Mahalingam, S ; Fazakerley, JK (MDPI AG, 2017-10-20)
    Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.
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    Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems.
    Bell-Sakyi, L ; Weisheit, S ; Rückert, C ; Barry, G ; Fazakerley, J ; Fragkoudis, R (MDPI AG, 2016-09-29)
    Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.
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    Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA
    Barry, G ; Alberdi, P ; Schnettler, E ; Weisheit, S ; Kohl, A ; Fazakerley, JK ; Bell-Sakyi, L (SPRINGER, 2013-03-01)
    Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. To effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. Ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus including the sub-species Boophilus) were used to examine key parameters including small interfering RNA (siRNA), double stranded RNA (dsRNA), transfection reagent and incubation time for silencing virus reporter and endogenous tick genes. Transfection reagents were essential for the uptake of siRNA whereas long dsRNA alone was taken up by most tick cell lines. Significant virus reporter protein knockdown was achieved using either siRNA or dsRNA in all the cell lines tested. Optimum conditions varied according to the cell line. Consistency between replicates and duration of incubation with dsRNA were addressed for two Ixodes scapularis cell lines; IDE8 supported more consistent and effective silencing of the endogenous gene subolesin than ISE6, and highly significant knockdown of the endogenous gene 2I1F6 in IDE8 cells was achieved within 48 h incubation with dsRNA. In summary, this study shows that gene silencing by RNAi in tick cell lines is generally more efficient with dsRNA than with siRNA but results vary between cell lines and optimal parameters need to be determined for each experimental system.
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    CAN VIRAL ENVELOPE GLYCOLIPIDS PRODUCE AUTOIMMUNITY, WITH REFERENCE TO THE CNS AND MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
    WEBB, HE ; FAZAKERLEY, JK (BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD, 1984-01-01)
    Many viruses, with lipid envelopes derived from the host cell membranes, have been implicated in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), and epidemiological studies support an infectious agent. Alternatively the disease is thought by other workers to be auto-immune in nature, and recently much attention has been focused on immunological sensitivity to glycolipids in MS patients. In this paper it is proposed that CNS demyelination could arise in susceptible individuals (HLA type) from an immune response to glycolipids, triggered by the carrier effect of one or more enveloped neurotropic viruses.
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    DO HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPHIC VIRUSES (HTLVS) AND OTHER ENVELOPED VIRUSES INDUCE AUTOIMMUNITY IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
    DALGLEISH, AG ; FAZAKERLEY, JK ; WEBB, HE (WILEY, 1987-07-01)
    A virally induced autoimmune reaction may be important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The role that glycolipids and myelin basic protein presented to the virus may play in this process is considered. The most likely cells to be the source of autoantigens are neurons, myelin and oligodendrocytes. Viral infection of class II-expressing cells and association of the viral envelope autoantigens and the class II molecules could trigger an autoimmune reaction. It is suggested that for MS to develop following a virus infection the virus will need to cause expression of class II antigens on brain cells as well as fulfill the same role as an antigen presenting cell. The part which T-lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs) and other enveloped viruses may play in this phenomenon is discussed.
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    PATHOGENESIS OF VIRUS-INDUCED DEMYELINATION
    FAZAKERLEY, JK ; BUCHMEIER, MJ ; Maramorosch, K ; Murphy, FA ; Shatkin, AJ (ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 1993-01-01)
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    Virus demyelination
    Fazakerley, JK ; Walker, R (SPRINGER, 2003-04-01)
    A number of viruses can initiate central nervous system (CNS) diseases that include demyelination as a major feature of neuropathology. In humans, the most prominent demyelinating diseases are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, caused by JC papovirus destruction of oligodendrocytes, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, an invariably fatal childhood disease caused by persistent measles virus. The most common neurological disease of young adults in the developed world, multiple sclerosis, is also characterized by lesions of inflammatory demyelination; however, the etiology of this disease remains an enigma. A viral etiology is possible, because most demyelinating diseases of known etiology in both man and animals are viral. Understanding of the pathogenesis of virus-induced demyelination derives for the most part from the study of animal models. Studies with neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler's virus, and Semliki Forest virus have been at the forefront of this research. These models demonstrate how viruses enter the brain, spread, persist, and interact with immune responses. Common features are an ability to infect and persist in glial cells, generation of predominantly CD8(+) responses, which control and clear the early phase of virus replication but which fail to eradicate the infection, and lesions of inflammatory demyelination. In most cases demyelination is to a limited extent the result of direct virus destruction of oligodendrocytes, but for the most part is the consequence of immune and inflammatory responses. These models illustrate the roles of age and genetic susceptibility and establish the concept that persistent CNS infection can lead to the generation of CNS autoimmune responses.
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    Computer analysis suggests a role for signal sequences in processing polyproteins of enveloped RNA viruses and as a mechanism of viral fusion.
    Fazakerley, JK ; Ross, AM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1989-05)
    We have used a computer program to scan the entire sequence of viral polyproteins for eucaryotic signal sequences. The method is based on that of von Heijne (1). The program calculates a score for each residue in a polyprotein. The score indicates the resemblance of each residue to that at the cleavage site of a typical N-terminal eucaryotic signal sequence. The program correctly predicts the known N-terminal signal sequence cleavage sites of several cellular and viral proteins. The analysis demonstrates that the polyproteins of enveloped RNA viruses--including the alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses--contain several internal signal-sequence-like regions. The predicted cleavage site in these internal sequences are often known cleavage sites for processing of the polyprotein and are amongst the highest scoring residues with this algorithm. These results indicate a role for the cellular enzyme signal peptidase in the processing of several viral polyproteins. Not all high-scoring residues are sites of cleavage, suggesting a difference between N-terminal and internal signal sequences. This may reflect the secondary structure of the latter. Signal sequences were also found at the N-termini of the fusion proteins of the paramyxoviruses and the retroviruses. This suggests a mechanism of viral fusion analogous to that by which proteins are translocated through the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum at synthesis.
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    THE V5A13.1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN DELETION MUTANT OF MOUSE HEPATITIS-VIRUS TYPE-4 IS NEUROATTENUATED BY ITS REDUCED RATE OF SPREAD IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM
    FAZAKERLEY, JK ; PARKER, SE ; BLOOM, F ; BUCHMEIER, MJ (ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS, 1992-03-01)
    Following intracerebral inoculation of adult Balb/c Byj mice, the MHV-4 strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) had an LD50 of less than 0.1 PFU, whereas its monoclonal antibody resistant variant V5A13.1 had an LD50 of 10(4.2) PFU. To determine the basis for this difference in neurovirulence we have studied the acute central nervous system (CNS) infection of these two viruses by in situ hybridization. Both viruses infected the same, specific neuroanatomical areas, predominantly neurons, and spread via the cerebrospinal fluid, along neuronal pathways and between adjacent cells. The neuronal nuclei infected and the spread of virus within the brain are described. The main difference between the parental and variant viruses was the rate at which the infection spread. MHV-4 spread rapidly, destroying large numbers of neurons and the animals died within 4 days of infection. The variant virus spread to the same areas of the brain but at a slower rate. This difference in the rate of virus spread was also apparent from the brain virus titers. The slower rate of spread of the variant virus appears to allow intervention by the immune response. Consistent with this, the variant virus spread slowly in athymic nu/nu mice, but in the absence of an intact immune response, infection and destruction of neurons eventually reached the same extent as that of the parental virus and the mice died within 6 days of infection. We conclude that the V5A13.1 variant of MHV-4 is neuroattenuated by its slower rate of spread in the CNS.
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    Knockdown of piRNA pathway proteins results in enhanced Semliki Forest virus production in mosquito cells
    Schnettler, E ; Donald, CL ; Human, S ; Watson, M ; Siu, RWC ; McFarlane, M ; Fazakerley, JK ; Kohl, A ; Fragkoudis, R (MICROBIOLOGY SOC, 2013-07-01)
    The exogenous siRNA pathway is important in restricting arbovirus infection in mosquitoes. Less is known about the role of the PIWI-interacting RNA pathway, or piRNA pathway, in antiviral responses. Viral piRNA-like molecules have recently been described following infection of mosquitoes and derived cell lines with several arboviruses. The piRNA pathway has thus been suggested to function as an additional small RNA-mediated antiviral response to the known infection-induced siRNA response. Here we show that piRNA-like molecules are produced following infection with the naturally mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus in mosquito cell lines. We show that knockdown of piRNA pathway proteins enhances the replication of this arbovirus and defines the contribution of piRNA pathway effectors, thus characterizing the antiviral properties of the piRNA pathway. In conclusion, arbovirus infection can trigger the piRNA pathway in mosquito cells, and knockdown of piRNA proteins enhances virus production.