Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Role of microRNAs involved in plant response to nitrogen and phosphorous limiting conditions.
    Nguyen, GN ; Rothstein, SJ ; Spangenberg, G ; Kant, S (Frontiers Media SA, 2015)
    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which target and regulate the expression of genes involved in several growth, development, and metabolism processes. Recent researches have shown involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and more importantly for plant adaptation to N and P limitation conditions by modifications in plant growth, phenology, and architecture and production of secondary metabolites. Developing strategies that allow for the higher efficiency of using both N and P fertilizers in crop production is important for economic and environmental benefits. Improved crop varieties with better adaptation to N and P limiting conditions could be a key approach to achieve this effectively. Furthermore, understanding on the interactions between N and P uptake and use and their regulation is important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in plants. This review describes the possible functions of different miRNAs and their cross-talk relevant to the plant adaptive responses to N and P limiting conditions. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of these processes at molecular level and importance of biological adaptation for improved N and P use efficiency is discussed.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Estimation of crop plant density at early mixed growth stages using UAV imagery
    Koh, JCO ; Hayden, M ; Daetwyler, H ; Kant, S (BioMed Central, 2019-06-19)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Genetic regulation by NLA and microRNA827 for maintaining nitrate-dependent phosphate homeostasis in arabidopsis.
    Kant, S ; Peng, M ; Rothstein, SJ ; Qu, L-J (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011-03)
    Plants need abundant nitrogen and phosphorus for higher yield. Improving plant genetics for higher nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency would save potentially billions of dollars annually on fertilizers and reduce global environmental pollution. This will require knowledge of molecular regulators for maintaining homeostasis of these nutrients in plants. Previously, we reported that the NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA) gene is involved in adaptive responses to low-nitrogen conditions in Arabidopsis, where nla mutant plants display abrupt early senescence. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying NLA function, two suppressors of the nla mutation were isolated that recover the nla mutant phenotype to wild type. Map-based cloning identified these suppressors as the phosphate (Pi) transport-related genes PHF1 and PHT1.1. In addition, NLA expression is shown to be regulated by the low-Pi induced microRNA miR827. Pi analysis revealed that the early senescence in nla mutant plants was due to Pi toxicity. These plants accumulated over five times the normal Pi content in shoots specifically under low nitrate and high Pi but not under high nitrate conditions. Also the Pi overaccumulator pho2 mutant shows Pi toxicity in a nitrate-dependent manner similar to the nla mutant. Further, the nitrate and Pi levels are shown to have an antagonistic crosstalk as displayed by their differential effects on flowering time. The results demonstrate that NLA and miR827 have pivotal roles in regulating Pi homeostasis in plants in a nitrate-dependent fashion.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Regulated expression of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene IPT delays leaf senescence and improves yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions in canola (Brassica napus L.).
    Kant, S ; Burch, D ; Badenhorst, P ; Palanisamy, R ; Mason, J ; Spangenberg, G ; Quint, M (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015)
    Delay of leaf senescence through genetic modification can potentially improve crop yield, through maintenance of photosynthetically active leaves for a longer period. Plant growth hormones such as cytokinin regulate and delay leaf senescence. Here, the structural gene (IPT) encoding the cytokinin biosynthetic enzyme isopentenyltransferase was fused to a functionally active fragment of the AtMYB32 promoter and was transformed into canola plants. Expression of the AtMYB32xs::IPT gene cassette delayed the leaf senescence in transgenic plants grown under controlled environment conditions and field experiments conducted for a single season at two geographic locations. The transgenic canola plants retained higher chlorophyll levels for an extended period and produced significantly higher seed yield with similar growth and phenology compared to wild type and null control plants under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The yield increase in transgenic plants was in the range of 16% to 23% and 7% to 16% under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively, compared to control plants. Most of the seed quality parameters in transgenic plants were similar, and with elevated oleic acid content in all transgenic lines and higher oil content and lower glucosinolate content in one specific transgenic line as compared to control plants. The results suggest that by delaying leaf senescence using the AtMYB32xs::IPT technology, productivity in crop plants can be improved under water stress and well-watered conditions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Improved Wheat Growth and Yield by Delayed Leaf Senescence Using Developmentally Regulated Expression of a Cytokinin Biosynthesis Gene
    Joshi, S ; Choukimath, A ; Isenegger, D ; Panozzo, J ; Spangenberg, G ; Kant, S (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-10-18)
    Delaying leaf senescence in plants, especially under water stress conditions, can help to maintain the remobilization of stored nutrients in source-sink relationships, thus leading to improved crop yields. Leaf senescence can be delayed by plant hormones such as cytokinin. Here, the Isopentenyl transferase (IPT) gene, encoding a cytokinin biosynthesis enzyme, driven by a modified AtMYB32xs promoter was transformed into wheat. Transgenic wheat plants exhibited delayed leaf senescence, retaining chlorophyll for longer under controlled environment conditions. Selected independent transgenic events and their corresponding nulls were grown under field conditions for two consecutive years under well-watered and water stress treatments using automated rainout shelters. Three independent transgenic events had improved canopy green cover, lower canopy temperatures, and higher leaf water potential than their respective non-transgenic nulls, with no abnormality in morphology and phenology. Increased grain yield was observed in transgenic events under both water treatments, with the yield increase more pronounced under water stress (26-42%). These results have shown that delayed leaf senescence using the chimeric transgene AtMYB32xs-p::IPT can be a useful strategy to achieve grain yield gains in wheat and potentially other crops for sustainable food production.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A Robust Automated Image-Based Phenotyping Method for Rapid Vegetative Screening of Wheat Germplasm for Nitrogen Use Efficiency
    Nguyen, GN ; Maharjan, P ; Maphosa, L ; Vakani, J ; Thoday-Kennedy, E ; Kant, S (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-11-05)
    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops is generally low, with more than 60% of applied nitrogen (N) being lost to the environment, which increases production costs and affects ecosystems and human habitats. To overcome these issues, the breeding of crop varieties with improved NUE is needed, requiring efficient phenotyping methods along with molecular and genetic approaches. To develop an effective phenotypic screening method, experiments on wheat varieties under various N levels were conducted in the automated phenotyping platform at Plant Phenomics Victoria, Horsham. The results from the initial experiment showed that two relative N levels-5 mM and 20 mM, designated as low and optimum N, respectively-were ideal to screen a diverse range of wheat germplasm for NUE on the automated imaging phenotyping platform. In the second experiment, estimated plant parameters such as shoot biomass and top-view area, derived from digital images, showed high correlations with phenotypic traits such as shoot biomass and leaf area seven weeks after sowing, indicating that they could be used as surrogate measures of the latter. Plant growth analysis confirmed that the estimated plant parameters from the vegetative linear growth phase determined by the "broken-stick" model could effectively differentiate the performance of wheat varieties for NUE. Based on this study, vegetative phenotypic screens should focus on selecting wheat varieties under low N conditions, which were highly correlated with biomass and grain yield at harvest. Analysis indicated a relationship between controlled and field conditions for the same varieties, suggesting that greenhouse screens could be used to prioritise a higher value germplasm for subsequent field studies. Overall, our results showed that this phenotypic screening method is highly applicable and can be applied for the identification of N-efficient wheat germplasm at the vegetative growth phase.