Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications

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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Peng, D ; Zahid, HF ; Ajlouni, S ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-10-18)
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is e_ectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w).
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    Betaine improves milk yield in grazing dairy cows supplemented with concentrates in summer
    Dunshea, FR ; Oluboyede, K ; DIGIACOMO, K ; Leury, BJ ; Cottrell, JJ (MDPI AG, 2019-02-13)
    Betaine is an organic osmolyte sourced from sugar beet that accumulates in plant cells undergoing osmotic stress. Since the accumulation of betaine lowers the energy requirements of animals and, therefore, metabolic heat production, the aim of this experiment was to investigate if betaine supplementation improved milk yield in grazing dairy cows in summer. One hundred and eighteen Friesian X Holstein cows were paired on days in milk and, within each pair, randomly allocated to a containing treatment of either 0 or 2 g/kg natural betaine in their concentrate ration for approximately 3 weeks during February/March 2015 (summer in Australia). The mean maximum February temperature was 30 °C. Cows were allocated approximately 14 kg dry matter pasture and 7.5 kg of concentrate pellets (fed in the milking shed) per cow per day and were milked through an automatic milking system three times per day. Betaine supplementation increased average daily milk yield by over 6% (22.0 vs. 23.4 kg/day, p < 0.001) with the response increasing as the study progressed as indicated by the interaction (p < 0.001) between betaine and day. Milk fat % (p = 0.87), milk protein % (p = 0.90), and milk somatic cell count (p = 0.81) were unchanged by dietary betaine. However, betaine supplementation increased milk protein yield (677 vs. 719 g/day, p < 0.001) and fat yield (874 vs. 922 g/day, p < 0.001) with responses again being more pronounced as the study progressed. In conclusion, dietary betaine supplementation increased milk and component yield during summer in grazing dairy cows.
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    Feeding Conjugated Linoleic Acid without a Combination of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Late Gestation and Lactation Improves Pre-Weaning Survival Rates of Gilt and Sow Progeny
    Craig, JR ; Dunshea, FR ; Cottrell, JJ ; Ford, EM ; Wijesiriwardana, UA ; Pluske, JR (MDPI AG, 2019-02-01)
    Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to dams has been shown to improve progeny growth and survival, and hence may be particularly advantageous to gilt progeny. Primiparous (n = 129) and multiparous sows (n = 123; parities 3 and 4) were fed one of four diets from day 107 of gestation (107.3 ± 0.1 days) until weaning (day 27.2 ± 0.1 of lactation): (i) control diet; (ii) 0.5% CLA diet; (iii) 0.1% MCFA diet; and (iv) equal parts of (ii) and (iii). Progeny performance data were collected and, from a subset of sows (n = 78) and their piglets (n = 144), a colostrum (day 0), milk (day 21), and piglet serum sample (day 3) were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and several selected metabolites. Liveborn pre-weaning mortality tended to be lowest (p = 0.051) in piglets from sows fed 0.5% CLA. However, sows fed the CLA diet had more (p = 0.005) stillbirths than those on the other diets. There were few effects of diet or the dam parity x diet interaction (p ≥ 0.05) on other parameters. Overall, feeding CLA or MCFA did not improve the performance of primiparous sows, multiparous sows, or their progeny.
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    Betaine and Antioxidants Improve Growth Performance, Breast Muscle Development and Ameliorate Thermoregulatory Responses to Cyclic Heat Exposure in Broiler Chickens
    Shakeri, M ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wilkinson, S ; Ringuet, M ; Furness, JB ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI, 2018-10-01)
    Heat stress (HS) is an environmental stressor challenging poultry production and requires a strategy to cope with it. A total of 288-day-old male broiler chicks were fed with one of the following diets: basal diet, basal with betaine (BET), or with selenium and vitamin E (AOX), or with a combination of BET and AOX, under thermoneutral and cyclic HS. Results showed that HS reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.001), and impaired feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p = 0.03) during rearing period (0⁻42 day). BET increased ADG (p = 0.001) and decreased FCR (p = 0.02), whereas AOX had no effects. Breast muscle weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001) and increased by BET (p < 0.001). Rectal temperature was increased by HS (p < 0.001) and improved by BET overall. Respiration rate was increased by HS (p < 0.001), but BET decreased it during HS (p = 0.04). Jejunum transepithelial resistance was reduced by HS and had no effect on permeability whereas BET increased jejunum permeability (p = 0.013). Overall, the reductions in ADG of broiler chickens during HS were ameliorated by supplementation with BET, with much of the increase in ADG being breast muscle.
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    Primiparous and Multiparous Sows Have Largely Similar Colostrum and Milk Composition Profiles Throughout Lactation
    Craig, JR ; Dunshea, FR ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wijesiriwardana, UA ; Pluske, JR (MDPI, 2019-02-01)
    It is important to understand the biological factors influencing the poorer lifetime performance of gilt progeny in comparison to sow progeny and determine whether this may be partially due to differences in lactation performance between primiparous and multiparous sows. It was hypothesized that primiparous sows would have lower levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in colostrum and milk compared to multiparous sows, and lower levels of other energetic components. Differences in colostrum and milk composition between ten primiparous and ten multiparous sows (parities 3 and 4) from a commercial herd were examined throughout lactation (day 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21). Overall, there were no (p ≥ 0.05) parity differences in total IgG, fat, protein, lactose, and net energy (NE) concentrations. Primiparous sows had higher lactose levels at day 2 (parity by timepoint interaction; p = 0.036) and lower NE at day 3 (p = 0.091), and multiparous sows had higher lactose levels at days 14 and 21. Results suggest that shortcomings of gilt progeny are unlikely due to insufficient nutrient levels in colostrum and milk, and more likely to reduced colostrum and milk intake and their capacity to digest and absorb each component.
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    Dietary Inclusion of 1,3-Butanediol Increases Dam Circulating Ketones and Increases Progeny Birth Weight
    Wijesiriwardana, U ; Pluske, JR ; Craig, JR ; Cottrell, J ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI AG, 2019-07-24)
    1,3-Butanediol (BD) is a ketogenic substance that can improve piglet growth and survival and potentially increase performance in gilt progeny when provided as a dietary supplement during late gestation. Gilts (n = 77; parity 1) and sows (n = 74; parities 2 and 3) were fed either a standard commercial gestation diet or a diet supplemented with 4% BD from day 90 of gestation until farrowing. Dams fed with diets supplemented with BD had higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.01) and lower non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (p < 0.001). The percentage of progeny that were light-for-age (<1.1 kg) at birth was decreased by BD (18.2 vs. 13.5%, p < 0.006), particularly in gilts (24.0 vs. 18.3%, p < 0.034). Individual birth weights and litter weights birth weights tended to be increased by the BD diet (p = 0.085 and 0.078; respectively) although these effects were not maintained to weaning. Pre-weaning mortality was greater in gilt than in sow progeny and was not altered by dietary BD. Feeding BD in late gestation can improve birth weight, but further work is needed to see if these effects are carried through subsequent stages of growth, particularly in gilt progeny.
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    Growth Performance and Characterization of Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Betaine and Antioxidants under Cyclic Heat Stress
    Shakeri, M ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wilkinson, S ; Le, HH ; Suleria, HAR ; Warner, RD ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)
    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat stress conditions. Diets were either control commercial diet (CON), CON plus betaine (BET), or with a combination of betaine, selenized yeast, and vitamin E (BET + AOX). Heat stress increased the rectal temperature (p < 0.001), respiration rate (p < 0.001), decreased blood pCO2 (p = 0.002), and increased blood pH (p = 0.02), which indicated the HS broilers had respiratory alkalosis. Final body weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001), whereas it was improved with BET (p = 0.05). Heat stress reduced cooking loss (p = 0.007) and no effect on drip loss, while BET decreased the drip loss (p = 0.01). Heat stress reduced the myofibril fragmentation index (p < 0.001) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.001), while these were improved with the combination of BET + AOX (p = 0.003). In conclusion, BET overall improved growth rates and product quality in this small university study, whereas some additional benefits were provided by AOX on product quality in both TN and HS broilers.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterisation of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Polyphenol-Rich Fruits and Vegetables and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Gu, C ; Howell, K ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)
    Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds found largely in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant properties of these polyphenols including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), tannin content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging abilities and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured among sixteen (16) plant foods (mango, blueberry, strawberry, black carrot, raspberry, dark grapes, garlic, ginger, onion, cherry, plum, apple, papaya, peach, pear and apricot) by modifying, standardising and translating existing antioxidant methods using a 96-well plate reader. Eighteen targeted phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterised and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-photometric diode array (HPLC-PDA) and verified by modifying an existing method of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionisation triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS). While most of these compounds were accurately detected by the HPLC-PDA at a low concentration, a few polyphenols in low concentrations could be only be characterised using the LC-ESI-QTOF/MS method. Our results showed that mango possessed the highest overall antioxidant activity, phenolic acid and flavonoid content among the selected fruits. Factor analysis (FA) and Pearson's correlation tests showed high correlations among ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and phenolic acids, implying the comparable capabilities of scavenging the DPPH/ABTS free radicals and reducing ferric ions from the antioxidant compounds in the samples. Phenolic acids contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, and flavonoids contributed more to tannin content based on the correlations. Overall, methods modified and standardized in this study can provide better understanding of high throughput technologies and increase the reliability of antioxidant data of different plant foods.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Palm Fruits (Jelly and Fishtail Palm) and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Ma, C ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-12-20)
    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study is conducted to comprehensively characterize polyphenols from hops and juniper berries using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) to assess their antioxidant capacity. For polyphenol estimation, total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannins were measured, while for antioxidant capacity, three different antioxidant assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Hops presented the higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) which corresponded to its strong antioxidant activity as compared to the juniper berries. Using LC-ESI-QTOF/MS, a total of 148 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in juniper and hops, among which phenolic acids (including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids) and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) were the main polyphenols, which may contribute to their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the HPLC quantitative analysis showed that both samples had a high concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the HPLC quantification, the predominant phenolic acids in hops and juniper berries were chlorogenic acid (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and protocatechuic acid (11.46 ± 0.03 mg/g dw), respectively. The obtained results highlight the importance of hops and juniper berries as a rich source of functional ingredients in different food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries.
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    Effect of a polyphenol-rich plant matrix on colonic digestion and plasma antioxidant capacity in a porcine model
    Gu, C ; Howell, K ; Padayachee, A ; Comino, T ; Chhan, R ; Zhang, P ; Ng, K ; Cottrell, JJ ; Dunshea, FR (Elsevier, 2019-06-01)
    Altering cellular structure by reducing the particle size and applying heat may enhance the release of polyphenols from the plant cell matrix. The released polyphenols could ameliorate the impacts of a high-fat diet. Using a pig model in a 2 × 2 cross-over trial, we tested the effects of processing on the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in the diet, using low- and high-fat diets supplemented with raw and diced or cooked and pureed black carrots. Raw diced black carrots resulted in higher average particle size in the digesta of all gastrointestinal compartments and higher total and major short chain fatty acids in the descending colon. Supplementing the diet with raw and diced carrots also increased the colonic bacterial counts but with limited effects on gut microbiome diversity. The presence of carrots did not mitigate the negative impacts of decreased plasma antioxidant capacity and high atherogenic index induced by a high-fat diet.