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ItemEducation in Papua New GuineaVilliers, Lionel ( 1951)Material advances in living standards over the whole area and throughout total communities are necessary to promote the social welfare and development of the native peoples of Papua New Guinea. The terms, Fundamental Education, Community Development and Mass Education, are more comprehensive than the traditional term, Native Education, and indicate a much wider field for the educational sociologist. The project in Fundamental Education in Papua New Guinea, which is an integrated plan of sociological and technological advance for the native people, is known as the New Order, and took form as the Japanese were driven from the territories. More than usually difficult tropical environments have retarded scattered groups of native people, of great ethnic variety, speaking different languages, using primitive and restricted technology and living in varying stages of physical debility, disease, superstition, ignorance, malnutrition and helplessness in the face of increasing westernization. The recent war increased welfare problems. Although the natives show unexpected adaptability and resilience, westernization, with absentee labour, 'bully beef economy' and introduced disease, has added to the poverty and weakness of the native societies. The natives need urgently basic techniques of living. Later, there will have to be considerable material and technological advances to enable these native people to take a full share in the development of their country. The educationists have two important tasks : (1) The task of designing the community projects and directing the practical, material enterprises towards desirable social development. In Papua New Guinea this task is the responsibility of the Administrator. The departmentalised form of organisation of the Administration of Papua New Guinea tends to conceal the share of the Director of Education and other heads of departments in this task. (2) We must not assume that the native people will acquire our ideas and attitudes or follow the course that we consider desirable. Material changes, and enrichment of native communities need changes in attitude and ideas on the part of the native. The techniques of Mass Education must be used to explain, cajole, coerce, persuade, enlighten and discipline the native people about the new materials and new methods. Universal primary education is the aim of long range plans for this purpose; but the present needs of the native people require these long range plans to be supplemented by all available means of propagation and mass conditioning. The present Director of Education is specially qualified to resolve disconformities of acculturation, from a psychological viewpoint. The evidence indicates that the natives react favourably to large scale and seemingly disruptive material change, and that psychological problems of westernization can be exaggerated. It is helpful to maintain the native's sense of security, and one of the ways of doing this is to preserve the dignity of native languages, ceremonies and cultural life. Voluntary bodies, the Christian Missions, have been engaged in the work of welfare and development of the native people for more than sixty years. With the advance of their civilising mission, they have been able to introduce refinements of method and have extended their range. Following the war, many of the missions have staged a brilliant recovery. They are progressive in educational method and take a large share in the social welfare and development of the native people. The diffusion of essential westernization and the propagation of desirable attitudes among the native people are very important aspects of education in Papua New Guinea. Particular attention is paid to formal and informal methods of diffusion, and mass communication. Films, broadcasting and publishing receive attention, for they seem to present efficient mechanical means of disseminating and humanising knowledge at a level that may be useful in the conditioning of illiterates. Diffusion, propagation and general and thorough dispersion to all the native people, of the new ways of living, is the task of education. Indeed, this is almost a definition of education. The present Director has boldly pioneered the use of films and broadcasting, and, as far as the preparatory organisation, has been most successful. There is no comparable achievement amongst retarded multilanguage groups anywhere. So far it has not been possible to establish rapport, nor to exploit the full possibilities of these and other media. Probably the best means of diffusion of the new techniques is that process herein called social learning and imitation, and left unanalysed. Successful enterprises, in which the natives themselves have taken part, and have shared in the benefits thereof, seem to be the best incentive to the spread of new techniques. A number of circumstances, including the departmentalised system of organisation of the Administration, have tended to restrict the Director of Education to a pedagogic role. There has been an unfortunate tendency to restrict the full sociological significance of important groups (for example, women - the education of women and girls) to a single aspect of their social development, namely, pedagogic institutions. The Director has not had directive control over the sociological aspects of the work of the various technical departments. An isolated school system could do much harm by educating for a non-existent economic situation. The Director has had to resist firmly the establishment of schools ahead of a careful programme of training for native teachers and leaders. At the same time he has encouraged experiments. There are a number of interesting new government schools. Among the many achievements of the present Director of Education has been the provision of schools for the children of the Europeans of the territories, and for the Chinese. The New Order is an enterprise in Fundamental Education worthy of favourable comparison with any oversea project. There is no doubt about the ultimate success. At present the Administration is at the transition stage between welfare work following the war and the preparatory work for development, and the implementation of overall plans for the development of the resources of the territory. The crucial question arises about education in Papua New Guinea. Having already spent, or earmarked for spending, �40 million in reconstruction, welfare and in preparatory organisation for development, will the Commonwealth Government continue to assist with increasing expenditure, without return, a social and economic developmental programme designed to increase permanently the resources of the territory, to enrich the native people and raise their standards of living, and at the same time, to leave them in full control of their government, their land and cultural and ceremonial life?
ItemNew objectives for Indonesian education: a critical account of the present stage of development of a government educational system in IndonesiaHalliday, W. H. ( 1956)My thesis is: "Taking into consideration all relevant factors, Indonesia is developing a modern educational system which is steadily being adapted to meet the needs of the country". It is inevitable that, in considering the degree to which a system has become modern, a foreigner must be influenced by his own "western" oriented background. I have .spent my educational life in the science section of a government secondary school and in a teachers' college in Australia. My particular interests will be reflected in the attention I have given to the state system and the relative neglect of the private systems in Indonesia. In any case, the total field is too vast for first hand study so that most attention is given to that part of education controlled by the Department of Instruction in the Ministry of Education, Instruction and Culture. (From introduction)