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ItemStatistics of public expenditure on education in Australia : requirements for the formation of national policySegall, Patsy (1942-) ( 1976)In Australia's federal system the provision of educational services is the responsibility of the state governments. However, the federal government has also acquired responsibilities for. education. Since the second world war, the state governments have been dependent on the federal government for a large proportion of the funds needed to discharge their responsibilities. More directly, the federal government has greatly extended the scope of its activities in education, mainly through the use of specific. purpose grants to the states. By 1970 these grants affected all levels of education in the states. To be effective, national 'educational policies should take account of differences between the states as well as of 'national needs. Necessary information includes national statistics which are compiled on the same basis for each of . the states. The coverage and quality of national educational statistics has improved considerably, but there are still deficiencies. In particular, the statistics of public expenditure on education do not provide an adequate account of the states individually, or of national trends. Unpublished records of the Australian Bureau of Statistics provide the basis for a set of figures of public expenditure on education which are both more comprehensive and more detailed than those published. Analysis of these figures for the period 1963-64 to 1973-74 shows large differences in the patterns of educational expenditure in each of the states. Nationally there have been considerable changes in the composition of total public outlay on education, the rapid growth of the tertiary sector outside universities being particularly noteworthy. Official statistics of this kind are needed to make possible an effective assessment of the priorities and directions of Australian education.
ItemNon-professional and non-governmental organisations and the provision of public education, 1850-1969Collins-Jennings, John W. ( 1971)The beginnings of the public education system in New South Wales are briefly examined to set the background for the development of public education in Victoria. An examination is made of the system of patrons instituted under the administration of the National Schools Board and the Common Schools Board. The 1872 Education Act replaced the patrons with boards of advice, and the 1910 Education Act replaced the boards of advice with the present system of school committees and councils. The effectiveness of the boards of advice and the school committees and councils is also assessed. A common theme is shown to have emerged from the earliest time, that the professional educationist has firmly maintained that the non-professional and non-governmental organisation has only a minor contribution to make in the control of public education. The final chapter indicates that there appears to be some change forthcoming in this attitude, because the non-professional and non-governmental organisations are beginning to realize the need for political rather than organisational action.
ItemEducation and state control in Victoria, 1900-1925Badcock, Alfred Maxwell (1912-) ( 1963)This is an attempt to make sample assessments of State-controlled education in Victoria in the first quarter of this century, to define the nature of State control and to judge of its quality and effectiveness. The term 'State control' has been interpreted to include partial and indirect control as well as that which is complete and direct: hence Part III has been devoted to control exercised by the State over private and denominational schools, for this extension of the State's arm was characteristic of the period. Within the State's own Department system, the whole field proved too vast for one thesis: therefore, on the assumption that the system at the Primary level was fairly well established before the turn of the century and that other Melbourne researchers are covering the field of technical education, attention in Part II has been focussed on the establishment of State high-schools. Part I, on administration, naturally treats of the system as a whole. Another limitation imposed by space and time concerns sources of material. Any assessment must embrace causes as well as results, and in that even the sample field proved too large for detailed consideration of a wide range of causes, attention has been concentrated on internal evidence -- that is, evidence contained in Department documents and reports. Apart from practicability where evidence is embarrassingly plentiful, one justification of this approach is that in the period under survey Victorian State-controlled education was dominated by the strongest and most influential of its several Directors, Mr. Frank Tate. It has been the fashion to count this domination to the credit of Victoria's first Director and to the great advantage of the State. But one of the assumptions underlying the commentary in the pages that follow is that in a democratic society the professional administrator and his officers should not be obliged or even permitted to determine the social objectives underlying the processes of education. It is theirs as experts to determine the most appropriate means by which the goal shall be reached after it has been determined and defined by the community through its elected representatives. (From Introduction)
ItemThe influence of Alfred Williams, and the Price ministry, on public education in South AustraliaBeare, Hedley ( 1964)The immediate problem confronting an education historian of the period which includes the lifetimes of Alfred Williams and Thomas Price is the paucity of other investigations on the trends and developments in South Australia at the time. While clearing, breaking the soil, and then farming my selection, I have been made continually aware that my field is a small enclave in miles of unbroken, virgin bush. As a consequence, I have had to look at the lie of the land as well as the quality of the crop, to combine as it were the two jobs of surveyor and agriculturalist. Of all the men who have been permanent heads of the State's education services, only one, John Anderson Hartley, has so far been the subject of critical research. In a State as comparatively small as South Australia, the impact of personalities on the State system is likely to provide the reasons for reform and practice, since one man here and there could in fact be the monarch in so small a kingdom. Thus as this investigation has proceeded, it has become increasingly clearer to me that there are rich areas to be examined outside my frame of reference. The influence of W.T. McCoy, a powerful Director from 1919 to 1929, must soon have to be estimated. H.J. Adey, who is often mentioned in the following pages, seems to me to have given a many-sided contribution to South Australian education, but as yet he is revered without many people knowing exactly why. Dr. Charles Fenner, as initiator of Technical Education after 1915 and then later as Director, is another who needs a just appraisal. The Directors alone, it seems to me, warrant closer attention by research scholars before the history of our State's education can properly be told. Furthermore, the mark of Dr. A.J. Schulz has been left indelibly on Teacher Training in this State if for no other reason than that he controlled the destiny of the State's only Teachers College from 1908 until 1948. My interviews with Mr. Ben Gates and Mr. Reg. West also emphasized the impression that these men were themselves the fabric of the history, for what has happened in the high schools since such schools were instituted has to a large extent been the result of the actions and policies of these men. Yet such extensive areas of research lie virtually unexplored; and without critical research there cannot be a balanced or definite account of how South Australian education has developed. (From Preface)