Faculty of Education - Theses

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    The dawn of the thousand year reich : the ascendancy of didactic and neo-classical architecture during the Third Reich
    Kapaufs, Norman R. R ( 1978)
    In the past, Nazi architecture has been a much maligned subject which most commentators, historians and writers have carefully neglected. This legacy has left a deplorable lack of information, especially in the English language. This laudable position becomes more absurd for the copious amount of books, art journals, articles that flourished under the Third Reich are today virtually non-existent. Often when cited, the architecture is used in a hysterical fashion, usually in association with some alleged atrocity, thus pushing even further into the background the original concepts for the architecture's being. Had it not been for recent publications and research, carried out in West Germany, this thesis would have not been possible.
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    Influences at work on the shaping of a Catholic girls' secondary school
    Watson, D. E ( 1989)
    1988 is the twenty-fifth year of the existence of Ave Maria College, a girls' Catholic secondary school at West Essendon, established in 1963 by the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary. This thesis endeavours to trace the forces which shaped it - the sociological, religious, political and economic forces which influenced its growth. It examines the background and development of the College under the guidance of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, the handing over of the College to the the Catholic Education Office on the departure of the sisters in 1975, the subsequent administration by an Interim Board of Management and its eventual development as an autonomous College within the Catholic Education system, and the laitization of the College which is a feature of many Catholic secondary schools of the 1980's.
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    Geelong High School 1909-16 : a study of local response
    White, David Llewellyn ( 1978)
    The years 1909-16 saw the expansion of public secondary education within Victoria. It represents the working out of certain aims and policies for secondary schools between a centralised Education Department in Melbourne and the local communities that were financially involved in the provision of these facilities. This thesis will attempt to identify the forces shaping the development of Geelong High School. It will outline the aims and values of this community and evaluate the significance of their perception of what secondary education should be about. The study will look at the role of the Education Department - its director, its administrative philosophy and the attitude of the State Government towards the expansion of secondary education. The study will examine the interplay of these factors with the significant contribution of the school's educational leadership and philosophy. The main argument of the thesis is that the success of Geelong High School was to a large extent due to its support from a middle class. They saw in the school opportunities for their children resulting from an education that was financially beyond them at the prestigious fee-paying public schools. In responding to these needs the school would survive in spite of almost overwhelming odds in its early years. A comparative study with Colac Agricultural High School will be made to clarify the point that it was community support, and not legislation and regulations from the Department, that was to be the main reason for the success of Geelong High School.
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    Secondary education in Van Diemen's Land, 1820-1857
    Noble, Gerald W ( 1972)
    The history of the establishment of any school system is necessarily an account of contrasting individuals and their diverse attitudes and efforts. Van Diemen's Land is no exception; the only factor enjoyed in common by nearly all of the private schoolmasters was their motivation - want of a more lucrative or appropriate occupation. Few schools prospered in Tasmania in the period up to 1850 for the colony lacked the prosperous middle-class that supported the English public and proprietary schools. A convict, Thomas Fitzgerald, was appointed as the first public schoolmaster in 1807 but nothing of a secondary nature was attempted until 1819. From that point a number of schools can be traced. The most remarkable would be those conducted at Pressland House, Melville Street, Hobart Town, by a succession of capable schoolmasters, in Launceston by Charles Price, and at Ellinthorp Hall, near Ross, by Mrs.G.C.Clark. However, the most insignificant seminary made some contribution to the traditions of culture and education in Tasmania, and for this reason, each founder deserves to be considered, whether of the English or Scottish tradition, Rugbeian or parochial school derivation, trained or self-taught, emancipist or free settler. Whilst free enterprise provided the temporary educational needs of Van Diemen's Land, Church and State pondered ways to establish more permanent institutions. The efforts of Archdeacons T.H.Scott and W.G.Broughton came to nought but activities commenced with the arrival of Sir John Franklin in 1837, a governor determined to set up a public school of the Arnoldian pattern in Tasmania. John Philip Gell was selected as foundation headmaster and, until the College could be built, he conducted the Queen's School. This venture failed during the severe economic depression in 1843. Sir John Franklin's successor, Sir John Eardley-Wilmot, did not share his predecessor's enthusiasm for the College so in its place the Church of England planned a Church-sponsored system of schools. Bishop F.R.Nixon promoted a fund-raising drive, largely in England, which resulted in the establishment in 1846 of Christ's College, a grammar school and quasi-university, and two feeder schools, Hutchins School in Hobart Town and the Launceston Church Grammar School. At about the same time another group, composed largely of Dissenters, launched a High School in Hobart Town. Both the High School and Christ's College failed during the 1850's but the two feeder schools survived the economic troubles and Tractarian disputes of the period. It is clear that in all these schools, although economic and political factors played decisive roles, the most significant factor was the character of the persons organizing and controlling the schools. It is necessary therefore to see what manner of men worked for education in Van Diemen's Land in the first half of the nineteenth century.
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    The origins, development and influence of Ursuline pedagogy
    Waters, Peter ( 1984)
    Much of what was taught in Roman Catholic convent schools, and many of the methods used, may be traced to the influence of a religious order of women, the Ursulines, who find the origin of their pedagogical inspiration and a pattern of religious spirituality in the Company of St. Ursula, established by Angela Merici at Brescia some four hundred and fifty years ago. However, religious congregations devoted to the education of women, and those who have been educated by them would be, for the most part, unaware of this influence. Similarly, standard texts of educational history give no more than a passing acknowledgement, if any, of the singular contribution of this religious order, and the significance of this for a comprehensive perspective of general educational history. The object of this study is to present a description of the development of Ursuline pedagogy, with a concentration on the French tradition, illustrating its consolidation as it provided a distinctive intellectual, moral and religious process of formation for young women, and then tracing the different kinds of influence that it exerted, especially as it became a model for later educational initiatives within other religious orders of women. Initially, this thesis explores the circumstances conditioning the emergence of the Primitive Company of St. Ursula, examining the cultural and religious setting of the Italian Renaissance in which it first developed, and for which it was primarily intended as an agent of a perceived necessary transformation of women in that society. It investigates the writings of Angela Merici with an eye to those elements of her thought which have a specific pedagogical importance. It will demonstrate that Angela Merici believed in utilising the home atmosphere and its natural influences as the best means of giving a religious and moral formation, as well as ensuring basic intellectual and social development. Where this would not be possible, she, with her companions, would provide an environment as close as possible to the ideal, promoting a mother-daughter relationship between the member of the Company of St. Ursula and the individual children in her care. The pre-eminently personal quality of her thought is revealed to be in keeping with all the best Renaissance standards. Her "Arricordi"(Counsels) indicate her enthusiasm for focussing attention on the individual, using certain insights of feminine psychology to provide a thorough preparation of each for responsible motherhood and authentic Christian citizenship. A synoptic survey of the educational philosophies of Jean. Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi, Johann Herbart and Friedrich Froebel serves to show how the thought of Angela Merici compares with that of each of these writers, emphasising the pedagogical status of her work, and indicating that she ought attract more universal recognition as a significant contributor to the evolution of pedagogical theory. The thesis traces the development of the Company after the death of the foundress, and how it was forced to clarify and modify its constitutions and form of government to meet the requirements of adaptation to new ecclesiastical and societal circumstances. These were occasioned by the impact of the Protestant Reformation, as well as the Catholic reaction to it, culminating in the reforms of the Council of Trent, and further complicated by political and territorial conflicts at both local and national levels. The influence of significant churchmen of the period is also examined. Leading reformers such as Cardinal Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Francois de Sourdis and Archbishop Alessandro Canigiani took initiatives which impinged on the process of adaptation through three successive stages, and which contributed to a clarification of the distinctive apostolate of the Company. The development of the Company in France at the turn of the seventeenth century, and the progress towards the adoption of monastic status whilst maintaining an apostolate of education as its principal "raison d'etre", is given detailed. analysis. It represents the elementary base for the theoretical and methodological structure from which a more highly developed Ursuline pedagogy would take its shape. Foremost among those who brought the Ursuline communities to this stage is Francoise de Bermond, assisted by two influential Provencale priests, Cesar'de Bus and Jean Baptist Romillon, who had already developed catechetical and general elementary educational programmes of their own. Later, Madame de St. Beuve and Madame Acarie introduced the Ursulines to Paris, engaging Francoise de Bermond to instruct the first members of that community in the implementation of the Ursuline Rule, and to form them according to the spirit of Angela Merici. Whilst acknowledging similar developments in various other centres such as Bordeaux, Toulouse and Tulle, the educational tradition of the monastery of Paris has been selected for special study because of the availability of the 1705 reprint of the first edition in 1652 of the Reglemens of Paris. This work, a collection of three small manuals which enshrine Ursuline educational principles and provide a precise methodology to be followed in the monastery schools, allows the student of educational history to reconstruct a vivid picture of the educational practice of a vast network of such monasteries throughout France during the Ancien Regime. It reveals details of the organisation of two separate educational establishments within the monastic complex, a "pensionnat" (boarding school), and a free day-school for poor students. An overview of the Jesuit tradition of education, which developed at the same time, allows for a comparative study of the Reglemens with the Ratio Studiorum. This highlights the unique quality of the former, demonstrating that, although there is evidence of assimilation of influences from a variety of sources, the Ursuline . method is not a mere imitation of the Jesuit system. This study concentrates on the precise nature of Ursuline education until the time of the suppression of the religious orders during the French Revolution. It describes the expansion of the influence of the Paris monastery as it became a prototype for other "f iliated" Ursuline monasteries, and as aspects of its tradition were adopted by other pre-Revolution foundations, such as the "Maison Royale de St. Cyr", and the Irish. Congregation of the Presentation. In the post-Revolution period, the re-emergence of the tradition within in reconstituted Ursuline communities and in other newly founded religious communities devoted to the education of women is treated. The task of tracing the continuing influence of Ursuline pedagogy through the plethora of nineteenth century congregations of teaching women is beyond the scope of this work. I have avoided detailed presentation of the more specifically religious elements of the regimen of Ursuline life except where it serves to illuminate the motivation of the members of the communities in their educational work. It is hoped that this study will provide clearer insight into the phenomenon of Ursuline pedagogy, and its contribution to the extensive educational enterprise of the Roman Catholic Church which, in turn, has its influence on the total intellectual and moral formation of the individual in society.
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    Aims, men or money?. the establishment of secondary education for boys in South Australia and in the Port Phillip District of New South Wales - 1836 to 1860
    Noble, Gerald W ( 1980)
    Young children bring with them to school a certain amount of science knowledge gained from their everyday lives. What they "know", whether right or wrong, may be the result of interactions with family, television, computer programs, books, peers or visits to environmental locations, museums or science centres. In this study, children who have been at primary school for between two and three years are asked to describe their knowledge and their sources of information. The extent to which school factors are influencing their science knowledge is investigated. A survey was developed and protocols trialled before fifty-seven children aged eight and nine years at a provincial Victorian government primary school were surveyed to establish their home background and family interest in science, their own attitudes and feelings toward science and the efficacy of their science experiences at school. Interviews were carried out with nine students, selected to represent a broad range of attitudes to science, in order to gain more detailed information about their specific understandings of a number of topics within the primary school science curriculum and the sources of their information. The students' responses revealed that where they were knowledgeable about a subject they could indeed say from where they obtained their knowledge. Books were the most commonly cited source of information, followed by school, personal home experiences and family. Computers and the internet had little influence. Students who appeared to have "better" understandings quoted multiple sources of information. Positive correlations were found between enjoyment of school lessons and remembering science information, liking to watch science television or videos and remembering science information, and liking to read science books and remembering science information. Mothers were also linked to the use of science books at home, and the watching of nature TV shows at home. There are several implications for the teaching of science at early years level. Teachers need to be aware of powerful influences, from both within and outside of the classroom, which may impact on children, and which may be enlisted to help make learning more meaningful. The research indicates the importance of home background, parental interest and access to books, and notes the under utilisation of computers and lack of visits to museums and interactive science centres.
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    Women in Collingwood in the depression of the 1930s
    Sullivan, Helen ( 2001)
    This thesis is about the lives of women in Collingwood during the Depression of the 1930s. They fought tirelessly to have their families fed and clothed, often sharing the little they had. Homes were primitive, bathrooms were uncommon and most houses had no water in the home. Shopping was done on a daily basis as there were no refrigerators. With constant childcare under these conditions, women were almost literally chained to the home. Even in the 1930s it was not accepted that women work outside the home. In some instances women would go without food to ensure that their children were fed, some women suffering from malnutrition. The Women's Hospital was where Collingwood women went for treatment. As there was no Medicare, doctors were unavailable to the working class. Marriage called for perseverance as divorce was uncommon. With the working-class wife heading the family, men, especially unemployed men, regarded this as a blow to their pride. A common occurrence for families unable to meet their rent payments was eviction. Eventually the Government gave a subsidy towards the rent for those who received an eviction order. Many people relied on charity, indicating just how desperate they were. Over 11,000 women out of 16,000 women in Collingwood were either unemployed or dependent on husbands' uncertain incomes. For many, charity was the only answer. Many of the remaining 5,000 women were domestic servants, barmaids, factory workers or shop assistants. Barmaids had a lowly reputation as their work was not regarded as respectable 'women's work'. Professional women, teachers and kindergartners came from the more affluent areas to work in Collingwood. Some women resorted to crime, shoplifting and even violence as a matter of survival. Others turned to abortion and prostitution, both outlawed at this time. Men were not neglected in this thesis. They suffered humiliation and degradation as they formed endless queues, and more often than not returned home only to report no job.
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    Walter Bonwick (1824-1883) : Walter Bonwick and the establishment of music teaching in the national schools of Victoria, 1855-1856
    Maclellan, Beverley ( 1990)
    This thesis examines the development of music teaching in the National Schools in the vicinity of Melbourne for the years 1855 and 1856. While Walter Bonwick was not the first music teacher to be appointed by the National Board, he was the most influential, and from his appointment in February, 1855, began a career which was to span a quarter of a century. He continued as a vocal music teacher and later as a instructor of music teachers with the National Board and. its successors until his death in 1883, at the age of fifty-eight. Walter was a member of a circle of colonial teachers and- writers who were connected by marriage, and his success in obtaining a position with the National Board was certainly in part the result of the influence of his family and their friends. But the significance of his music teaching in 1855 and 1856 was his insistence on a modification of Hullah's system. Walter persuaded the Board that Hullah's system for teaching vocal music was unsuitable for the schools in the colony because the course was too long, the exercises too tedious, and the music not sufficiently pleasing or attractive to children. His solution was to request the Board to sanction the introduction into National schools of a Manual of Vocal. Music to be compiled by him. The Board agreed to his proposal, and so began a series of publications for instruction in the schools. This paralleled a similar request to the Board by his brother James to sanction his publication of a Geography text book for use in the schools. Walter's weekly reports reveal a wealth of detail of the incidents of colonial life; flood, heat, falling trees, death, and even toothache. They also show Walter to be sensitive, hard-working, and dedicated to his music and his pupils. The Secretary and Commissioners of the Board - are treated with respectful familiarity; rather unexpected in a subordinate. One hundred miles a week by horse, Walter was the archetypical peripatetic vocal music teacher.
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    Cultural preservation : the Estonian experience in Australia 1947-1987
    Redenbach, Merike ( 1987)
    This study is based on an historical perspective which traces the origins and development of Estonian organisations which are viewed as representing the 'conscious' attempts to preserve Estonian culture in Australia. The organisational problems and strategies to preserve the culture are examined in terms of the relationship between strategies used by the Estonian community and those used simultaneously by the wider community in response to changes in social relationships and emerging government policies. A major source for research material has been through oral history sources in interviews and contacts with several ethnic Estonians(primarily immigrants),who have been actively involved with organised Estonian cultural life : extensive interviews were conducted in Melbourne,Sydney, Thirlmere,Adelaide and Canberra; the writer has also spent almost twelve months being actively involved in some of the Estonian organisations including the Melbourne Ladies' Choir, Festivals and concerts. Other important sources of information include the Eesti Paevad Albums(Estonian Festival Albums, 1954-1986),historical writings about Estonia and Estonian people,contemporary publications, research and other projects, an original questionnaire for second generation Estonians,and the writer's participation in the National Research Conference on Ethnicity and Multiculturalism at the University of Melbourne (May 14 - 16) in 1986. Part 1 introduces the underlying concepts of 'culture', 'community' and 'ethnicity',with a section on the relevant historical and geographical background of Estonia and Estonian immigrants. Aspects of the Estonian culture within the Australian context are examined using an adaptation of Raymond Williams' interpretation of culture this study stresses the importance of creating a balanced interpretation of Estonian culture at three levels,that is,the 'living community','recorded' culture and 'selective tradition' in the argument for developing strategies for preserving the Estonian culture through the process of mainstream education. Part 11 follows on from the foundations laid by the 'Old Estonians'(pre-World War ll),and outlines the changing role of major Estonian organisations such as the Festivals,Choirs, Estonian school,the press,and to a lesser extent the Church,in preserving the Estonian culture according to emerging trends within the Estonian community and the surrounding culture. Part 111 highlights the nature of the 'ageing' and diminishing Estonian community in Australia,with - the emergence of the younger generation of ethnic Estonians in Australia as the vehicle for the creation and transmission of Estonian culture. The intercultural context and the nature of contemporary social relationships provide evidence of the change from the ethnic exclusiveness of the earlier period,to the widening framework for Estonian ethnicity and interest in preserving the Estonian culture. Many of the current developments from within the Estonian community and its wider context are presented as evidence of trends which are moving towards the realization of crucial strategies which are needed to preserve the Estonian culture in Australia through the process of education.