Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Theses

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    The holistic nature of literary knowledge : a perspective of authorial meaning and legitimate significance as a unique aesthetic experience
    Statton, Carl Anthony ( 1986)
    Literary knowledge represents the state of affairs in the holistic nature of literature. Within the scheme of co-ordinates that constitute the holistic nature of literature, legitimate aesthetic experience cannot occur unless a valid interpretation of meaning is considered as the probable intention of the author. Understanding meaning initiates legitimate aesthetic experience as opposed to an aesthetic awareness that inadvertently distorts authorial intention to satisfy wishfulfilment gratification of the audience. Validity in interpretation implies satisfying the conditions of knowledge, in that agreement in .judgements about literature is possible. Yet, though meaning may satisfy the conditions of objectivity, each legitimate aesthetic experience is peculiar to the individual's empathic relationship to the valid interpretation. . The significance of the text may be an ineffable aesthetic experience which is a self-evident form of knowledge. The synthesis of Hirsch's theory of 'meaning and 'significance' with Hirst's belief that literature is ? 'unique form of knowledge' gives a dual nature to, and foundation for, the epistemological status of literature. Consequently, there is justification for teaching literary knowledge in texts and procedural knowledge for construal of valid interpretation. Interpretation and criticism have different functions. One attempts to give coherence and objectivity to textual meaning, while criticism imbues a valid interpretation with a 'unique' knowledge that is relative to the dynamic of history and the dialectic of criticism. If students are to perceive in some degree the holistic nature of literary knowledge, then trainee teachers ought to be familiar with the synthesis of Hirsch and Hirst which is a primary principle both in the construal of textual meaning and in the attempt to express legitimate aesthetic experience.
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    An analysis of education provision to older non-English speaking background youth with minimal or interrupted schooling in the Richmond/Collingwood area
    Polesel, John ( 1987)
    This study is an analysis of educational provision in the Richmond/Coilingwood area for young people aged 16 to 24 years of age, of migrant or refugee background, who have a history of minimal or interrupted schooling. These students are mostly of Indo-Chinese or Timorese background , and face severe problems relating to their lack of literacy and poor English proficiency. Many of these students are unaccompanied refugees and face economic hardship in Australia. Educational programs running in five postprimary schools, two TAFE colleges and two language centres are examined in light of their relevance to the needs of these students. It emerges from this study that a small number of institutions provide responsive quality programs for this group. There are, however, general problems relating to the low status and marginalization of ESL programs in most of the institutions. These problems are compounded by a lack of funding, unsympathetic administration, ignorance of the issues and difficulties relating to accreditation. In some institutions, no provision at all is made for these students. Needs emerging from these issues may be summarized as follows. A greater awareness of the educational requirements. of this group must be developed. An informed collaborative approach must be adopted to respond to these needs in the form of appropriate ESL programs. Policy and administrative support must be forthcoming to assist in achieving these goals.
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    Clinical teaching styles : an evaluation by clinicians and students
    Stock, Pearl ( 1987)
    This study examined an important aspect of clinical education - clinical teaching styles - from the viewpoint of both students and clinical educators. In February 1986 physiotherapy students in their third year of the Bachelor of Applied Science course at Lincoln Institute and physiotherapy clinical educators from Lincoln Institute and metropolitan and country hospitals viewed videotapes of three teaching styles and completed a questionnaire which required the respondent to rate these styles. It was hypothesized that clinicians and students would observe and react to the presentation of styles from different perspectives and therefore their ratings of the styles would differ. The results show that this hypothesis is confirmed in that while both groups preferred the "prompting" style to the "explanatory" and "non-intervention" styles, there was also a statistically significant difference between students and clinicians in rating the "explanatory" style - students higher than clinicians. Neither group rated the "non-intervention" style as helpful to learning. Students also differentiated between the effectiveness of styles for different aspects of their treatment of patients; clinicians rated the "prompting" style as appropriate for all clinical tasks. Clinical educators should take account of these differences in perception of teaching styles which may influence the effectiveness of the clinical learning experience of students.
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    Montessori mathematics education : its contribution to contemporary mathematics theory and curriculum
    Pettit, Brian David ( 1987)
    Montessori education has a long and continuing tradition. The mathematics education component is founded upon an extensive sensory education programme developed by Dr Maria Montessori and implemented in schools throughout the world. This thesis traces the historical precedents that provided the framework for the development of an educational programme firmly premised on the need for a sensorial education. The translation of the first part of Montessori's 'Psicoaritmetica' provides an illustration of an introductory mathematics programme using structured manipulative materials. This programme develops as a direct extension of the sensory-motor emphasis of Montessori pre-school education. Finally, the Montessori mathematics programme, developed initially over fifty years ago is considered in relation to contemporary mathematics education theories, many of which have reiterated principles and practices first developed by Montessori.
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    Egan's stage theory : an exploratory study of its use in the analysis of science textbooks
    Valmadre, Christopher Charles ( 1985)
    Kieran Egan (1979) has challenged educationists to consider the need for a Theory of Development which is specifically Educational. Such a need is discussed and examined in the context of science teaching. Egan's Theory was applied to the selection of science text material for a group of eleven and twelve year old students. The students' responses to the materials were compared with Egan's descriptions of certain developmental stages, particularly of his Romantic Stage. The author concluded that Egan's theoretical proposition assisted in interpeting certain student behaviour and preferences. Possible classroom uses of Egan's theory are discussed, implications for text usage and design are outlined, and some areas of research are suggested.
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    Computer education and instructional television : a case study
    Price, John Antony ( 1987)
    Computing literacy training is an essential prerequisite for studies in economics, business and accounting. This type of training is characterized by a need to provide 'hands-on' instruction. This is time-consuming as it involves individual tuition. However Faculty staff with appropriate skill are limited and university education is geared towards large-group instruction. In response to the training needs of computing literacy and these constraints the Faculty of Economics and Commerce of the University of Melbourne created a series of instructional television (ITV) programmes. This project was successful in enabling students to develop basic skills in computing and some competence in the use of computers. The ITV programmes were evaluated by a survey of viewers via questionnaire and by teacher observation. The cost of the ITV project was estimated and the cost-effectiveness of the use of ITV in computing literacy training was established. In addition the cost-benefit ratio of the computing literacy ITV project was determined.
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    Developing a policy for teaching Chinese language and culture in Victoria
    Yang, Guosheng ( 1989)
    A rational policy for the teaching of foreign languages is based on a thorough understanding and analysis of the position and the importance of target languages in national political, economic, and social development. This paper discusses the importance to the development of Sino-Australian relations of the teaching of the Chinese language and of the making and implementation of policies for the teaching of the Chinese language in Victoria. Since 1972 it has been in the Australian and Chinese national interests that tight links between these two countries should grow rapidly and steadily. Consequently, there has been an increasing demand for learning the Chinese language. In order to meet this demand the Australian government, in recent years, has paid great attention to teaching the Chinese language in schools. However, there remain questions as to the general usefulness of learning the Chinese language and culture. Some believe that the present scale of teaching the Chinese language is meeting the general requirements of community language needs and is also providing adequate numbers of skilled Chinese language personnel for the work force. Therefore, they consider there is no need to expand the teaching of the Chinese language. On the other hand, those in favour of an expansion of Chinese language teaching foresee a continuing development of Sino-Australian links and an increasing demand for Chinese language skills from both government and people. In regard to policy-making and implementation in teaching second languages, the Chinese practice in this area is relevant. Their experience shows that a successful implementation of government language policy requires active response from local educational authorities subject to a centralised education system. These government-backed and funded educational authorities are the guarantee of policy implementation. The Australian federal government and the Victorian government have so far formulated comprehensive language policies for schools. Both national policy and state policy clearly stress the importance of developing the teaching of Asian languages, particularly Japanese and Chinese. These policies have promoted the teaching of Chinese language in Victorian schools to some extent. But school commitments to teaching Chinese, especially in state schools, are still on a very small scale. In most state schools, traditional views on second language teaching still give priority to European languages, or are only concerned with community languages. In the Australian education system it is the individual schools that determine what second languages they prefer to teach. Therefore, the gulf still exists between policy and policy-implementation . In community-run language schools there has been a rapid development in the teaching of Chinese language in the last five years. This reflects a strong desire by Australian citizens to learn the Chinese language and to learn about Chinese culture from people both of Chinese and non-Chinese backgrounds. The Chinese ethnic school and culture in Victoria. They are a potential student resource for formal schools, tertiary colleges, and universities. In Victoria, the teaching of Chinese language and culture at tertiary level started twenty five years ago. There has been a remarkable development in the last three years. This is reflected in a constant increase in student enrolment, the establishment of new subjects, and the development. of teaching materials. There is no doubt that the development of Sino-Australian relations will demand a great expansion in the learning and teaching of Chinese language and culture. Reinforced by the Australian government's national strategy for Asian studies, the teaching of Chinese language and culture will enter a new stage in the late twentieth century and early twenty first century.
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    Word processing training in Perth, Western Australia: a comparative study
    McQueen, J. S (1946-) ( 1985)
    This thesis, entitled "Word Processing Training in Perth, Western Australia: A Comparative Study", aims to identify and analyse the range of training options available in Perth for secretarial personnel who wish to pursue careers in the word processing field.
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    Beyond school science: students and teachers perceptions of the science talent search
    Krystyn, Jean Elizabeth ( 1986)
    Every year the Science Teachers Association of Victoria (STAV) conducts a Science Talent Search (STS) which they maintain is one of the largest and longest running science fairs in the world. This study aimed to provide some insights into why this activity is so popular with students and teachers and to what extent it complements or provides outcomes different from school science. Information was collected by searching the archives of STAV and by interviews with teachers and students. The findings indicate that over the years STS has adapted to changes in the social and economic contexts of schooling, which have also influenced thinking about but not forced major changes in the secondary school science curriculum. This has contributed to its increased popularity with keen students and teachers as evidenced by increased participation. The students who were interviewed enjoyed and valued their experiences in STS. In particular they commented on the freedom to choose projects according to their abilities, interests and preferred modes of working. Many of their projects arose from every day life problems or recreational pursuits of themselves and their families. STS catered for a wide range of abilities and interests and provided an attractive forum for the involvement of girls in science activities. Girls said that they had gained great satisfaction from confirmation of their ability to meet challenges and solve problems relying mostly on their own resources. Based on students responses some distinctions can be made between school science and the science activities of the STS which indicate ways in which school science may need to change in order to attract and cater for a wider range of students.
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    Aspects of linguistic diversity in the Soviet Union: a commentary with translation on V. Tsulukidze's Language of friendship and fraternity
    Kirk, Neile A. ( 1988)
    Difficulties of a political and pedagogical nature persist for the teaching of Russian to non-Russians in the Soviet Union. V. Tsulukidze, Minister of Education of the Adar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, has written of the beneficial influence of Russian on other languages within and without the Soviet Union. In the thesis, his article IAzyk druzhby i bratstva, published in the January 1984 issue of Narodnoe obrazovanie, is translated into English. The thesis provides a commentary on some aspects of Tsulukidze's article and provides examples of the way Russian has influenced and been influenced by other languages, both Soviet and non-Soviet, and indicates the difficulties in some instances of establishing the exact nature of such influences where there are ambiguous indications. Examples are also drawn from Croatian, German, French, Greek and other languages. The thesis also provides a discussion of the ideological context of language policy In the Soviet Union.