Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

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    Probing the diabetes and colorectal cancer relationship using gene - environment interaction analyses
    Dimou, N ; Kim, AE ; Flanagan, O ; Murphy, N ; Diez-Obrero, V ; Shcherbina, A ; Aglago, EK ; Bouras, E ; Campbell, PT ; Casey, G ; Gallinger, S ; Gruber, SB ; Jenkins, MA ; Lin, Y ; Moreno, V ; Ruiz-Narvaez, E ; Stern, MC ; Tian, Y ; Tsilidis, KK ; Arndt, V ; Barry, EL ; Baurley, JW ; Berndt, SI ; Bezieau, S ; Bien, SA ; Bishop, DT ; Brenner, H ; Budiarto, A ; Carreras-Torres, R ; Cenggoro, TW ; Chan, AT ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, X ; Conti, DV ; Dampier, CH ; Devall, M ; Drew, DA ; Figueiredo, JC ; Giles, GG ; Gsur, A ; Harrison, TA ; Hidaka, A ; Hoffmeister, M ; Huyghe, JR ; Jordahl, K ; Kawaguchi, E ; Keku, TO ; Larsson, SC ; Le Marchand, L ; Lewinger, JP ; Li, L ; Mahesworo, B ; Morrison, J ; Newcomb, PA ; Newton, CC ; Obon-Santacana, M ; Ose, J ; Pai, RK ; Palmer, JR ; Papadimitriou, N ; Pardamean, B ; Peoples, AR ; Pharoah, PDP ; Platz, EA ; Potter, JD ; Rennert, G ; Scacheri, PC ; Schoen, RE ; Su, Y-R ; Tangen, CM ; Thibodeau, SN ; Thomas, DC ; Ulrich, CM ; Um, CY ; van Duijnhoven, FJB ; Visvanathan, K ; Vodicka, P ; Vodickova, L ; White, E ; Wolk, A ; Woods, MO ; Qu, C ; Kundaje, A ; Hsu, L ; Gauderman, WJ ; Gunter, MJ ; Peters, U (SPRINGERNATURE, 2023-08-24)
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship still require investigation and it is not known if the association is modified by genetic variants. To address these questions, we undertook a genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis. METHODS: We used data from 3 genetic consortia (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO; 31,318 colorectal cancer cases/41,499 controls) and undertook genome-wide gene-environment interaction analyses with colorectal cancer risk, including interaction tests of genetics(G)xdiabetes (1-degree of freedom; d.f.) and joint testing of Gxdiabetes, G-colorectal cancer association (2-d.f. joint test) and G-diabetes correlation (3-d.f. joint test). RESULTS: Based on the joint tests, we found that the association of diabetes with colorectal cancer risk is modified by loci on chromosomes 8q24.11 (rs3802177, SLC30A8 - ORAA: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34-1.96; ORAG: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.30-1.54; ORGG: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.13-1.31; p-value3-d.f.: 5.46 × 10-11) and 13q14.13 (rs9526201, LRCH1 - ORGG: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.56-2.83; ORGA: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.38-1.68; ORAA: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21; p-value2-d.f.: 7.84 × 10-09). DISCUSSION: These results suggest that variation in genes related to insulin signaling (SLC30A8) and immune function (LRCH1) may modify the association of diabetes with colorectal cancer risk and provide novel insights into the biology underlying the diabetes and colorectal cancer relationship.
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    Genetic variants associated with circulating C-reactive protein levels and colorectal cancer survival: Sex-specific and lifestyle factors specific associations
    Huang, Y ; Hua, X ; Labadie, JD ; Harrison, TA ; Dai, JY ; Lindstrom, S ; Lin, Y ; Berndt, S ; Buchanan, DD ; Campbell, PT ; Casey, G ; Gallinger, SJ ; Gunter, MJ ; Hoffmeister, M ; Jenkins, MA ; Sakoda, LC ; Schoen, RE ; Diergaarde, B ; Slattery, ML ; White, E ; Giles, G ; Brenner, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Joshi, A ; Ma, W ; Pai, RK ; Chan, AT ; Peters, U ; Newcomb, PA (WILEY, 2022-05-01)
    Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.
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    Independent evaluation of melanoma polygenic risk scores in UK and Australian prospective cohorts
    Steinberg, J ; Lee, JY ; Wang, H ; Law, M ; Smit, A ; Nguyen-Dumont, T ; Giles, G ; Southey, M ; Milne, R ; Mann, G ; MacInnis, R ; Cust, A (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-09)
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) may improve melanoma risk stratification. However, there has been limited independent validation of PRS-based risk prediction, particularly assessment of calibration (comparing predicted to observed risks). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate PRS-based melanoma risk prediction in prospective UK and Australian cohorts with European ancestry. METHODS: We analysed invasive melanoma incidence in the UK Biobank (UKB; n = 395 647, 1651 cases) and a case-cohort nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS, Australia; n = 4765, 303 cases). Three PRSs were evaluated: 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 54 loci from a 2020 meta-analysis (PRS68), 50 SNPs significant in the 2020 meta-analysis excluding UKB (PRS50) and 45 SNPs at 21 loci known in 2018 (PRS45). Ten-year melanoma risks were calculated from population-level cancer registry data by age group and sex, with and without PRS adjustment. RESULTS: Predicted absolute melanoma risks based on age and sex alone underestimated melanoma incidence in the UKB [ratio of expected/observed cases: E/O = 0·65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·62-0·68] and MCCS (E/O = 0·63, 95% CI 0·56-0·72). For UKB, calibration was improved by PRS adjustment, with PRS50-adjusted risks E/O = 0·91, 95% CI 0·87-0·95. The discriminative ability for PRS68- and PRS50-adjusted absolute risks was higher than for risks based on age and sex alone (Δ area under the curve 0·07-0·10, P < 0·0001), and higher than for PRS45-adjusted risks (Δ area under the curve 0·02-0·04, P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: A PRS derived from a larger, more diverse meta-analysis improves risk prediction compared with an earlier PRS, and might help tailor melanoma prevention and early detection strategies to different risk levels. Recalibration of absolute risks may be necessary for application to specific populations.
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    Female Reproductive and Hormonal Factors and Incidence of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Due to Osteoarthritis
    Hussain, SM ; Wang, Y ; Giles, GG ; Graves, S ; Wluka, A ; Cicuttini, FM (WILEY, 2018-07)
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of female reproductive and hormonal factors with incidence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for osteoarthritis (OA), and to determine whether the associations differ according to overweight/obesity status. METHODS: This study included 22,289 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Data on age at menarche, pregnancy, parity, years of menstruation, oral contraceptive (OC) use, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were collected in 1990-1994. Incidence of TKA during 2001-2013 was determined by linking cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) at midlife, change in BMI (from early reproductive age to midlife), country of birth, physical activity, smoking, and education level. RESULTS: Over the course of 12.7 years, 1,208 TKAs for OA were identified. Ever being pregnant was associated with increased risk of TKA (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.63]). Parity was positively associated with risk of TKA (P for trend = 0.003). OC users had increased risk of TKA compared with non-users (for OC use of <5 years, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08-1.45]; for OC use of ≥5 years, HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.00-1.37]). A 1-year increase in menstruation was associated with a 1% decrease in risk of TKA (HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.97-0.99]). These associations remained significant only in women of normal weight at early reproductive age. Current HRT users had increased risk of TKA compared with non-users (HR 1.37 [95% CI 1.14-1.64]); the association was significant only in non-obese women at midlife. CONCLUSION: Reproductive and hormonal factors were associated with risk of knee OA. These associations remained significant in women of normal weight at early reproductive age and in non-obese women at midlife. Further work is needed to understand the complex effect of these factors on knee OA.