Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

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    Abortion Law in Australia: Conscientious Objection and Implications for Access
    Haining, C ; Willmott, L ; Keogh, L ; White, B (Monash University, 2022)
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    Indigenous-informed disaster recovery: Addressing collective trauma using a healing framework
    Quinn, P ; Williamson, B ; Gibbs, L (Elsvier, 2022-12-01)
    Indigenous knowledges are increasingly recognised for their value in disaster resilience, with particular attention to traditional ecological knowledges. Yet the expansive and holistic worldviews of Indigenous peoples offer an even broader set of knowledges and perspectives, such as the field of Indigenous healing, that are highly relevant to systemic challenges in disaster resilience and recovery. This theoretical paper explores the potential for an Indigenous-informed healing framework to address collective trauma from disasters. It begins by addressing key matters of concern in knowledge sharing between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. It then considers Indigenous healing as an international field of knowledge and practice, distilling consistent features across a range of texts. These shared features in Indigenous peoples' healing traditions include: holistic approaches to wellbeing; social rather than solo processes; identifying and treating the roots of trauma; strengths-based and community-led processes; the need for socially and culturally safe spaces; and Indigenous notions of responsibility, justice and forgiveness. We then analyse points of difference and resonance with disaster recovery literature, in a novel effort to bring the fields of Indigenous healing and disaster recovery together through respectful and thoughtful dialogue. In doing so, this paper seeks to inform much-needed efforts to enhance culturally responsive practices in working with Indigenous peoples affected by disasters. The exploration also identifies that a healing-informed approach to disaster recovery offers opportunities to better support all communities affected by disasters, by unsettling assumptions and enabling holistic understandings of complex interactions between multiple disasters, community contexts and systemic inequities. To meet the many challenges facing the sector now and into the future, innovations fostered by such cross-disciplinary explorations are crucial.
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    Multi-objective Semi-supervised Clustering for Finding Predictive Clusters
    Ghasemi, Z ; Khorshidi, HA ; Aickelin, U ( 2022-01-26)
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    A parametric similarity measure for extended picture fuzzy sets and its application in pattern recognition
    Farhadinia, B ; Aickelin, U ; Khorshidi, HA (University of Sistan & Baluchestan, 2022-11-01)
    This article advances the idea of extended picture fuzzy set (E-PFS), which is especially an augmentation of generalised spherical fuzzy set (GSFS) by releasing the restricted selection of p in the description of GSFSs. Moreover, by the use of triangular conorm term in the description of E-PFS, it indeed widens the scope of E-PFS not only compared to picture fuzzy set (PFS) and spherical fuzzy set (SFS), but also to GSFS. In the sequel, a given fundamental theorem concerning E-PFS depicts its more ability in comparison with the special types to deal with the ambiguity and uncertainty. Further, we propose a parametric E-PFS similarity measure which plays a critical role in information theory. In order for revealing the advantages and authenticity of E-PFS similarity measure, we exhibit its applicability in multiple criteria decision making entitling the recognition of building material, the recognition of patterns, and the selection process of mega project(s) in developing countries. Furthermore, through the experimental studies, we demonstrate that E-PFS is able to handle uncertain information in real-life decision procedures with no extra parameter, and it has a prominent role in decision making whenever the concepts of PFS, SFS and GSFS do not make sense.
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    Is newer always better? A reinvestigation of productivity dynamics using updated PWT data
    Meng, Y ; Parmeter, CF ; Zelenyuk, V (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Understanding the drivers of productivity remains one of the most sought after phenomena in economics. The ability to create produce more from less resources is undoubtedly appealing. Using recently updated Penn World Table data, we investigate to what degree previous results using a popular productivity decomposition are maintained. We find that, contrary to conclusions from earlier work, technical efficiency (catching up) played a more pronounced role in the global increase in productivity over the 1965–1990 period. We also find a larger effect for technical change than earlier work and a far lesser role for capital deepening. This suite of results augurs the coming information age that placed less weight on physical capital to create and sustain wealth. Taken together our findings here suggest that as data collection, its quality and evaluation methods evolve, so too will our understanding of productivity dynamics.
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    Malaysian public preferences and decision making for COVID-19 vaccination: A discrete choice experiment.
    Teh, HS ; Woon, YL ; Leong, CT ; Hing, NYL ; Mien, TYS ; Roope, LSJ ; Clarke, PM ; Lim, L-L ; Buckell, J (Elsevier BV, 2022-10)
    BACKGROUND: Low vaccine uptake has the potential to seriously undermine COVID-19 vaccination programs, as very high coverage levels are likely to be needed for virus suppression to return life to normal. We aimed to determine the influence of vaccine attributes (including access costs) on COVID-19 vaccination preferences among the Malaysian public to improve national uptake. METHODS: An online Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted on a representative sample of 2028 Malaysians. Respondents were asked to make vaccination decisions in a series of hypothetical scenarios. A nested, mixed logit model was used to estimate the preferences for vaccination over vaccine refusal and for how those preferences varied between different sub-populations. The attributes were the risk of developing severe side effects of the vaccine, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine content, vaccination schedule, and distance from home to vaccination centre. FINDINGS: Reported public uptake of COVID-19 vaccination was primarily influenced by the risk of developing severe side effects (b = -1·747, 95% CI = -2·269, -1·225), vaccine effectiveness (b = 3·061, 95% CI = 2·628, 3·494) and its Halal status (b = 3·722, 95% CI = 3·152, 4·292). Other factors such as appointment timing and travel distance to the vaccination centre also had an effect on vaccine uptake. There was substantial heterogeneity in preferences between different populations, particularly for age groups, ethnicity, regions, and underlying health conditions. INTERPRETATION: Perceived effectiveness and side effects are likely to affect COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Malaysia. Halal content is critical to Malays' vaccination choices. Reducing the physical distance to vaccination centres, particularly in rural areas where uptake is lower, is likely to improve uptake. FUNDING: Ministry of Health Research Grant from the Malaysian government [NIH/800-3/2/1 Jld.7(46), grant reference no: 57377 and warrant no: 91000776].
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    COVID-19 and suicide: Evidence from Japan
    Spittal, MJ (ELSEVIER, 2022-10-01)
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    HIV prevalence ratio of international migrants compared to their native-born counterparts: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Santoso, D ; Asfia, SKBM ; Mello, MB ; Baggaley, RC ; Johnson, CC ; Chow, EPF ; Fairley, CK ; Ong, JJ (ELSEVIER, 2022-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: People on the move, including international migrants, may face health inequities that expose them to a higher risk for HIV than native-born populations. We conducted a systematic review to calculate the HIV prevalence ratio of international migrants compared with native-born populations. METHODS: We searched five databases between January 2010 and March 2022. Using random-effects meta-analysis, we calculated the pooled HIV prevalence ratios (PR) by comparing the HIV prevalence of migrants with native-born populations. Our research protocol is registered in the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42021250867). FINDINGS: In total, 5,121 studies were screened, and 38 were included in the final analysis: 7,121,699 migrants and more than 270 million natives were included in the analysis. The pooled PR for any foreign-born migrants was 1·70 (95% CI 1·11 - 2·61, I2 =99·67%, n = 33 studies), refugees was 2·37 (95% CI 0·33-16·99, I2 =99·5%, n = 5), undocumented people was 3·98 (95% CI 0·11-143·01, I2 =94·6%, n = 3), whilst asylum seekers was 54·79 (95% CI 17·23-174·23, I2 =90·2%, n = 2). Meta-regression revealed that population type (adjusted R-squared 11.5%), region of origin (11.3%) and migrant type (10.8%) accounted for heterogeneity more than country-income (2.4%) and study setting (2.3%). INTERPRETATION: Although it was not possible to assess if HIV infection occurred in the country of origin or destination, the HIV prevalence ratio was higher among migrants than in native-born populations. Inclusive health policies and strategies for delivering HIV testing, prevention and treatment services for migrant populations tailored to their needs are urgently needed. FUNDING: J.J.O. and E.P.F.C. are supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Emerging Leader Fellowship (GNT1193955 and GNT1172873, respectively).
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    Prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use during breastfeeding: A cross-sectional secondary data analysis based on 0.32 million sample women in 78 low-income and middle-income countries
    Singh, PK ; Singh, L ; Wehrmeister, FC ; Singh, N ; Kumar, C ; Singh, A ; Sinha, DN ; Bhutta, ZA ; Singh, S (ELSEVIER, 2022-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use during the postpartum period is well studied in high-income countries, whereas low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack evidence. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted in 78 LMICs between January 2010 and December 2019 to study tobacco use among 0.32 million sample lactating women. Age-standardized prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use was estimated and presented with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for 78 LMICs. Pooled estimates overall and by WHO regions were obtained using random-effects meta-analyses. Country-level and community-level variance to understand contextual factors was also quantified using multilevel modelling. FINDINGS: Pooled prevalence of any tobacco use among breastfeeding women in LMICs was 3.61% (95% CI 3.53-3.70); with the lowest prevalence in regions of the Americas (1.44%, 1.26-1.63) and the highest in the Southeast Asia region (6.13%, 6.0-6.27). The pooled prevalence of tobacco smoking was reported to be 1.16% (1.11-1.21), with the highest prevalence in the Eastern Mediterranean region (4.27%, 3.88-4.67) and the lowest in the African region (0.81%, 0.76-0.86). The pooled prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was reported to be 2.56% (2.49-2.63), with the highest prevalence in the Southeast Asia region (4.92%, 4.80-5.04). Illiterate and poor women in LMICs bore the enormous burden of tobacco use. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among lactating women in LMICs varied considerably across different WHO regions. Considering the cross-sectional design of the study, caution is required while interpreting the results. To improve mothers' and children's health and nutrition outcomes and reduce health inequalities in LMICs, reducing tobacco use through evidence-based interventions is critical. FUNDING: None.
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    Association between socioeconomic status and health behaviour change before and after non-communicable disease diagnoses: a multicohort study.
    Wang, D ; Dai, X ; Mishra, SR ; Lim, CCW ; Carrillo-Larco, RM ; Gakidou, E ; Xu, X (Elsevier BV, 2022-08)
    BACKGROUND: Behavioural risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are socially patterned. However, the direction and the extent to which socioeconomic status (SES) influences behaviour changes before and after the diagnosis of NCDs is not clearly understood. We aimed to investigate the influence of SES on behaviour changes (physical inactivity and smoking) before and after the diagnosis of major NCDs. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we pooled individual-level data from six prospective cohort studies across 17 countries. We included participants who were diagnosed with either diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, or cancer after recruitment. Participants were surveyed every 2 years. Education and total household wealth were used to construct SES. We measured behaviour changes as whether or not participants continued or initiated physical inactivity or smoking after NCD diagnosis. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs), prevalence ratios (PRs), and 95% CIs for the associations between SES and continuation or initiation of unfavourable behaviours. FINDINGS: We included 8107 individuals recruited between March, 2002, and January, 2016. Over the 4-year period before and after NCD diagnosis, 886 (60·4%) of 1466 individuals continued physical inactivity and 1018 (68·8%) of 1480 participants continued smoking; 1047 (15·8%) of 6641 participants with physical activity before diagnosis initiated physical inactivity after diagnosis and 132 (2·0%) of 6627 non-smokers before diagnosis initiated smoking after diagnosis. Compared with participants with high SES, those with low SES were more likely to continue physical inactivity (244 [70·3%] of 347 vs 23 [50.0%] of 46; PR 1·41 [95% CI 1·05-1·99]; OR 2·28 [1·18-4·41]), continue smoking (214 [75·4%] of 284 vs 39 [60·9%] of 64; PR 1·27 [1·03-1·59]; OR 2·08 [1·14-3·80]), but also to initiate physical inactivity (188 [26·1%] of 720 vs 47 [7·4%] of 639; PR 3·59 [2·58-4·85]; OR 4·31 [3·02 - 6·14]). INTERPRETATION: Low SES was associated with continuing or initiating physical inactivity and continuing smoking after NCD diagnosis. Reducing socioeconomic inequality in health behaviour changes should be prioritised and integrated into NCD-prevention programmes. FUNDING: Zhejiang University and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.