Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

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    Longitudinal Asthma Phenotypes from Childhood to Middle-Age A Population-based Cohort Study
    Tan, DJ ; Lodge, CJ ; Walters, EH ; Lowe, AJ ; Bui, DS ; Bowatte, G ; Pham, J ; Erbas, B ; Hui, J ; Hamilton, GS ; Thomas, PS ; Hew, M ; Washko, G ; Wood-Baker, R ; Abramson, MJ ; Perret, JL ; Dharmage, SC (AMER THORACIC SOC, 2023-07-15)
    Rationale: Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, and longitudinal phenotyping may provide new insights into the origins and outcomes of the disease. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the longitudinal phenotypes of asthma between the first and sixth decades of life in a population-based cohort study. Methods: Respiratory questionnaires were collected at seven time points in the TAHS (Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study) when participants were aged 7, 13, 18, 32, 43, 50, and 53 years. Current-asthma and ever-asthma status was determined at each time point, and group-based trajectory modeling was used to characterize distinct longitudinal phenotypes. Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to investigate associations of the longitudinal phenotypes with childhood factors and adult outcomes. Measurements and Main Results: Of 8,583 original participants, 1,506 had reported ever asthma. Five longitudinal asthma phenotypes were identified: early-onset adolescent-remitting (40%), early-onset adult-remitting (11%), early-onset persistent (9%), late-onset remitting (13%), and late-onset persistent (27%). All phenotypes were associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at age 53 years, except for late-onset remitting asthma (odds ratios: early-onset adolescent-remitting, 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-3.56]; early-onset adult-remitting, 3.61 [95% CI, 1.30-10.02]; early-onset persistent, 8.73 [95% CI, 4.10-18.55]; and late-onset persistent, 6.69 [95% CI, 3.81-11.73]). Late-onset persistent asthma was associated with the greatest comorbidity at age 53 years, with increased risk of mental health disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Five longitudinal asthma phenotypes were identified between the first and sixth decades of life, including two novel remitting phenotypes. We found differential effects of these phenotypes on risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and nonrespiratory comorbidities in middle age.
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    Probing the diabetes and colorectal cancer relationship using gene - environment interaction analyses
    Dimou, N ; Kim, AE ; Flanagan, O ; Murphy, N ; Diez-Obrero, V ; Shcherbina, A ; Aglago, EK ; Bouras, E ; Campbell, PT ; Casey, G ; Gallinger, S ; Gruber, SB ; Jenkins, MA ; Lin, Y ; Moreno, V ; Ruiz-Narvaez, E ; Stern, MC ; Tian, Y ; Tsilidis, KK ; Arndt, V ; Barry, EL ; Baurley, JW ; Berndt, SI ; Bezieau, S ; Bien, SA ; Bishop, DT ; Brenner, H ; Budiarto, A ; Carreras-Torres, R ; Cenggoro, TW ; Chan, AT ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, X ; Conti, DV ; Dampier, CH ; Devall, M ; Drew, DA ; Figueiredo, JC ; Giles, GG ; Gsur, A ; Harrison, TA ; Hidaka, A ; Hoffmeister, M ; Huyghe, JR ; Jordahl, K ; Kawaguchi, E ; Keku, TO ; Larsson, SC ; Le Marchand, L ; Lewinger, JP ; Li, L ; Mahesworo, B ; Morrison, J ; Newcomb, PA ; Newton, CC ; Obon-Santacana, M ; Ose, J ; Pai, RK ; Palmer, JR ; Papadimitriou, N ; Pardamean, B ; Peoples, AR ; Pharoah, PDP ; Platz, EA ; Potter, JD ; Rennert, G ; Scacheri, PC ; Schoen, RE ; Su, Y-R ; Tangen, CM ; Thibodeau, SN ; Thomas, DC ; Ulrich, CM ; Um, CY ; van Duijnhoven, FJB ; Visvanathan, K ; Vodicka, P ; Vodickova, L ; White, E ; Wolk, A ; Woods, MO ; Qu, C ; Kundaje, A ; Hsu, L ; Gauderman, WJ ; Gunter, MJ ; Peters, U (SPRINGERNATURE, 2023-08-24)
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship still require investigation and it is not known if the association is modified by genetic variants. To address these questions, we undertook a genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis. METHODS: We used data from 3 genetic consortia (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO; 31,318 colorectal cancer cases/41,499 controls) and undertook genome-wide gene-environment interaction analyses with colorectal cancer risk, including interaction tests of genetics(G)xdiabetes (1-degree of freedom; d.f.) and joint testing of Gxdiabetes, G-colorectal cancer association (2-d.f. joint test) and G-diabetes correlation (3-d.f. joint test). RESULTS: Based on the joint tests, we found that the association of diabetes with colorectal cancer risk is modified by loci on chromosomes 8q24.11 (rs3802177, SLC30A8 - ORAA: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34-1.96; ORAG: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.30-1.54; ORGG: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.13-1.31; p-value3-d.f.: 5.46 × 10-11) and 13q14.13 (rs9526201, LRCH1 - ORGG: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.56-2.83; ORGA: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.38-1.68; ORAA: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21; p-value2-d.f.: 7.84 × 10-09). DISCUSSION: These results suggest that variation in genes related to insulin signaling (SLC30A8) and immune function (LRCH1) may modify the association of diabetes with colorectal cancer risk and provide novel insights into the biology underlying the diabetes and colorectal cancer relationship.
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    Genetic variants associated with circulating C-reactive protein levels and colorectal cancer survival: Sex-specific and lifestyle factors specific associations
    Huang, Y ; Hua, X ; Labadie, JD ; Harrison, TA ; Dai, JY ; Lindstrom, S ; Lin, Y ; Berndt, S ; Buchanan, DD ; Campbell, PT ; Casey, G ; Gallinger, SJ ; Gunter, MJ ; Hoffmeister, M ; Jenkins, MA ; Sakoda, LC ; Schoen, RE ; Diergaarde, B ; Slattery, ML ; White, E ; Giles, G ; Brenner, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Joshi, A ; Ma, W ; Pai, RK ; Chan, AT ; Peters, U ; Newcomb, PA (WILEY, 2022-05-01)
    Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.
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    Alcohol intake trajectories during the life course and risk of alcohol-related cancer: A prospective cohort study
    Bassett, JK ; MacInnis, RJ ; Yang, Y ; Hodge, AM ; Lynch, BM ; English, DR ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Jayasekara, H (WILEY, 2022-07-01)
    We examined associations between sex-specific alcohol intake trajectories and alcohol-related cancer risk using data from 22 756 women and 15 701 men aged 40 to 69 years at baseline in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 until the decade encompassing recruitment, calculated using recalled beverage-specific frequency and quantity, was used to estimate group-based sex-specific intake trajectories. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for primary invasive alcohol-related cancer (upper aerodigestive tract, breast, liver and colorectum). Three distinct alcohol intake trajectories for women (lifetime abstention, stable light, increasing moderate) and six for men (lifetime abstention, stable light, stable moderate, increasing heavy, early decreasing heavy, late decreasing heavy) were identified. 2303 incident alcohol-related cancers were diagnosed during 485 525 person-years in women and 789 during 303 218 person-years in men. For men, compared with lifetime abstention, heavy intake (mean ≥ 60 g/day) at age 20 to 39 followed by either an early (from age 40 to 49) (early decreasing heavy; HR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.25-2.44) or late decrease (from age 60 to 69) (late decreasing heavy; HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.28-2.93), and moderate intake (mean <60 g/day) at age 20 to 39 increasing to heavy intake in middle-age (increasing heavy; HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) were associated with increased risk of alcohol-related cancer. For women, compared with lifetime abstention, increasing intake from age 20 (increasing moderate) was associated with increased alcohol-related cancer risk (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.48). Similar associations were observed for colorectal (men) and breast cancer. Heavy drinking during early adulthood might increase cancer risk later in life.
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    Independent evaluation of melanoma polygenic risk scores in UK and Australian prospective cohorts
    Steinberg, J ; Lee, JY ; Wang, H ; Law, M ; Smit, A ; Nguyen-Dumont, T ; Giles, G ; Southey, M ; Milne, R ; Mann, G ; MacInnis, R ; Cust, A (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-09)
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) may improve melanoma risk stratification. However, there has been limited independent validation of PRS-based risk prediction, particularly assessment of calibration (comparing predicted to observed risks). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate PRS-based melanoma risk prediction in prospective UK and Australian cohorts with European ancestry. METHODS: We analysed invasive melanoma incidence in the UK Biobank (UKB; n = 395 647, 1651 cases) and a case-cohort nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS, Australia; n = 4765, 303 cases). Three PRSs were evaluated: 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 54 loci from a 2020 meta-analysis (PRS68), 50 SNPs significant in the 2020 meta-analysis excluding UKB (PRS50) and 45 SNPs at 21 loci known in 2018 (PRS45). Ten-year melanoma risks were calculated from population-level cancer registry data by age group and sex, with and without PRS adjustment. RESULTS: Predicted absolute melanoma risks based on age and sex alone underestimated melanoma incidence in the UKB [ratio of expected/observed cases: E/O = 0·65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·62-0·68] and MCCS (E/O = 0·63, 95% CI 0·56-0·72). For UKB, calibration was improved by PRS adjustment, with PRS50-adjusted risks E/O = 0·91, 95% CI 0·87-0·95. The discriminative ability for PRS68- and PRS50-adjusted absolute risks was higher than for risks based on age and sex alone (Δ area under the curve 0·07-0·10, P < 0·0001), and higher than for PRS45-adjusted risks (Δ area under the curve 0·02-0·04, P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: A PRS derived from a larger, more diverse meta-analysis improves risk prediction compared with an earlier PRS, and might help tailor melanoma prevention and early detection strategies to different risk levels. Recalibration of absolute risks may be necessary for application to specific populations.
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    The impact of testicular cancer and its treatment on masculinity: A systematic review
    Dax, V ; Ftanou, M ; Tran, B ; Lewin, J ; Wallace, R ; Seidler, Z ; Wiley, JF (WILEY, 2022-09)
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to synthesise the literature on the topic of masculinity and testicular cancer (TC) and investigate the relative impact of TC on men's view of their masculinity. METHODS: Searches were conducted across four databases (MEDline, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus and Scopus) for articles published before April 2022 that included (1) TC and (2) masculinity. Two researchers independently rated studies for inclusion with a third resolving conflicts. Of the 6464 articles screened, 24 articles (10 quantitative and 14 qualitative) were included in the review. Articles were rated for quality and a narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, results indicated some men experience a shift in the way they relate to their sense of masculinity following diagnosis and treatment for TC. Being single and without children was related to the experience of negative masculinity-related outcomes, possibly due to a compounding lack of relational support and being unable to conform to protector, provider traditions. Men who described testicle loss as symbolic of their diminished masculinity were also negatively impacted. However, recent, high-quality literature on the topic using standardised masculinity measures was limited. CONCLUSION: Some men experience a reduced sense of masculinity after TC, however the impact of TC on masculinity remains person dependent. Further research using validated masculinity measures is required to uncover psycho-social variables that may account for whether and how meaning is made between TC and its treatment and any subsequent impact on perceived masculinity. Such factors may better support these men in life beyond cancer. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: CRD42020185649.
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    Uncovering Diverse Experiences Following Disaster Using Participant-Guided Mobile Methods
    Block, K ; Gibbs, L ; Snowdon, E (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2016-01-01)
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    Adverse Fetal Outcomes and Maternal Mortality Following Nonobstetric Abdominopelvic Surgery in Pregnancy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Liu, J ; Cusimano, MC ; Zipursky, J ; Azizi, P ; Sajewycz, K ; Wong, E ; Ferguson, SE ; D'Souza, R ; Baxter, NN (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-11)
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    Association of Surgical Menopause with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality
    Cusimano, MC ; Chiu, M ; Ferguson, SE ; Moineddin, R ; Aktar, S ; Liu, N ; Baxter, NN (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-11)
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    Suicide and neuroticism: a multicenter study
    Nardella, A ; Stefa-Missagli, S ; Giupponi, G ; Davok, K ; Holasek, SJ ; Kapfhammer, HP ; Rogante, E ; Berardelli, I ; Andriessen, K ; Krysinska, K ; Falcone, G ; Erbuto, D ; Moujaes-Droescher, H ; Pompili, M (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2019-04)