Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 104
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Inflammation and Epigenetic Aging Are Largely Independent Markers of Biological Aging and Mortality
    Cribb, L ; Hodge, AM ; Yu, C ; Li, SX ; English, DR ; Makalic, E ; Southey, MC ; Milne, RL ; Giles, GG ; Dugue, P-A ; Le Couteur, D (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2022-08-04)
    Limited evidence exists on the link between inflammation and epigenetic aging. We aimed to (a) assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations of 22 inflammation-related plasma markers and a signature of inflammaging with epigenetic aging and (b) determine whether epigenetic aging and inflammaging are independently associated with mortality. Blood samples from 940 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected at baseline (1990-1994) and follow-up (2003-2007) were assayed for DNA methylation and 22 inflammation-related markers, including well-established markers (eg, interleukins and C-reactive protein) and metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Four measures of epigenetic aging (PhenoAge, GrimAge, DunedinPoAm, and Zhang) and a signature of inflammaging were considered, adjusted for age, and transformed to Z scores. Associations were assessed using linear regression, and mortality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox regression. Cross-sectionally, most inflammation-related markers were associated with epigenetic aging measures, although with generally modest effect sizes (regression coefficients per SD ≤ 0.26) and explaining altogether between 1% and 11% of their variation. Prospectively, baseline inflammation-related markers were not, or only weakly, associated with epigenetic aging after 11 years of follow-up. Epigenetic aging and inflammaging were strongly and independently associated with mortality, for example, inflammaging: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.27-1.56, p = 2 × 10-10, which was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for 4 epigenetic aging measures: HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.22-1.51, p = 7 × 10-9). Although cross-sectionally associated with epigenetic aging, inflammation-related markers accounted for a modest proportion of its variation. Inflammaging and epigenetic aging are essentially nonoverlapping markers of biological aging and may be used jointly to predict mortality.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Methylation-based markers of aging and lifestyle-related factors and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of four prospective studies
    Dugue, P-A ; Bodelon, C ; Chung, FF ; Brewer, HR ; Ambatipudi, S ; Sampson, JN ; Cuenin, C ; Chajes, V ; Romieu, I ; Fiorito, G ; Sacerdote, C ; Krogh, V ; Panico, S ; Tumino, R ; Vineis, P ; Polidoro, S ; Baglietto, L ; English, D ; Severi, G ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Herceg, Z ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Flanagan, JM ; Southey, MC (BMC, 2022-09-06)
    BACKGROUND: DNA methylation in blood may reflect adverse exposures accumulated over the lifetime and could therefore provide potential improvements in the prediction of cancer risk. A substantial body of research has shown associations between epigenetic aging and risk of disease, including cancer. Here we aimed to study epigenetic measures of aging and lifestyle-related factors in association with risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using data from four prospective case-control studies nested in three cohorts of European ancestry participants, including a total of 1,655 breast cancer cases, we calculated three methylation-based measures of lifestyle factors (body mass index [BMI], tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) and seven measures of epigenetic aging (Horvath-based, Hannum-based, PhenoAge and GrimAge). All measures were regression-adjusted for their respective risk factors and expressed per standard deviation (SD). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional or unconditional logistic regression and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age at blood draw, time from blood sample to diagnosis, oestrogen receptor-positivity status and tumour stage. RESULTS: None of the measures of epigenetic aging were associated with risk of breast cancer in the pooled analysis: Horvath 'age acceleration' (AA): OR per SD = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.95-1.10; AA-Hannum: OR = 1.03, 95%CI:0.95-1.12; PhenoAge: OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.94-1.09 and GrimAge: OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.94-1.12, in models adjusting for white blood cell proportions, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. The BMI-adjusted predictor of BMI was associated with breast cancer risk, OR per SD = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. The results for the alcohol and smoking methylation-based predictors were consistent with a null association. Risk did not appear to substantially vary by age at blood draw, time to diagnosis or tumour characteristics. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that methylation-based measures of aging, smoking or alcohol consumption were associated with risk of breast cancer. A methylation-based marker of BMI was associated with risk and may provide insights into the underlying associations between BMI and breast cancer.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Mechanisms for the Sex-Specific Effect of H. Pylori on Risk of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Barrett's Esophagus
    Wang, SE ; Dashti, SG ; Hodge, AM ; Dixon-Suen, SC ; Castano-Rodriguez, N ; Thomas, RJS ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Boussioutas, A ; Kendall, BJ ; English, DR (AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, 2022-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms for how Helicobacter pylori infection affects risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus are incompletely understood and might differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study with 425 GERD cases and 169 Barrett's esophagus cases (identified at 2007-2010 follow-up), we estimated sex-specific odds ratios for participants who were H. pylori seronegative versus seropositive at baseline (1990-1994). To explore possible mechanisms, we (i) compared patterns of H. pylori-induced gastritis by sex using serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin-17 data and (ii) quantified the effect of H. pylori seronegativity on Barrett's esophagus mediated by GERD using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: For men, H. pylori seronegativity was associated with 1.69-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.75] and 2.28-fold (95% CI, 1.27-4.12) higher odds of GERD and Barrett's esophagus, respectively. No association was observed for women. H. pylori-induced atrophic antral gastritis was more common in men (68%) than in women (56%; P = 0.015). For men, 5 of the 15 per 1,000 excess Barrett's esophagus risk from being seronegative were mediated by GERD. CONCLUSIONS: Men, but not women, who were H. pylori seronegative had increased risks of GERD and Barrett's esophagus. A possible explanation might be sex differences in patterns of H. pylori-induced atrophic antral gastritis, which could lead to less erosive reflux for men. Evidence of GERD mediating the effect of H. pylori on Barrett's esophagus risk among men supports this proposed mechanism. IMPACT: The findings highlight the importance of investigating sex differences in the effect of H. pylori on risk of GERD and Barrett's esophagus in future studies.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Diet and risk of Barrett's oesophagus: Melbourne collaborative cohort study
    Wang, SE ; Hodge, A ; Dashti, SG ; Dixon-Suen, SC ; Castano-Rodriguez, N ; Thomas, R ; Giles, G ; Boussioutas, A ; Kendall, B ; English, DR (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-07-15)
    Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is the precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which has become the most common type of oesophageal cancer in many Western populations. Existing evidence on diet and risk of BE predominantly comes from case-control studies, which are subject to recall bias in measurement of diet. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of diet, including macronutrients, carotenoids, food groups, specific food items, beverages and dietary scores, on risk of BE in over 20 000 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Diet at baseline (1990-1994) was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. The outcome was BE diagnosed between baseline and follow-up (2007-2010). Logistic regression models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI for diet in relation to risk of BE. Intakes of leafy vegetables and fruit were inversely associated with risk of BE (highest v. lowest quartile: OR = 0·59; CI: 0·38, 0·94; P-trend = 0·02 and OR = 0·58; CI: 0·37, 0·93; P-trend = 0·02 respectively), as were dietary fibre and carotenoids. Stronger associations were observed for food than the nutrients found in them. Positive associations were observed for discretionary food (OR = 1·54; CI: 0·97, 2·44; P-trend = 0·04) and total fat intake (OR per 10 g/d = 1·11; CI: 1·00, 1·23), the association for fat was less robust in sensitivity analyses. No association was observed for meat, protein, dairy products or diet scores. Diet is a potential modifiable risk factor for BE. Public health and clinical guidelines that incorporate dietary recommendations could contribute to reduction in risk of BE and, thereby, oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Demographic and lifestyle risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus in Australia
    Wang, SE ; Kendall, BJ ; Hodge, AM ; Dixon-Suen, SC ; Dashti, SG ; Makalic, E ; Williamson, EM ; Thomas, RJS ; Giles, GG ; English, DR (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-08-19)
    We examined demographic and lifestyle risk factors for incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus (BE) in an Australian cohort of 20,975 participants aged 40-63 at recruitment (1990-1994). Information on GERD and BE was collected between 2007 and 2010. GERD symptoms were defined as self-reported heartburn or acid regurgitation. BE was defined as endoscopically confirmed columnar-lined esophagus. Risk factors for developing GERD symptoms, BE diagnosis, age at symptom onset, and age at BE diagnosis were quantified using regression. During a mean follow-up of 15.8 years, risk of GERD symptoms was 7.5% (n = 1,318) for daily, 7.5% (n = 1,333) for 2-6 days/week, and 4.3% (n = 751) for 1 day/week. There were 210 (1.0%) endoscopically diagnosed BE cases, of whom 141 had histologically confirmed esophageal intestinal metaplasia. Female sex, younger age, lower socioeconomic position (SEP) and educational attainment, and former smoking were associated with higher GERD risk. Male sex and smoking were associated with earlier GERD symptom onset. Men, older participants, those with higher SEP, and former smokers were at higher BE risk. There was some evidence higher SEP was associated with earlier BE diagnosis. GERD and BE had different demographic risk factors but shared similar lifestyle factors. Earlier GERD symptom onset for men and smokers might have contributed to higher BE risk. The SEP patterns observed for GERD and BE suggest potential inequity in access to care. These findings would be important in the development of clinical risk prediction models for early detection of BE.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Diet and risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study
    Wang, SE ; Hodge, AM ; Dashti, SG ; Dixon-Suen, SC ; Mitchell, H ; Thomas, RJS ; Williamson, EM ; Makalic, E ; Boussioutas, A ; Haydon, AM ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Kendall, BJ ; English, DR (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-10-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined. SETTING: Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40-59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994. RESULTS: For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores. CONCLUSIONS: Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Alcohol and tobacco use and risk of multiple myeloma: A case‐control study
    Cheah, S ; Bassett, JK ; Bruinsma, FJ ; Cozen, W ; Hopper, JL ; Jayasekara, H ; Joshua, D ; MacInnis, RJ ; Prince, HM ; Vajdic, CM ; Leeuwen, MT ; Doo, NW ; Harrison, SJ ; English, DR ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL (Wiley, 2022-02)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study
    Hussain, SM ; Wang, Y ; Heath, AK ; Giles, GG ; English, DR ; Eyles, DW ; Williamson, EJ ; Graves, SE ; Wluka, AE ; Cicuttini, FM (BMC, 2021-10-19)
    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: This study examined a random sample of 2651 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who had 25(OH)D concentrations measured from dried blood spots collected in 1990-1994. Participants who underwent total hip replacement for osteoarthritis between January 2001 and December 2018 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in relation to 25(OH)D concentrations, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Eighty-six men and eighty-seven women had a total hip replacement for osteoarthritis. Compared with men in the lowest (1st) quartile of 25(OH)D concentration, the HR for total hip replacement was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05, 5.13) for those in the 2nd quartile, 2.77 (95% CI 1.28, 6.00) for those in the 3rd quartile, and 1.73 (95% CI 0.75, 4.02) for those in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D concentrations (p for trend 0.02). There was little evidence of an association in women. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in men but not in women. Although the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation, our findings highlight the need to determine the optimal levels of circulating 25(OH)D to reduce the risk of hip osteoarthritis.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Prospective Evaluation over 15 Years of Six Breast Cancer Risk Models
    Li, SX ; Milne, RL ; Nguyen-Dumont, T ; English, DR ; Giles, GG ; Southey, MC ; Antoniou, AC ; Lee, A ; Winship, I ; Hopper, JL ; Terry, MB ; MacInnis, RJ (MDPI, 2021-10-01)
    Prospective validation of risk models is needed to assess their clinical utility, particularly over the longer term. We evaluated the performance of six commonly used breast cancer risk models (IBIS, BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BRCAPRO-BCRAT, BCRAT, and iCARE-lit). 15-year risk scores were estimated using lifestyle factors and family history measures from 7608 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who were aged 50-65 years and unaffected at commencement of follow-up two (conducted in 2003-2007), of whom 351 subsequently developed breast cancer. Risk discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic and calibration using the expected/observed number of incident cases across the spectrum of risk by age group (50-54, 55-59, 60-65 years) and family history of breast cancer. C-statistics were higher for BOADICEA (0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.62) and IBIS (0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.61) than the other models (p-difference ≤ 0.04). No model except BOADICEA calibrated well across the spectrum of 15-year risk (p-value < 0.03). The performance of BOADICEA and IBIS was similar across age groups and for women with or without a family history. For middle-aged Australian women, BOADICEA and IBIS had the highest discriminatory accuracy of the six risk models, but apart from BOADICEA, no model was well-calibrated across the risk spectrum.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    DNA methylation-based biological aging and cancer risk and survival: Pooled analysis of seven prospective studies
    Dugue, P-A ; Bassett, JK ; Joo, JE ; Jung, C-H ; Wong, EM ; Moreno-Betancur, M ; Schmidt, D ; Makalic, E ; Li, S ; Severi, G ; Hodge, AM ; Buchanan, DD ; English, DR ; Hopper, JL ; Southey, MC ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL (WILEY, 2018-04-15)
    The association between aging and cancer is complex. Recent studies have developed measures of biological aging based on DNA methylation and called them "age acceleration." We aimed to assess the associations of age acceleration with risk of and survival from seven common cancers. Seven case-control studies of DNA methylation and colorectal, gastric, kidney, lung, prostate and urothelial cancer and B-cell lymphoma nested in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were conducted. Cancer cases, vital status and cause of death were ascertained through linkage with cancer and death registries. Conditional logistic regression and Cox models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of five age acceleration measures derived from the Human Methylation 450 K Beadchip assay with cancer risk (N = 3,216 cases) and survival (N = 1,726 deaths), respectively. Epigenetic aging was associated with increased cancer risk, ranging from 4% to 9% per five-year age acceleration for the 5 measures considered. Heterogeneity by study was observed, with stronger associations for risk of kidney cancer and B-cell lymphoma. An associated increased risk of death following cancer diagnosis ranged from 2% to 6% per five-year age acceleration, with no evidence of heterogeneity by cancer site. Cancer risk and mortality were increased by 15-30% for the fourth versus first quartile of age acceleration. DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging are associated with increased cancer risk and shorter cancer survival, independently of major health risk factors.