Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A comparison of different methods for including 'age at menopause' in analyses of the association between hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer
    Simpson, Julie A. ; English, Dallas R. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Gertig, Dorata M. ; Hopper, John L. ; Giles, Graham G. ( 2007)
    Background and methodology: Late ‘age at menopause’ is a recognised risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is also associated with decreased use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). When investigating the association between HRT use and breast cancer risk it is therefore necessary to adjust for the potential confounder, ‘age at menopause’. ‘Age at menopause’, however, cannot be determined for women with a hysterectomy and ovarian conservation. Using data on 13 357 postmenopausal women in whom 396 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed during 9 years of follow-up from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, we compared the estimates of relative risk of HRT use for breast cancer for three different methods of dealing with missing data: complete-case analysis single imputation and multiple imputation. Results: ‘Age at menopause’ was missing for 17% of the data. Both HRT use and ‘age at menopause’ were significant risk factors for breast cancer, although ‘age at menopause’ only marginally confounded the estimates of risk for HRT. Women with ‘age at menopause’ missing did not represent a random sample of the population. Complete-case analyses resulted in higher estimates of the risk associated with HRT use compared with the different methods of imputation. Discussion and conclusions: We recommend that analyses investigating the association between HRT and breast cancer should present the results in two ways: excluding women with ‘age at menopause’ missing and including the women using multiple imputation. For both methods, estimates of risk, with and without the adjustment of ‘age at menopause’, should be given.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Uptake of offer to receive genetic information about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in an Australian population-based study
    Keogh, Louise A. ; Southey, Melissa C. ; Maskiell, Judi ; Young, Mary-Anne ; Gaff, Clara L. ; Kirk, Judy ; Tucker, Katherine M. ; Rosenthal, Doreen ; McCredie, Margaret R. E. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Hopper, John L. (American Association for Cancer Research, 2004)
    Research on the utilization of genetic testing services for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has focused on women with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control-family study of Australian women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer before age 40 years, unselected for family history, and tested for germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Case subjects found to carry a deleterious mutation and their relatives who had given a research blood sample were informed by mail that the study had identified “genetic information” and were offered the opportunity to learn more. Those interested were referred to a government-funded family cancer clinic. Of 94 subjects who received the letter, 3 (3%) did not respond and 38 (40%) declined to learn their result (16 declined the referral, 10 accepted but did not attend a clinic, and 12 attended a clinic but declined testing), and 12 (13%) remain “on hold”. The remaining 41 (44%) chose to learn their result (3 of whom already knew their mutation status). There was no evidence that the decision to learn of mutation status depended on age, gender, family history, or having been diagnosed with breast cancer. Of 19 families with more than one participant, in 11 (58%) there was discordance between relatives in receiving genetic results.