Melbourne School of Population and Global Health - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 156
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    DNA methylation-based biological aging and cancer risk and survival: Pooled analysis of seven prospective studies
    Dugue, P-A ; Bassett, JK ; Joo, JE ; Jung, C-H ; Wong, EM ; Moreno-Betancur, M ; Schmidt, D ; Makalic, E ; Li, S ; Severi, G ; Hodge, AM ; Buchanan, DD ; English, DR ; Hopper, JL ; Southey, MC ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL (WILEY, 2018-04-15)
    The association between aging and cancer is complex. Recent studies have developed measures of biological aging based on DNA methylation and called them "age acceleration." We aimed to assess the associations of age acceleration with risk of and survival from seven common cancers. Seven case-control studies of DNA methylation and colorectal, gastric, kidney, lung, prostate and urothelial cancer and B-cell lymphoma nested in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were conducted. Cancer cases, vital status and cause of death were ascertained through linkage with cancer and death registries. Conditional logistic regression and Cox models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of five age acceleration measures derived from the Human Methylation 450 K Beadchip assay with cancer risk (N = 3,216 cases) and survival (N = 1,726 deaths), respectively. Epigenetic aging was associated with increased cancer risk, ranging from 4% to 9% per five-year age acceleration for the 5 measures considered. Heterogeneity by study was observed, with stronger associations for risk of kidney cancer and B-cell lymphoma. An associated increased risk of death following cancer diagnosis ranged from 2% to 6% per five-year age acceleration, with no evidence of heterogeneity by cancer site. Cancer risk and mortality were increased by 15-30% for the fourth versus first quartile of age acceleration. DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging are associated with increased cancer risk and shorter cancer survival, independently of major health risk factors.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A comprehensive analysis of polymorphic variants in steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 metabolism and risk of in situ breast cancer: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
    Barrdahl, M ; Canzian, F ; Gaudet, MM ; Gapstur, SM ; Trichopoulou, A ; Tsilidis, K ; van Gils, CH ; Borgquist, S ; Weiderpass, E ; Khaw, K-T ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Le Marchand, L ; Haiman, C ; Lindstrom, S ; Kraft, P ; Hunter, DJ ; Ziegler, R ; Chanock, SJ ; Yang, XR ; Buring, JE ; Lee, I-M ; Kaaks, R ; Campa, D (WILEY, 2018-03-15)
    We assessed the association between 1,414 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, and risk of breast cancer in situ (BCIS), with the aim of determining whether any of these were disease specific. This was carried out using 1,062 BCIS cases and 10,126 controls as well as 6,113 invasive breast cancer cases from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Three SNPs showed at least one nominally significant association in homozygous minor versus homozygous major models. ACVR2A-rs2382112 (ORhom  = 3.05, 95%CI = 1.72-5.44, Phom  = 1.47 × 10-4 ), MAST2-rs12124649 (ORhom  = 1.73, 95% CI =1.18-2.54, Phom  = 5.24 × 10-3 ), and INSR-rs10500204 (ORhom  = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.44-2.67, Phom =1.68 × 10-5 ) were associated with increased risk of BCIS; however, only the latter association was significant after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, INSR-rs10500204 was more strongly associated with the risk of BCIS than invasive disease in case-only analyses using the homozygous minor versus homozygous major model (ORhom  = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.30-2.44, Phom  = 3.23 × 10-4 ). The SNP INSR-rs10500204 is located in an intron of the INSR gene and is likely to affect binding of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. The PML gene is known as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator in cancer. However, it is not clear on what pathway the A-allele of rs10500204 could operate to influence the binding of the protein. Hence, functional studies are warranted to investigate this further.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Lifetime alcohol intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Findings from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study
    Jayasekara, H ; Juneja, S ; Hodge, AM ; Room, R ; Milne, RL ; Hopper, JL ; English, DR ; Giles, GG ; MacInnis, RJ (WILEY, 2018-03-01)
    Cohort studies have reported inconsistent evidence regarding alcohol intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), mostly based on alcohol intake assessed close to study enrolment. We examined this association using alcohol intake measured from age 20 onwards. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 37,990 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between alcohol intake (g/day) and NHL risk. After a mean follow-up of 19.3 years, 538 NHL cases were diagnosed. Approximately 80% of participants were either lifetime abstainers or consumed below 20 g of ethanol/day. All categories of lifetime alcohol intake were associated with about 20% lower incidence of NHL compared with lifetime abstention, but there was no evidence of a trend by amount consumed (HR = 0.97 per 10 g/day increment in intake, 95% CI: 0.92-1.03; p value = 0.3). HRs for beer, wine and spirits were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83-1.00; p value = 0.05), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.94-1.12; p value = 0.6), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.83-1.37; p value = 0.6), respectively, per 10 g/day increment in lifetime intake. There were no significant differences in associations between NHL subtypes. In this low-drinking cohort, we did not detect a dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and NHL risk.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Associations of alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and obesity with survival following colorectal cancer diagnosis by stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular subtype
    Jayasekara, H ; English, DR ; Haydon, A ; Hodge, AM ; Lynch, BM ; Rosty, C ; Williamson, EJ ; Clendenning, M ; Southey, MC ; Jenkins, MA ; Room, R ; Hopper, JL ; Milne, RL ; Buchanan, DD ; Giles, GG ; MacInnis, RJ (WILEY, 2018-01-15)
    The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-1994) and wave 2 (2003-2007). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stages I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment. Information on tumor characteristics and vital status was obtained. Tumor DNA was tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutations in oncogenes BRAF (V600E) and KRAS. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between lifestyle factors and overall and CRC-specific mortality using Cox regression. Of 724 eligible CRC cases, 339 died (170 from CRC) during follow-up (average 9.0 years). Exercise (non-occupational/leisure-time) was associated with higher CRC-specific survival for stage II (HR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60) but not stages I/III disease (p for interaction = 0.01), and possibly for colon and KRAS wild-type tumors. Waist circumference was inversely associated with CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.25 per 10 cm increment, 95% CI: 1.08-1.44), independent of stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular status. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower overall survival, with suggestive evidence of worse survival for BRAF mutated CRC, but not with CRC-specific survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival. Survival did not differ by MSI status. We have identified pre-diagnostic predictors of survival following CRC that may have clinical and public health relevance.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Genome-Wide Measures of Peripheral Blood Dna Methylation and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Prospective Nested Case-Control Study
    FitzGerald, LM ; Naeem, H ; Makalic, E ; Schmidt, DF ; Dowty, JG ; Joo, JE ; Jung, C-H ; Bassett, JK ; Dugue, P-A ; Chung, J ; Lonie, A ; Milne, RL ; Wong, EM ; Hopper, JL ; English, DR ; Severi, G ; Baglietto, L ; Pedersen, J ; Giles, GG ; Southey, MC (WILEY, 2017-04-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Lifetime alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS plus and BRAF-/KRAS- but not BRAF plus colorectal cancer
    Jayasekara, H ; MacInnis, RJ ; Williamson, EJ ; Hodge, AM ; Clendenning, M ; Rosty, C ; Walters, R ; Room, R ; Southey, MC ; Jenkins, MA ; Milne, RL ; Hopper, JL ; Giles, GG ; Buchanan, DD ; English, DR (WILEY, 2017-04-01)
    Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up = 14.6 years; n = 596 colon and n = 326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (phomogeneity  = 0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; phomogeneity  = 0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Is there an association between season of birth and blood DNA methylation in adulthood?
    Dugue, P-A ; Geurts, YM ; Milne, RL (WILEY, 2016-10-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Fine-scale mapping of 8q24 locus identifies multiple independent risk variants for breast cancer
    Shi, J ; Zhang, Y ; Zheng, W ; Michailidou, K ; Ghoussaini, M ; Bolla, MK ; Wang, Q ; Dennis, J ; Lush, M ; Milne, RL ; Shu, X-O ; Beesley, J ; Kar, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Arndt, V ; Beckmann, MW ; Zhao, Z ; Guo, X ; Benitez, J ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Blot, W ; Bogdanova, NV ; Bojesen, SE ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Brinton, L ; Broeks, A ; Bruening, T ; Burwinkel, B ; Cai, H ; Canisius, S ; Chang-Claude, J ; Choi, J-Y ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Darabi, H ; Devilee, P ; Droit, A ; Dork, T ; Fasching, PA ; Fletcher, O ; Flyger, H ; Fostira, F ; Gaborieau, V ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Giles, GG ; Grip, M ; Guenel, P ; Haiman, CA ; Hamann, U ; Hartman, M ; Miao, H ; Hollestelle, A ; Hopper, JL ; Hsiung, C-N ; Investigators, K ; Ito, H ; Jakubowska, A ; Johnson, N ; Torres, D ; Kabisch, M ; Kang, D ; Khan, S ; Knight, JA ; Kosma, V-M ; Lambrechts, D ; Li, J ; Lindblom, A ; Lophatananon, A ; Lubinski, J ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoukian, S ; Le Marchand, L ; Margolin, S ; Marme, F ; Matsuo, K ; McLean, C ; Meindl, A ; Muir, K ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Nord, S ; Borresen-Dale, A-L ; Olson, JE ; Orr, N ; van den Ouweland, AMW ; Peterlongo, P ; Putti, TC ; Rudolph, A ; Sangrajrang, S ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmidt, MK ; Schmutzler, RK ; Shen, C-Y ; Hou, M-F ; Shrubsole, MJ ; Southey, MC ; Swerdlow, A ; Teo, SH ; Thienpont, B ; Toland, AE ; Tollenaar, RAEM ; Tomlinson, I ; Truong, T ; Tseng, C-C ; Wen, W ; Winqvist, R ; Wu, AH ; Yip, CH ; Zamora, PM ; Zheng, Y ; Floris, G ; Cheng, C-Y ; Hooning, MJ ; Martens, JWM ; Seynaeve, C ; Kristensen, VN ; Hall, P ; Pharoah, PDP ; Simard, J ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Dunning, AM ; Antoniou, AC ; Easton, DF ; Cai, Q ; Long, J (WILEY, 2016-09-15)
    Previous genome-wide association studies among women of European ancestry identified two independent breast cancer susceptibility loci represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs13281615 and rs11780156 at 8q24. A fine-mapping study across 2.06 Mb (chr8:127,561,724-129,624,067, hg19) in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium was conducted. Three additional independent association signals in women of European ancestry, represented by rs35961416 (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.97, conditional p = 5.8 × 10(-6) ), rs7815245 (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.91-0.96, conditional p = 1.1 × 10(-6) ) and rs2033101 (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.07, conditional p = 1.1 × 10(-4) ) were found. Integrative analysis using functional genomic data from the Roadmap Epigenomics, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project, the Cancer Genome Atlas and other public resources implied that SNPs rs7815245 in Signal 3, and rs1121948 in Signal 5 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs11780156, r(2)  = 0.77), were putatively functional variants for two of the five independent association signals. The results highlighted multiple 8q24 variants associated with breast cancer susceptibility in women of European ancestry.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Association between selected dietary scores and the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma: A prospective cohort study
    Dugue, P-A ; Hodge, AM ; Brinkman, MT ; Bassett, JK ; Shivappa, N ; Hebert, JR ; Hopper, JL ; English, DR ; Milne, RL ; Giles, GG (WILEY, 2016-09-15)
    Studies investigating the association of food and nutrient consumption with the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have produced mixed results. We used three common dietary scores, the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) to assess the evidence of an association between diet and the risk of UCC. Over a median follow-up time of 21.3 years, 379 incident UCC cases were diagnosed. Dietary scores were calculated using data from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. We used Cox models to compute hazard ratios (HR) for the association between dietary scores (per one standard deviation) and UCC risk. In order to reflect overall adherence to a healthy diet, a metascore was constructed by summing the quintiles of each of the three scores. None of the dietary scores was associated with the risk of UCC overall. A healthier diet was found to be inversely associated with the risk of invasive (MDS: HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74-1.00, metascore: HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.98), but not superficial disease (heterogeneity between subtypes p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). Results were consistent but weaker for the DII and the AHEI-2010. We found some evidence of effect modification by smoking, in particular for the metascore (Current: HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58-1.01, Former: HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.92, Never: HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.81-1.26, p for heterogeneity = 0.05). A healthy diet may be protective against the risk of invasive, but not superficial, UCC. Promoting healthy dietary habits may help lower the risk of invasive UCC, especially for current and former smokers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Alcohol consumption is associated with widespread changes in blood DNA methylation: Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data
    Dugue, P-A ; Wilson, R ; Lehne, B ; Jayasekara, H ; Wang, X ; Jung, C-H ; Joo, JE ; Makalic, E ; Schmidt, DF ; Baglietto, L ; Severi, G ; Gieger, C ; Ladwig, K-H ; Peters, A ; Kooner, JS ; Southey, MC ; English, DR ; Waldenberger, M ; Chambers, JC ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL (WILEY, 2019-12-02)
    DNA methylation may be one of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of disease. We conducted a large-scale, cross-sectional, genome-wide DNA methylation association study of alcohol consumption and a longitudinal analysis of repeated measurements taken several years apart. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, DNA methylation was measured in blood samples from 5606 Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) participants. For 1088 of them, these measures were repeated using blood samples collected a median of 11 years later. Associations between alcohol intake and blood DNA methylation were assessed using linear mixed-effects regression models. Independent data from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) (N = 4042) and Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA) (N = 1662) cohorts were used to replicate associations discovered in the MCCS. Cross-sectional analyses identified 1414 CpGs associated with alcohol intake at P < 10-7 , 1243 of which had not been reported previously. Of these novel associations, 1078 were replicated (P < .05) using LOLIPOP and KORA data. Using the MCCS data, we also replicated 403 of 518 previously reported associations. Interaction analyses suggested that associations were stronger for women, non-smokers, and participants genetically predisposed to consume less alcohol. Of the 1414 CpGs, 530 were differentially methylated (P < .05) in former compared with current drinkers. Longitudinal associations between the change in alcohol intake and the change in methylation were observed for 513 of the 1414 cross-sectional associations. Our study indicates that alcohol intake is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation across the genome. Longitudinal analyses showed that the methylation status of alcohol-associated CpGs may change with alcohol consumption changes in adulthood.