Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    Requirements of a data storage infrastructure for effective land administration systems: case study of Victoria, Australia
    Shojaei, D ; Badiee, F ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-01-27)
    Land administration systems are being modernised to streamline the cadastral data lodgement. However, in many jurisdictions, cadastral data are still stored as a flat file. This method of data storage has significant limitations in terms of effective access, management, query, and analysis of cadastral data. Therefore, this study elicited the requirements and proposed an approach to automate the cadastral data storage. The proposed approach was successfully implemented within the land registry organisation in Victoria, Australia and the database management system was rigorously tested. The outcomes can potentially contribute to the implementation of a similar data storage infrastructure in other jurisdictions.
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    Evaluation of the International 3D Geospatial Data Models and IFC Standard for Implementing an LADM-based 3D Digital Cadastre
    Atazadeh, B ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Saeidian, B (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2022)
    Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is an international standard for defining both semantic and spatial information connected with rights, restrictions, and responsibilities (RRRs) that affect land, water, built assets, natural resources, underground spaces, and airspaces. Since LADM is currently a conceptual land administration model, one of the main goals for the new version of this standard is to develop technical encodings. These technical encodings would be useful for adopting the LADM in different applications related to land administration. Therefore, the conceptual schema of LADM standard can be implemented in different and varying ways depending on the implementation requirements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate current standards used widely in the domains of geospatial information systems (GIS) and building information modelling (BIM) in terms of their capabilities to serve as an LADM-based technical encoding for 3D digital cadastre implementation. Some of these standards are CityGML, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), IndoorGML, and LandInfra/InfraGML. There should be a specific use case for each implementation model or technical encoding. For example, a BIM-based implementation of the LADM standard can be useful for 3D digital lodgement of cadastral data when dealing with individual building and property subdivisions. LADM data encoded within a BIM model would be useful during planning, certification, and registration of a new complex subdivision, especially within built environments. In addition, LanInfra/InfraGML can provide another encoding option for 3D digital land registration. More specifically, LanfInfra/InfraGML supports surveying elements which are not well supported in IFC, CityGML and IndoorGML standards. Another option is CityGML technical encoding that can be effective for producing 3D digital property maps for an entire jurisdiction. Current property maps only depict 2D land parcels and ignore spatial and ownership dimensions of vertically placed assets, such as apartments, tunnels, subterranean retail malls, car parks, and utility networks. Developing a CityGML encoding for LADM would be considered a significant milestone towards realising 3D property maps that can provide a fully-integrated representation of underground and aboveground RRRs. Finally, IndoorGML is also another technical encoding which may not an appropriate option for 3D digital cadastre, but it can enable the use of LADM data for lawful indoor navigation. The main contribution of this study is to identify the possible technical encodings for the LADM standard and how various spatial and semantic entities within each encoding can be used to model the equivalent concepts defined in the LADM standard. This would provide guidelines for implementing the conceptual model of LADM using a specific 3D geospatial or BIM standard.
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    The Feasibility of a BIM-Driven Approach to Support Building Subdivision Workflows-Case Study of Victoria, Australia
    Olfat, H ; Atazadeh, B ; Shojaei, D ; Rajabifard, A (MDPI, 2019-11-01)
    Cities are facing dramatic challenges due to population growth and the massive development of high-rises and complex structures, both above and below the ground surface. Decision-makers require access to an efficient land and property information system, which is digital, three-dimensional (3D), spatially accurate, and dynamic containing interests in land (rights, restrictions and responsibilities—RRRs) to manage the legal and physical complexities of urban environments. However, at present, building subdivision workflows only support the two-dimensional (2D) building subdivision plans in PDF or image formats. These workflows result in a number of issues, such as the plan preparation being complex, the examination process being labor intensive and requiring technical expertise, information not being easily reusable by all subdivision stakeholders, queries, analyses, and decision-making being inefficient, and the RRRs interpretation being difficult. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of using Building Information Modelling (BIM) and its open standards to support the building subdivision workflows. The research that is presented in this paper proposes a BIM-driven building subdivision workflow, evaluated through a case study in the state of Victoria, Australia. The results of the study confirmed that the proposed workflow could provide a feasible integrated mechanism for stakeholders to share, document, visualize, analyze, interpret, and reuse 3D digital cadastral data over the lifespan of a building subdivision project.
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    Integration of cadastral survey data into building information models
    Atazadeh, B ; Mirkalaei, LH ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Shojaei, D (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-06-20)
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    A Proposal for Streamlining 3D Digital Cadastral Data Lifecycle
    Olfat, H ; Atazadeh, B ; Badiee, F ; Chen, Y ; Shojaei, D ; Rajabifard, A (MDPI, 2021-06-01)
    In urban areas, managing the lifecycle of land and property data related to interlocked and intertwined structures and infrastructure services is a grand challenge for cadastral systems. Addressing the physical and legal complexities of vertically stratified ownership arrangements is a major step towards the modernization of cadastral systems. The research problem that this study addresses is the lack of a simplified and effective approach for modelling, storing, visualizing, and querying 3D cadastral data for multi-story buildings. This research primarily leads to the development of an approach based on Building Information Modelling (BIM), as well as state-of-the-art ETL (extract, transform, load), database and visualization technologies for 3D cadastral data lifecycle management in current practices. The proposed steps for recording, preserving, and disseminating 3D cadastral data are crucial in shifting current 2D cadastral systems towards 3D digital information systems. The results showed improvements in data creation, storage, conversion, and communication when upgrading from a 2D to 3D digital cadastre. Therefore, this study confirmed that streamlining the lifecycle of cadastral data using 3D environments would mitigate issues associated with the current fragmented 2D cadastral datasets used in the multi-story developments.
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    Linking Land Administration Domain Model and BIM environment for 3D digital cadastre in multi-storey buildings
    Atazadeh, B ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Kalantari, M ; Shojaei, D ; Marjani, AM (Elsevier BV, 2021-05-01)
    3D digital cadastral systems intend to provide a fully-integrated 3D view of legal boundaries and rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRR) in multi-storey properties, which is aligned with the physical reality. Our cognitive understanding of legal boundaries and RRR information is more communicable when we link it to our visual perception of the real world. However, there is a knowledge gap in logical relationships between legal and physical views as most of the existing approaches that integrate 3D legal and physical dimensions have been mainly proposed on a conceptual level. The main argument of this study is that the multi-dimensional nature of BIM provides the ability to extend this environment with concepts defined in Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for the purpose of 3D digital cadastre in buildings. Therefore, this study investigated how an open BIM-based data model, known as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), can be extended with LADM data elements to support integration of legal and physical views. This will create a linkage between LADM and BIM environment, which would subsequently provide a better cognitive understanding of legal spaces.
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    Design and development of an LADM-driven 3D Land administration system: Lessons learned in Malaysia
    Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M ; Olfat, H ; Shojaei, D ; Badiee, F (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2021-01-05)
    Urban infrastructure has been dramatically increasing in Malaysian cities over the last decades. The current 2D-based practices are challenged by the stratified development of urban land in underground and aboveground areas. Currently, in Malaysia, surveying measurements are stored in a 2D-based cadastral database in the form of horizontal coordinates. However, this method is not capable to accommodate ownership complexities in the vertical dimension. The existing methods to capture, compute and adjust cadastral survey data need to be upgraded for the purpose of implementing a 3D land administration system (LAS) in Malaysia. The transformation from 2D to 3D LAS should be in accordance with a standard-based approach. Land Administration Domain Model (LADM): ISO 19152:2012 provides an internationally accepted standard model for recording and managing cadastral data. This study aims to design and develop an LADM-driven 3D LAS for Malaysia by building on existing research carried out for LADM adoption in this country. The proposed approach includes modifications in the existing workflows for capturing 3D survey data, new architecture to support 3D land parcels, and a new database for creating an LADM-based 3D LAS in line with data requirements in Malaysia. The major part of the upgrade from 2D to a 3D environment consists of capturing, processing and management of height of survey points that define parcel boundaries. This study demonstrated and confirmed that the LADM standard plays a significant role in realising a 3D-enabled system for Malaysian land administration.
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    The Victorian digital Cadastre: Challenges and investigations
    Olfat, H ; Shojaei, D ; Briffa, M (CEUR, 2016-01-01)
    In 2011 the Digital Cadastre Protocol (ePlan) was introduced in Victoria. ePlan is a collaborative program between the Australian land authorities and the surveying industry, in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM). ePlan is to replace paper and PDF plans with digital files based on a national standard. ePlan has been operational in Victoria for 2D (nonbuilding) plans since 2013 and several services such as validation, visualisation and digital data download have been built within the Victorian land authority - Land Victoria - systems. The Victorian ePlan project is faced with some challenges that will impact the uptake of this initiative among the cadastral surveyors, e.g. surveyors acceptance of adopting a new method of producing plans, quality of the visualisation service which converts the ePlan LandXML file into PDF as the legal title diagram and support for 3D building subdivision plans. In order to overcome the identified challenges, Land Victoria has defined several research programs. An ‘ePlan Engagement Program’ has commenced and aims to gain a greater understanding of surveying firms’ subdivision processes and how ePlan can fit into them and also means surveyors are participating in ePlan’s development. The design and development of a new online tool is also under investigation which aims to enable surveyors to improve the quality of the visualised PDF and define sheets, exaggerations and enlargements when required. Another ongoing research program is related to the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre for Victoria including 3D data modelling, validation and visualisation components. This paper aims to explore the current status of the Victorian ePlan implementation and discuss the identified challenges and ongoing investigations.
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    Assessment of the Australian digital cadastre protocol (ePlan) in terms of supporting 3D building subdivisions
    Shojaei, D ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Darvill, A ; Briffa, M (Elsevier, 2016-11-01)
    Population growth and lack of available land in urban areas have resulted in intensive property development both above and below ground. According to the ‘Cadastre 2034 Strategy’ published by the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) for Australia in 2014, the current digital cadastres have limitations in positional accuracy and do not adequately represent the three-dimensional nature of real property. This strategy highlights the fact that land parcels that are limited in vertical dimension are not adequately represented in the current digital cadastre. This makes it difficult to visualize security of tenure as it relates to a building or an apartment within a building. Since 2011, a national cadastral data model (ePlan Protocol) is being implemented in different Australian jurisdictions including Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland for 2D (non-building) plans of subdivision. Following the ICSM’s strategy, the ePlan Working Group has started to investigate the requirements for supporting 3D building subdivisions in ePlan. As part of this investigation and to assess the potential of the ePlan Protocol in terms of supporting 3D spatial units associated with land and property management, a research project was recently undertaken in Victoria, Australia. In this research, various building subdivision plans were investigated and modelled in ePlan and a number of technical and non-technical challenges were identified. Overall, the study confirmed that the ePlan Protocol is able to support 3D building subdivision plans, however curved shapes are not well handled. This paper also proposes future investigations for implementing a 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.
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    The current status and ongoing investigations of 2D and 3D digital cadastre (ePlan) in Victoria, Australia
    Olfat, H ; Shojaei, D ; Briffa, M ; Rajabifard, A (CEUR, 2017-01-01)
    EPlan is a collaborative program between the Australian land authorities and the surveying industry, in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) which aims to replace paper and PDF plans with digital files based on a national standard. ePlan was introduced in Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D (non-building) plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgement portal every fortnight. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by a number of challenges which includes surveyors acceptance of adopting a new method of producing plans, the quality of the visualisation service which converts the ePlan LandXML file into PDF as the legal title diagram, and support for 3D building subdivision plans. This paper aims to explore the current status of ePlan implementation in Victoria and discuss the ongoing research programs developed to address the aforementioned challenges.