Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    A semantic 3D city model for underground land administration: Development and implementation of an ADE for CityGML 3.0
    Saeidian, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2023-10)
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    Making accessibility accessible: A flexible planning tool for enhanced urban analytics
    Sun, Y ; Olaru, D ; Bright, C ; McCarney, G ; Reed, TW ; Sabri, S ; Chen, Y ; Amirebrahimi, S ; Biermann, S ; Rajabifard, A (Elsevier, 2023-12-01)
    Most existing accessibility analysis tools are ad-hoc systems with predetermined geographic coverage, spatial resolution, methodology and indicators. These features are often challenging to modify by end-users without collaboration with the original tool developers. This might partially explain why accessibility tools remain in use predominantly within the academic realm, resulting in a seemingly low uptake among transport and planning professionals. ADAPT (Automatic Dynamic Accessibility Planning Tool) was designed as the first step to bridge this gap by enhancing user empowerment. It enables users to supply their own analysis areas, choose the resolution, and focus on any specific indicator (e.g. residents' access to jobs, education and services; businesses' access to the labour pool or potential clients/customers). The goal is to provide a versatile tool, in which users can insert their available data and geography and measure and map accessibility, without requiring prior geospatial analysis expertise or reliance on specialised closed-system tools.
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    Managing underground legal boundaries in 3D - Extending the CityGML standard
    Saeidian, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M (Elsevier BV, 2023-08)
    Legal boundaries are used for delineating the spatial extent of ownership property’s spaces. In underground environments, these boundaries are defined by referencing physical objects, surveying measurements, or projections. However, there is a gap in connecting and managing these boundaries and underground legal spaces, due to a lack of data model. A 3D data model supporting underground land administration (ULA) should define and model these boundaries and the relationships between them and underground ownership spaces. Prominent 3D data models can be enriched to model underground legal boundaries. This research aims to propose a new taxonomy of underground legal boundaries and model them by extending CityGML, which is a widely used 3D data model in the geospatial science domain. We developed, implemented, and tested the model for different types of underground legal boundaries. The implemented prototype showcased the potential benefits of CityGML for managing underground legal boundaries in 3D. The proposed 3D underground model can be used to address current challenges associated with communicating and managing legal boundaries in underground environments. While this data model was specifically developed for Victoria, Australia, the proposed model and approach can be used and replicated in other jurisdictions by adjusting the data requirements for underground legal boundaries.
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    Modelling underground cadastral survey data in CityGML
    Saeidian, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M (Wiley, 2023)
    In underground environments, survey elements such as survey points and observations provide the information required to define legal boundaries. These elements are also used to connect underground legal spaces to a geodetic survey network. Due to the issues of current 2D approaches for managing underground cadastral data, prominent 3D data models have been extended to support underground land administration. However, previous studies mostly focused on defining underground legal spaces and boundaries, with less emphasis on survey elements. This research aims to extend CityGML to support underground cadastral survey data. The proposed extension is based on the survey elements elicited from underground cadastral plans, which is then implemented for an underground case study area in Melbourne, Australia. This extension integrates underground survey data with legal and physical data in a 3D digital environment and provides an improved representation of survey elements, facilitating the management and communication of underground cadastral survey data.
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    EXTENDING CITYGML 3.0 TO SUPPORT 3D UNDERGROUND LAND ADMINISTRATION
    Saeidian, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M ; Aleksandrov, M ; Barton, J ; Zlatanova, S (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2022)
    Abstract. Rapid development of underground space necessitates the efficient management of underground areas. Data modelling plays an underpinning role in integrating and managing underground physical and legal data. The physical data refers to semantic and spatial data of underground assets such as utilities, tunnels, and basements, while the legal data comprises the ownership information and the extent of underground legal spaces and the semantic and spatial relationships between legal spaces. Current Underground Land Administration (ULA) practices mainly focus on representing only either legal spaces or the physical reality of subsurface objects using fragmented and isolated 2D drawings, leading to ineffective ULA. A complete and accurate 3D representation of underground legal spaces integrated with the 3D model of their physical counterparts can support different use cases of ULA beyond underground land registration, such as planning, design and construction of underground assets (e.g. tunnels and train stations), utility management and excavation. CityGML is a prominent semantic data model to represent 3D urban objects at a city scale, making it a good choice for underground because underground assets such as tunnels and utilities are often modelled at city scales. However, CityGML, in its current version, does not support legal information. This research aims to develop an Application Domain Extension (ADE) for CityGML to support 3D ULA based on the requirements defined in the Victorian state of Australia. These requirements include primary underground parcels and secondary underground interests. This work extends CityGML 3.0, which is the new version of this model. In CityGML 3.0, UML conceptual models as platform-independent models are suggested to express ADEs. Thus, the ADE proposed in this study will be based on UML. The findings of this study show that extending CityGML to support legal information can be a viable solution to meet the requirements of a 3D integrated model for ULA. The CityGML ADE proposed in this study can potentially provide a new solution for 3D digital management of underground ownership rights in Victoria, and it can be used to implement an integrated 3D digital data environment for ULA.
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    Developing an integrated approach to validate 3D ownership spaces in complex multistorey buildings
    Asghari, A ; Kalantari, M ; Rajabifard, A ; Shin, J (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-01-01)
    3D geospatial data are being progressively adopted in urban land administration to represent 3D ownership rights in multistorey buildings. The integrity of urban land administration highly depends on the validity and quality of cadastral data. However, a large portion of research deals with the conceptual principles of internal and external spatial consistencies of 3D cadastral data. This article integrates the principles in practice and develops methods to check the validity of 3D parcels and their relationships in complex ownership settings. To evaluate the methods, this research adopts a case study using an 18-floor multistorey building with 248 lots and three types of common properties. The ownership rights of this building are delineated as polyhedral surface models, including non-2-manifold and non-simple polyhedra, and evaluated by implemented principles. The results reveal that the integrated methods can identify 3D cadastral errors, overlaps and gaps. The developed integrated approach can significantly advance urban land administration, as it facilitates complex 3D cadastral data validation.
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    A BIM-based framework for property dispute minimization - A case study for Victoria, Australia
    Shin, J ; Rajabifard, A ; Kalantari, M ; Atazadeh, B (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022-08)
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    Proposing a multi-jurisdictional framework for 3D digital cadastre in Australia and New Zealand
    Atazadeh, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Olfat, H (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2023-08)
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    A Framework for Scaling Urban Transformative Resilience through Utilizing Volunteered Geographic Information
    Moghadas, M ; Rajabifard, A ; Fekete, A ; Koetter, T (MDPI, 2022-02)
    Resilience in the urban context can be described as a continuum of absorptive, adaptive, and transformative capacities. The need to move toward a sustainable future and bounce forward after any disruption has led recent urban resilience initiatives to engage with the concept of transformative resilience when and where conventional and top-down resilience initiatives are less likely to deliver effective strategies, plans, and implementable actions. Transformative resilience pathways emphasize the importance of reflexive governance, inclusive co-creation of knowledge, innovative and collaborative learning, and self-organizing processes. To support these transformative pathways, considering techno-social co-evolution and digital transformation, using new data sources such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) and crowdsourcing are being promoted. However, a literature review on VGI and transformative resilience reveals that a comprehensive understanding of the complexities and capacities of utilizing VGI for transformative resilience is lacking. Therefore, based on a qualitative content analysis of available resources, this paper explores the key aspects of using VGI for transformative resilience and proposes a comprehensive framework structured around the identified legal, institutional, social, economic, and technical aspects to formalize the process of adopting VGI in transformative resilience initiatives.
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    Editorial: Geospatial Understanding of Sustainable Urban Analytics Using Remote Sensing
    Sabri, S ; Rajabifard, A ; Chen, Y ; Chen, N ; Sheng, H (MDPI, 2022-06)
    The increasing trend of urbanization has challenged the traditional ways of urban planning, design, and management [...]