Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    Assimilation of stream discharge for flood forecasting: The benefits of accounting for routing time lags
    Li, Y ; Ryu, D ; Western, AW ; Wang, QJ (AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2013-04-01)
    General filtering approaches in hydrologic data assimilation, such as the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), are based on the assumption that uncertainty of the current background prediction can be reduced by correcting errors in the state variables at the same time step. However, this assumption may not be valid when assimilating stream discharge into hydrological models to correct soil moisture storage due to the time lag between the soil moisture and the discharge. In this paper, we explore the utility of an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) for addressing this time-lag issue. The EnKF and the EnKS are compared for two different updating schemes with the probability distributed model (PDM) via synthetic experiments: (i) updating soil moisture only and (ii) updating soil moisture and routing states simultaneously. The results show that the EnKS is superior to the EnKF when only soil moisture is updated, while the EnKS and the EnKF exhibit similar results when both soil moisture and routing storages are updated. This suggests that the EnKS can better improve the stream flow forecasting for models that do not adopt storage-based routing schemes (e.g., unit-hydrograph-based routing). For models with dynamic routing stores, errors in soil moisture are transferred to the routing stores, which can be corrected effectively by real-time filters. The EnKS-based soil moisture updating scheme is also tested with the GR4H model, for which unit-hydrograph-based routing is used. The result confirms that the EnKS is superior to the EnKF in improving both soil moisture and stream flow forecasting.
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    De-noising of passive and active microwave satellite soil moisture time series
    Su, C-H ; Ryu, D ; Western, AW ; Wagner, W (AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2013-07-28)
    Satellite microwave retrievals and in situ measurements of surface soil moisture are usually compared in the time domain. This paper examines their differences in the conjugate frequency domain to develop a spectral description of the satellite data, suggesting the presence of stochastic random and systematic periodic errors. Based on a semiempirical model of the observed power spectral density, we describe systematic designs of causal and noncausal filters to remove these erroneous signals. The filters are applied to the retrievals from active and passive satellite sensors and evaluated against field data from the Murrumbidgee Basin, southeast Australia, to show substantive increase in linear correlations.
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    Beyond triple collocation: Applications to soil moisture monitoring
    Su, C-H ; Ryu, D ; Crow, WT ; Western, AW (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2014-06-16)
    Triple collocation (TC) is routinely used to resolve approximated linear relationships between different measurements (or representations) of a geophysical variable that are subject to errors. It has been utilized in the context of calibration, validation, bias correction, and error characterization to allow comparisons of diverse data records from various direct and indirect measurement techniques including in situ remote sensing and model-based approaches. However, successful applications of TC require sufficiently large numbers of coincident data points from three independent time series and, within the analysis period, homogeneity of their linear relationships and error structures. These conditions are difficult to realize in practice due to infrequent spatiotemporal sampling of satellite and ground-based sensors. TC can, however, be generalized within the framework of instrumental variable (IV) regression theory to address some of the conceptual constraints of TC. We review the theoretics of IV and consider one possible strategy to circumvent the three-data constraint by use of lagged variables (LV) as instruments. This particular implementation of IV is suitable for circumstances where multiple data records are limited and the geophysical variable of interest is sampled at time intervals shorter than its temporal correlation length. As a demonstration of utility, the LV method is applied to microwave satellite soil moisture data sets to recover their errors over Australia and to estimate temporal properties of their relationships with in situ and model data. These results are compared against standard two-data linear estimators and the TC estimator as benchmark.
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    Assimilation of stream discharge for flood forecasting: Updating a semidistributed model with an integrated data assimilation scheme
    Li, Y ; Ryu, D ; Western, AW ; Wang, QJ (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2015-05-01)
    Real-time discharge observations can be assimilated into flood models to improve forecast accuracy; however, the presence of time lags in the routing process and a lack of methods to quantitatively represent different sources of uncertainties challenge the implementation of data assimilation techniques for operational flood forecasting. To address these issues, an integrated error parameter estimation and lag-aware data assimilation (IEELA) scheme was recently developed for a lumped model. The scheme combines an ensemble-based maximum a posteriori (MAP) error estimation approach with a lag-aware ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). In this study, the IEELA scheme is extended to a semidistributed model to provide for more general application in flood forecasting by including spatial and temporal correlations in model uncertainties between subcatchments. The result reveals that using a semidistributed model leads to more accurate forecasts than a lumped model in an open-loop scenario. The IEELA scheme improves the forecast accuracy significantly in both lumped and semidistributed models, and the superiority of the semidistributed model remains in the data assimilation scenario. However, the improvements resulting from IEELA are confined to the outlet of the catchment where the discharge observations are assimilated. Forecasts at "ungauged" internal locations are not improved, and in some instances, even become less accurate.
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    Key factors influencing differences in stream water quality across space
    Lintern, A ; Webb, JA ; Ryu, D ; Liu, S ; Bende-Michl, U ; Waters, D ; Leahy, P ; Wilson, P ; Western, AW (WILEY, 2018-01-01)
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    An evaluation of a methodology for seasonal soil water forecasting for Australian dry land cropping systems
    Western, AW ; Dassanayake, KB ; Perera, KC ; Argent, RM ; Alves, O ; Young, G ; Ryu, D (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-05-01)
    Soil water is a critical resource in many rain-fed agricultural systems. Climate variability represents a significant risk in these systems, which has been addressed in the past through seasonal weather outlooks. This study undertakes a pilot assessment of the potential to extend seasonal weather outlooks to plant available soil water (PASW). We analyse 20 sites in the southeast Australian wheat belt using seasonal weather outlooks from the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA; (the operational seasonal model of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology), which were downscaled and used in conjunction with the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM). Hindcast rainfall, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PASW outlooks were produced on a monthly basis for 33 years at a point scale. The outlooks were assessed using a range of ensemble verification tools. The results showed hit rates that outperformed climatology for rainfall and PET in the short-term (0–2 months), and for PASW with longer lead times (2–5 months). Continuous rank probability skill scores (CRPSS) were generally statistically worse than climatology for rainfall and PET and statistically better than climatology for PASW over 1–3 months. The influence of initial soil water is seasonally dependent, with longer dependence in low evapotranspiration periods. Improved weather model downscaling approaches would transition to climatology and could improve both weather and PASW outlooks. PASW outlooks were strongly reliant on initial conditions, indicating the importance of understanding current soil water status, which needs to be interpreted in a seasonal context as its influence varies over the year. Expanded operational soil water monitoring would be important if PASW outlooks are to become routine.
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    Dual assimilation of satellite soil moisture to improve streamflow prediction in data-scarce catchments
    Alvarez-Garreton, C ; Ryu, D ; Western, AW ; Crow, WT ; Su, C-H ; Robertson, DR (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2016-07-01)
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    Supplementary material to: "A predictive model for spatio-temporal variability in stream water quality"
    Guo, D ; Lintern, A ; Webb, JA ; Ryu, D ; Bende-Michl, U ; Liu, S ; Western, AW (Copernicus Publications, 2019)
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    Towards estimating root-zone soil moisture using surface multispectral and thermal sensing: A spectral and hydrometeorological dataset from the Dookie experiment site, Victoria, Australia
    Akuraju, VR ; Ryu, D ; Western, AW ; Young, RI (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2019-07-01)
    This paper describes surface hydrometeorological and spectral datasets collected from two tower sites located in the University of Melbourne's Dookie experimental farm, Victoria, Australia. The datasets were collected from different vegetation types including wheat, canola, and grazed pasture during the 2012, 2013, and 2014 cropping seasons. The dataset includes 30‐min frequency latent and sensible heat flux measurements and layer‐average soil moisture data at profile depths of 0–5, 0–30, 30–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm. Air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, and incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation data were also collected from two locations in the study area. The dataset described in this paper is available online.
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    A web-based interface to visualize and model spatio-temporal variability of stream water quality
    Guo, D ; Lintern, A ; Webb, J ; Ryu, D ; Liu, S ; Bende-Michl, U ; Leahy, P ; Waters, D ; Watson, M ; Wilson, P ; Western, A ; Vietz, G ; Rutherfurd, I (River Basement Management Society, 2018)
    Understanding the spatio-temporal variability in stream water quality is critical for designing effective water quality management strategies. To facilitate this, we developed a web-based interface to visualize and model the spatio-temporal variability of stream water quality in Victoria. We used a dataset of long-term monthly water quality measurements from 102 monitoring sites in Victoria, focusing on six water quality constituents: total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite (NOx), and electrical conductivity (EC). The interface models spatio-temporal variability in water quality via a Bayesian hierarchical modelling framework, and produces summaries of (1) the key driving factors of spatio-temporal variability and (2) model performance assessed by multiple metrics. Additional features include predicting the time-averaged mean concentration at an un-sampled site, and testing the impact of land-use changes on the mean concentration at existing sites. This tool can be very useful in supporting the decision-making processes of catchment managers in (1) understanding the key drivers of changes in water quality and (2) designing water quality mitigation and restoration strategies.