Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    A new vision on cadastral data model
    Kalantari, Mohsen ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; WALLACE, JUDE ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ( 2006)
    Land administration systems are evolving towards an integrated land management paradigm designed to support sustainable development. In this paradigm, land administration delivers four functionalities: land mapping, land registration, land valuation and land development, each with specific data elements, with the cadastral data model at the core. Cadastral data modelling potentially plays a key role in both data and business management in modern land administration systems. However, some modifications to existing data models could potentially improve their capacity to deliver sustainability. Firstly, the existing role of land parcels and properties as core building blocks in land administration systems can be significantly extended to make the cadastral fabric available to assist management of a wider range of rights, restrictions and responsibilities by using the concept of legal property objects: an entity defined by a law or regulation which relates to a physical space on, below or above the earth. This can be interpreted as a new land related commodity, land parcel or a property. Secondly, although land parcel and property identifiers are key elements of interoperability within land administration subsystems, the paper argues that they have not yet given appropriate emphasis in cadastral data models. Among the identifiers, spatial identifiers can potentially simplify data exchange and work flows among land administration functionalities on a much wider basis. Finally, the paper discusses technical issues raised by changing the cadastral model: the advantages and disadvantages of spatial identifiers, possibilities for spatially presenting rights restrictions and responsibilities, and consistency between various legal property objects.
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    Assessing the worldwide comparison of cadastral systems
    RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; Williamson, Ian P. ; STEUDLER, DANIEL ; BINNS, ANDREW ; King, Mathew (Elsevier, 2006)
    There is growing interest internationally in land administration and cadastral systems and especially in their role as part of a national Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). The important role the cadastre plays in supporting sustainable development is also well recognised. Both developed and developing countries accept the need to evaluate cadastral systems to help identify areas of improvement and whether their systems are capable of addressing future needs. Countries are continually re-engineering and implementing various aspects of the cadastre, comparing systems and trying to identify best practice within nations of the same socio-economic standing.In order to address this need, members of a team from the Centre for Spatial Data Infrastructures and Land Administration at the Department of Geomatics, the University of Melbourne, with the support of the United Nations Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), have developed a cadastral template. The template aims to assist the evaluation and benchmarking of cadastral systems and the role they play in spatial data infrastructures.This paper aims to outline the concept and theory behind the cadastral template as well as analysing the results from 34 completed country templates. Several indicators have been used to analyse and benchmark countries cadastral systems, results of which will contribute to an improved understanding of the complex relationship between cadastral, land administration system and National SDI initiatives. This will also enable a worldwide comparison of cadastral systems, forming the basis for best practice and a tool to improve national cadastral systems.
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    Transferring our knowledge and systems: tenure formalisation
    Dalrymple, K . ; Wallace, J . ; Williamson, I. P. ; ( 2005)
    Land administration systems are key infrastructure for national growth. They deliver macroeconomic growth, allow greater market integration, provide security of tenure and investments, and increase the capacity to deliver welfare. However, land administration systems supporting these activities are complicated and limited. While advanced tools and principles may be borrowed by countries building local land markets, every situation requires innovative solutions in response to the unique and dynamic land administration environment. Project designs must capture a wide range of people to land relationships and different socio-environmental circumstances. An investigation of different people to land and natural resource arrangements was conducted in a development scenario. Case study investigations took place in three rural villages in Cambodia undergoing different stages of land administration project implementation. These studies revealed a wide set of indispensable informal tenure arrangements outside the design scope for providing formal tenure security. From 1990 to now, land projects design emphasis has moved from technological to institutional criteria. Further design change is still required, especially to deliver sustainability and social development. In particular land administration systems used in development scenarios must approach formalization of land tenure with more innovative approaches. This may also require an expansion of tenure security options beyond those currently included in formal systems. Formalised Western skills may be advantageous for delivering some services, but they must be complimented by a holistic understanding of local culture and capacity.
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    On recognizing land administration as critical, public good infrastructure
    Bennett, R ; Tambuwala, N ; Rajabifard, A ; Wallace, J ; Williamson, I (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2013-01-01)
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    Inter-governmental land information asymmetries in Australia
    Tambuwala, Nilofer ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; BENNETT, ROHAN ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ; WALLACE, JUDE ( 2012)
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    Spatially Enabling Risk for Management of Land and Property
    POTTS, K ; Rajabifard, A ; Williamson, IP (Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute, 2011)
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    Understanding the relationship between spatial information, property markets and macroeconomic policy
    Tambuwala, N ; Bennett, RM ; Rajabifard, A ; Williamson, IP (Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute, 2011)
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    Spatially enabled society
    WILLIAMSON, IAN ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; WALLACE, JUDE ; BENNETT, ROHAN (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2011)
    The term 'spatially enabled society' describes the emerging cultural and governance revolution offered by pervasive spatial information technologies and spatially equipped citizens. Spatially enabled societies make possible, amongst many other things, sustainable cities, GFC early warning systems, smarter delivery of housing, improved risk management, and better macroeconomic decision making. The concept is not about managing spatial information, it is about governing society spatially. Spatially enabled societies represent the realization of the promises offered by building spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) and reforming land administration systems. These building blocks, established over decades, make possible spatially enabled societies. Without tools for managing metadata, building complete national cadastres, modelling and integrating the 3rd dimension, and much other foundational work, spatially enabled societies cannot emerge. This paper explores the notion of spatially enabled societies further. Example applications are used in the discussion. The paper also demonstrates how, despite the grand possibilities of revolutionary spatial technologies and spatially aware citizens, existing infrastructures including SDIs and land administration system will still require an ongoing governance structure for spatially enabled societies to be maintained.
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    Spatially enabled risk management: models, cases, validation
    Potts, Katie ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; BENNETT, ROHAN ; WILLIAMSON, IAN (GSDI, 2012)
    Risk has a spatial nature. All events that result from risks have a link to a specific location or a factor in space. Understanding where on earth these risks are present allows for these risks to be mitigated, avoided, or managed. In order to manage the risks however accurate and timely spatial information about land and property is first needed. Historically, land administration systems have held this information, however, in recent years these systems have been superseded by other infrastructures that have the capability to capture and store information spatially. While these new systems offer the advantages of spatially enabled information, the authoritative information held within land administration systems is necessary for risk management. Land administration systems need to adapt to remain relevant in the 21st century, and coordination between these land administration systems and the new infrastructures is required to increase the ability of stakeholders to manage this information for risk management purposes. A framework targeted at this issue has been developed which proposes a spatially enabled approach for managing risks for governments, industry, citizens and wider society that takes into account the current information infrastructures (including land administration systems), the stakeholders, and the relevant risks that affect land and property. This framework results in the aggregation and dissemination of consistent information about risk to land and property to all stakeholders. So far the proposed framework has not been tested; however the recent floods in Queensland present an opportunity to apply the framework in the post event environment to determine whether the framework is appropriate within the Australian context.
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    Land and property information in 3D
    RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; Kalantari, Mohsen ; WILLIAMSON, IAN (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2012)
    People increasingly live in high density urban, often high rise and multi functional buildings. These increasingly urbanized populations will predominantly live in multi-level, multipurpose, highly engineered, high-rise developments. Cities require significant infrastructure above and below the ground. Rapidly expanding vertical cities and their populations will experience a range of new environmental, social and economic challenges. The lack of an efficient and effective three dimensional solution limits the ability of the public to visualize and communicate 3D developments, the ability of architects, engineers and developers to capitalize on the full potential of 3D title models; the ability of governments and developers to visualize multi-level developments resulting in increased costs and delays; and the ability of land registries to administer a title registration system that can accommodate these increasingly complex multi-level developments. This paper aims to introduce an approach which helps address the problem of modelling and managing complex 3D property rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRR). The outcomes of this research incorporate the third dimension of height into the land subdivision and development process to build an infrastructure for managing and modelling spatial extension of these complex property RRRs. This research moves the multiple two dimensional drawings that now identify buildings and infrastructure objects and their separate parcels into authentic visual 3D representation of the building and objects that meet the exacting legal standards of ground surveys.