Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    New roles of land administration systems
    Williamson, I. P. ; Wallace, J. ( 2007)
    This paper sketches the key issues in the history of land administration in terms relevant to the experiences of countries in the Asia Pacific Region. It is a first step in building a national land administration vision and is influenced by empirical research on European and Australian approaches. The vision is especially influenced by three trends in global land administration theory and practice, especially during the last five years and include: sustainable development; spatial enablement; and theoretical achievements in land administration.The challenges for modern land administration systems and in modern government are presented including the roles of land administration in formalizing land markets, implementing and understanding regulations and restrictions, and changing the nature of ownership. The role of spatial enablement and understanding the potential of iLand, the concept of integrated spatially enabled land information available on the Web, are central to understanding the national vision for land administration in Australia. Finally, future directions within technical and operational issues and collaboration and capacity building are presented to assist creation of a new land management model and national vision for spatially enabled land administration by countries in the APR.
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    Building land markets in the Asia Pacific region
    Williamson, I. P. ; Wallace, J. ( 2007)
    Land markets attract wide participation, all over the globe. Market activities receive intense analysis from economists and bankers, investors and developers, and they interest millions of people. Meanwhile, how to build a land market remains a mystery. Those countries that achieved effective modern land markets have the benefit of well run land administration systems. These systems therefore offer the key to building a market. The problem is that building land administration capacity does not always assist the creation and management of a successful land market. There are two explanations for this. First the complexity of a formal land market is not well understood. Second the different kinds of land administration infrastructures that are needed to support land markets as they develop from simple land trading into complex commodity markets need to be identified and implemented. These issues are explored below. The perspective of this exploration is that of an engineer interested in designing, building and managing the infrastructure needed to support modern land markets.
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    Spatially Enabling Government – an International Challenge
    Williamson, I. P. ; Rajabifard, A. ; Wallace, J. ( 2007)
    The popular use of spatial technologies involves showing images and tracking assets and inventory in an increasing array of instruments, the most common being the ubiquitous mobile phone. These technologies penetrate into even low income poor countries, but their take-up and development concentrates in highly developed countries. This high-end use of these technologies will determine their future. Remarkable as these popular applications are, spatial technologies can also be used in even more dynamic, transformational ways. Transformational use of spatial technologies occurs when they are used to improve business processes of government, and assist delivery of policies for equitable taxation, conservation of natural resources and planning for rational growth. Use of this transformational capacity of spatial technologies in government creates a spatially enabled government (SEG). The major impediment to take-up of spatial information is counter-intuitive. We all use the new technology in our daily lives, but our capacity to understand the power of spatial information is remarkably small. In fact only about 1% of people in any society really understand spatial information with about 5% of people knowing something about the special technology. For 95% of people, spatial information and its supporting technologies is a mystery. Teaching people about spatial information and its technologies is therefore the first task in painting a vision of what is possible. The attractions of spatial technologies lie in how they present information, whether users rely on computers and the Internet, or on communications technologies. The adage of a “picture tells a thousand words” is now out of date. New digital pictures tell many stories, and, if the enabling platform is built, the pictures will become management tools of government. Spatial technologies are moving quickly. In Australia, since October 2006, Google Maps and Google Earth, combined with a geocoded national address
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    A new vision on cadastral data model
    Kalantari, Mohsen ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; WALLACE, JUDE ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ( 2006)
    Land administration systems are evolving towards an integrated land management paradigm designed to support sustainable development. In this paradigm, land administration delivers four functionalities: land mapping, land registration, land valuation and land development, each with specific data elements, with the cadastral data model at the core. Cadastral data modelling potentially plays a key role in both data and business management in modern land administration systems. However, some modifications to existing data models could potentially improve their capacity to deliver sustainability. Firstly, the existing role of land parcels and properties as core building blocks in land administration systems can be significantly extended to make the cadastral fabric available to assist management of a wider range of rights, restrictions and responsibilities by using the concept of legal property objects: an entity defined by a law or regulation which relates to a physical space on, below or above the earth. This can be interpreted as a new land related commodity, land parcel or a property. Secondly, although land parcel and property identifiers are key elements of interoperability within land administration subsystems, the paper argues that they have not yet given appropriate emphasis in cadastral data models. Among the identifiers, spatial identifiers can potentially simplify data exchange and work flows among land administration functionalities on a much wider basis. Finally, the paper discusses technical issues raised by changing the cadastral model: the advantages and disadvantages of spatial identifiers, possibilities for spatially presenting rights restrictions and responsibilities, and consistency between various legal property objects.
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    Spatially Enabling Governments: A New Vision for Spatial Information
    WILLIAMSON, IP ; WALLACE, J ; RAJABIFARD, A (United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Pacific, 2006)
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    Registration of marine interests in Asia-Pacific region
    Wallace, J ; Williamson, I (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2006-05-01)
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    The role [of] cadastral data modelling in e-land administration
    Kalantari, M. ; Rajabifard, A. ; Wallace, J. ; Williamson, I. P. (Centre of Geo-Information Technologies (cGIT), 2005)
    Enablement of land administration with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is heading toward e-Land Administration (e-LA): the transformation of land administration through the use of ICT. Existing initiatives include providing land information on line, electronic conveyancing, digital lodgement of survey plans, and online access to survey plan information. Thus far, implementation of these initiatives is isolated in their specific subsystems without reference to the broader land administration system or its core policy function of supporting sustainable development. One solution to isolation is to develop effective communication among the different land administration subsystems by harmonising data and functionalities, so they are capable of being used by all subsystems. The key to harmonisation is data modelling which both recognizes and reengineers existing business processes. Modelling allows every single process in land administration to influence the cadastral data model and vice versa. This paper describes the importance of cadastral data modelling in data management as well as coordination among subsystems in an e-LA.
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    Building land markets
    WALLACE, JUDE ; Williamson, Ian P. (Elsevier, 2006)
    A primary driver in land titling and administration improvement is facilitation of a land market. Land markets are difficult to establish and to manage. Titling on its own will not create a land market, nor will a land administration system unless it is connected with the way participants think about and organise their land. Indeed, the difficulty is compounded because very little is available to explain how a land market works, particularly to identify non-technical components essential for market success. This framework article explains land markets in terms of five evolutionary stages. The ingredients of a complex and developed land market, especially social processes and cognitive capacities, are identified.
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    Spatial information opportunities for government
    Wallace, J ; Williamson, IP ; Rajabifard, A ; Bennett, R (Informa UK Limited, 2006-01-01)
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    Toward e-land administration : Australian online land information services
    Kalantari, M. ; Rajabifard, A. ; Wallace, J. ; Williamson, I. P. ( 2005)
    Sustainable development (SD) is accepted as a central driver in countries world wide with land administration playing an important role in delivering SD objectives. Within this context the emerging use of the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly being utilised by land administration organizations. These technologies provide opportunities for better service delivery and customer satisfaction and a reduction in operating costs. However establishment of these systems as part of e-land administration and in the context of e-government has to date not been fully realised and is often problematic.E-land administration includes the coordination among various parts of land administration businesses including front office operations like online customer services and private partnership services, and also back office operations like internal work flow and central data base management. The first step in improving the current systems within a particular jurisdiction is assessing the current performance of online land information services as part of e-land administration.There are various initiatives to deliver land related information over the Internet for the public in the different Australian states. Analysing these experiences and determining good practice will assist in proposing effective and innovative solutions to improve or re-engineer the existing services as a key infrastructure for implementing e-land administration services.This paper first introduces and discusses various quality of service criteria for the assessment of an online land information system. The criteria include popularity, performance, functionality and user requirements of services. The paper then reviews and presents current land administration services in Australian states including a statistical analysis to better understand the advantages and deficiencies of current services. The results are assessed and suggestions are proposed for improving on